PARTS OF SPEECHPARTS OF SPEECH“Education is a progressive discoveryof our own ignorance. “Will Durant1 May 2013"There is no education like adversity."Disraeli, EndymionBy Haslinda Midy
1 May 2013haslindaThis presentation provides a verybasic introduction to the concept ofparts of speech in language.Actually, the study of parts ofspeech can be quite complicatedand involved, but the purpose ofthis presentation is to give thestudents a working vocabulary anda way to improve their grasp ofgrammar.My Way ………………
1 May 2013haslindaThere are nine parts of speech . . .1)Nouns2)Verbs3)Pronouns4)Adjectives5)Adverbs6)Conjunctions7)Articles8)Prepositions9)InterjectionsIt is important tounderstand thatevery word in asentence has a jobto do, a role in thesentence.
1 - NOUN1 - NOUNA noun is a type of word that represents a person, thing,A noun is a type of word that represents a person, thing,place or quality.place or quality.For examples:For examples:1 May 2013haslindaPerson ~ Mr. Kamarul likes to eatspinach.Place ~ Mission is an old town.Thing ~ To cook, you need a couple ofpots.Quality ~ Honesty is a great value topossess.
2 - VERB2 - VERBA verb is a type of word that describes an action or a stateA verb is a type of word that describes an action or a stateof being, like of being, like talktalk, , walkwalk, , runrun, , jumpjump, , bebe, , dodo, , havehave, or , or thinkthink..There are two types of verbs : regular & irregularThere are two types of verbs : regular & irregular1 May 2013haslindaRegular verbs are those whose pasttense (for example, "I looked") and pastparticiple (for example, "I had looked") areformed by following the standard rule:adding a "d" or an "ed" to the end of theverb (sometimes a final consonant isdoubled, and if there is a y at the end ofthe word after a consonant, it changes toan "ied”.Verb Past Tense Past ParticipleI walk You walked They had walkedI plan She planned They have plannedI carry He carried They have carried
Irregular verbs are those whose pasttense (for example, "I rode") and pastparticiple (for example, "I had ridden")have forms that do not follow the standardrules. There are many irregular verbs (over250) in English, including be, break, bring,come, eat, go, meet, run, swim, and manymore. The chart below are some examplesof irregular verbs. 1 May 2013haslindaVerb Past TensePast Participle(had)be was / were beenbreak broke brokenbring brought broughtcome came comeeat ate eatengo went gonemeet met metbuild built builtbuy bought boughtchoose chose chosenswim swam swam
3 - PRONOUN3 - PRONOUNA pronoun is a substitute for a noun. Some pronounA pronoun is a substitute for a noun. Some pronounare: are: II, , meme, , sheshe, , hehe, , herher, , himhim, , itit, , youyou, , theythey, and , and themthem. . 1 May 2013haslindaPRONOUNSPronounas SubjectPronounas ObjectPronounasPossessiveAdjectivePossessivePronounReflexivePronoun1st PersonSingularI me my mine myself2nd PersonSingularyou you your yours yourself3rd PersonSingularhesheithimherithisheritshishersitshimselfherselfitself1st PersonPluralwe us our ours ourselves2nd PersonPluralyou you your yours yourselves3rd PersonPluralthey them their theirs themselves
4 - ADJECTIVE4 - ADJECTIVEAn adjective is a word that describes, identifies,An adjective is a word that describes, identifies,modifies, or quantifies something (a noun or amodifies, or quantifies something (a noun or apronoun). In the phrase, "pronoun). In the phrase, "the black catthe black cat" the word" the wordblackblack is an adjective because it describes the cat.is an adjective because it describes the cat.1 May 2013haslindaAdjectives can be classified into manycategories. Adjectives are generallyused in the order: quantity-->opinion-->size-->age-->shape-->colour-->origin-->material-->purpose.
1 May 2013haslindaQUANTITYOPINION SIZE AGE SHAPE COLOUR ORIGINMATERIALPURPOSENOUNfive huge young black Canadian bears battered old shapeless gray cotton work pantsmany magnificent antique British reference booksone studious teenaged American boyfew shiny round blue Indian gemsmany well-made tiny elongated brown wooden fishing boatsseveral cheap large purple polyester sleeping bagsExample of the Sequence of Multiple Adjectives inChart Form:
5 - ADVERB5 - ADVERBAn adverb is a word that describes an action, tellingAn adverb is a word that describes an action, telling"how," "when," "where," "how often," or "how much" an"how," "when," "where," "how often," or "how much" anaction took place. In the phrase "action took place. In the phrase "the cat ate hungrilythe cat ate hungrily,","hungrily is an adverb since it describes how the cat ate.hungrily is an adverb since it describes how the cat ate.Adverbs often end in ‘ly’. Some adverbsAdverbs often end in ‘ly’. Some adverbsare: are: easilyeasily, , warmlywarmly, , quicklyquickly, , mainlymainly, , freelyfreely, , oftenoften, and , and unfortunatelyunfortunately..For examples:For examples:1 May 2013haslindamanner Described ‘how’ something happens, e.g. beautifully, terribly, quietlyplace Described ‘where’ something happens, e.g. here, there, everywheretime Described ‘how long’ or ‘when’ something happens, e.g. before, afterfrequency Described ‘how often’ something happens, e.g. sometimes, oftendegree Described to ‘what’ degree something happens, e.g. almost, nearlycertainty Described how probable it is that something will happen, e.g. definitely,probably
6 - CONJUNCTION6 - CONJUNCTIONA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases,A conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases,clauses or sentences. Some conjunctions are: clauses or sentences. Some conjunctions are: andand, , asas, , becausebecause, , butbut, , oror, , neither/norneither/nor, , forfor, , sincesince, , soso, , untiluntil, , yetyet, and , and while.while.1 May 2013haslindaWordstowordsMost children like cookies and milk.PhrasestophrasesThe gold is hidden at the beach or by thelakeside.ClausestoclausesWhat you say and what you do are twodifferent things.Coordinating conjunctions join equals to oneanother: words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses toclauses.
7 - ARTICLES7 - ARTICLESAn article is a word that introduces a noun or a nounAn article is a word that introduces a noun or a nounphrase, and also limits or clarifies it. In English, thephrase, and also limits or clarifies it. In English, theindefinite articles are indefinite articles are aa and and anan while the definite articlewhile the definite articleis is thethe..For examples:For examples:1 May 2013haslindaa Use for countable nouns which start with consonantletters, e.g. a boy, a cat, a duckan Use for countable nouns which start with vowelletters, e.g. an aeroplane, an egg, an octopusthe - Use for uncountable nouns when you are talkingabout a particular example of that thing- Use for countable nouns the second andsubsequent times you use the noun, or when thelistener already knows what you are referring to(maybe because there is only one of that thing)
8 - PREPOSITION8 - PREPOSITIONA preposition is a word that shows the spatialA preposition is a word that shows the spatial(space), temporal (time), or logical relationship of(space), temporal (time), or logical relationship ofits object to the rest of the sentence.its object to the rest of the sentence.For examples: For examples: aboveabove, , afterafter, , againstagainst, , asas, , atat, , beneathbeneath, , betweenbetween, behind,, behind,byby, , duringduring,, exceptexcept, , forfor fromfrom, , inin, , intointo, , likelike, , nearnear, , onon, , overover, , pastpast, , sincesince, , underunder, , uponupon,, with.with. The cat is on the table.The cat is on the table.The dog is under the table.The dog is under the table.1 May 2013haslinda
9 - INTERJECTION9 - INTERJECTIONAn interjection is a word that expresses emotionAn interjection is a word that expresses emotionas an interruption or an aside. In other words,as an interruption or an aside. In other words,they are words or phrases used to exclaim orthey are words or phrases used to exclaim orprotest or command.protest or command.An interjection often starts a sentence but it canAn interjection often starts a sentence but it canbe contained within the sentence or can standbe contained within the sentence or can standalone.alone.Some interjections are: Some interjections are: ahah, , ahaaha, , alasalas,, awaw, , ayay, , bahbah, , eheh, , hurrayhurray, , manman, , ohoh1. Hey! Get off that floor!1. Hey! Get off that floor!2. Oh, that is a surprise.2. Oh, that is a surprise.3. Ah! Dont say you agree with me.3. Ah! Dont say you agree with me. 1 May 2013haslinda
Identify each word in the following sentence.haslinda1 May 2013The beautiful queen waswalking slowly on thecool lawn, and she wasreading a long bookabout knights and kingswhich she enjoyed.
haslinda1 May 2013The beautiful queen was walking slowlyarticle adjective noun verb verb adverbon the cool lawn, and she waspreposition article adjective noun conjunction pronoun verbreading a long book about knights andverb article adjective noun preposition nounconjunctionkings which she enjoyed.noun preposition pronoun verb