History is important and I think it is the wayof learning for the future. The great people ofthe past were thinkers, problem solvers anddoers. They read books and they relied ontheir own resources. We need the past tomeasure ourselves. I rely on past experiences,not only of myself, but of others, gone before,to guide me on my way. History holds the keysto a prosperous future, as it brings learning tolife. A view of the history "that has gonebefore" helps explain the history "that is now"and, if we are listening, may help us find thebetter choices to guide our future. Gandhiquotes “We need to be the change we wish tosee in the world”. ~ Haslinda Midy
"I walk slowly, but I never walk backward." Abraham Lincoln is regarded as one of Americas greatest heroes due to both his incredible impact on the nation and his unique appeal. His is a remarkable story of the rise from humble beginnings to achieve the highest office in the land; then, a sudden and tragic death at a time when his country needed him most to complete the great task remaining before the nation. Lincolns distinctively human and humane personality NAME: Abraham Lincoln and historical role as saviour of the Union and OCCUPATION: Civil Rights emancipator of the slaves creates a legacy that Activist, Lawyer,U.S. President, U.S. Representative endures. His eloquence of democracy and his BIRTH DATE: February insistence that the Union was worth saving embody the 12, 1809 ideals of self-government that all nations strive to DEATH DATE: April 15, 1865 achieve. PLACE OF BIRTH: Hodgenville, Kentucky Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States. He preserved the Union during the U.S. Civil War and brought about the emancipation of slaves. "Nearly all men can handle adversity, if you want to test a mans character, give him power."
"Remember upon the conduct of each depends the fate of all.” Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of Macedonia on September 20, 356 B.C. to parents King Philip II of Macedonia and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus. During his leadership, he united the Greek city-states and led the Corinthian League. He also became the king of Persia, Babylon and Asia, and created Macedonian colonies in Iran. While considering the conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander died of NAME: Alexander the Great malaria in Babylon on June 13, 323 B.C. OCCUPATION: King of Macedonia Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia. During BIRTH DATE: c. 356 BCE his leadership he united Greece, re-established the DEATH DATE: c. 323 BCE Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire. EDUCATION: Temple of the After capturing Prince Oxyartes, Alexander married the Nymphs at Meiza (was tutored by Aristotle there) prince’s daughter, Rhoxana. During his leadership he united Greece, re-established "I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an the Corinthian League and army of sheep led by a lion." conquered the Persian "I had rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent, than in Empire. the extent of my power and dominion." "There is nothing impossible to him who will try."
Eureka! - I have found it! Archimedes was born in the city of Syracuse on the island of Sicily in 287 BC. He was the son of an astronomer and mathematician named Phidias. Archimedes is said to be a relative of Hiero II, the then king of Syracuse and spent most of his life in Syracuse except for the time he went to Alexandria, Egypt to receive his education. He was a great mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor and astronomer. His outstanding contributions in the field of science brought about significant changes to the Full Name: Mr. Archimedes scientific world. Some of his notable contributions to the Date of Birth : 287 BC field of math and science include the finding and Place of Birth : Syracuse, Sicily, Italy development of the laws and principles of mechanics, Died: 212 BC buoyancy, hydrostatics, specific gravity, the lever, and the Place of Death: Syracuse, pulley; in addition, he discovered ways to measure a circle Sicily, Italy and the volume of a solid. Classification: Scientists & Thinkers, Mathemation Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, and I shall move the world.
"Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom." Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was born circa 384 B.C. in Stagira, Greece. When he turned 17, he enrolled in Plato’s Academy. In 338, he began tutoring Alexander the Great. In 335, Aristotle founded his own school, the Lyceum, in Athens, where he spent most of the rest of his life studying, teaching and writing. Aristotle died in 322 B.C., after he left Athens and fled to Chalcis. Aristotle’s father, Nicomachus, was NAME: Aristotle court physician to the Macedonian king Amyntas II. His OCCUPATION: Philosopher mother, Phaestis, believed to have died when Aristotle BIRTH DATE: c. 384 BCE was young. Aristotle’s friend Hermias, king of Atarneus DEATH DATE: c. 322 BCE EDUCATION: Platos and Assos in Mysia, invited Aristotle to court. During his Academy, Lyceum three-year stay in Mysia, Aristotle met and married his PLACE OF BIRTH: Stagira, first wife, Pythias, Hermias’ niece, and had a daughter, Chalcidice, Greece Pythias, named after her mother. PLACE OF DEATH: Chalcis, Euboea, Greece "All men by nature desire knowledge." "A friend to all is a friend to none."
One of the greatest emperors of all times, Emperor Asoka was a Mauryan ruler whose empire spread across the Indian subcontinent, stretching from the present day Pakistan and Afghanistan to Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam to Reign: 268–232 BCE Coronation: 268 BCE Kerala and Andhra in south India, thus covering a Born: 304 BCE vast area. He is known as Asoka the Great since Birth of place: Pataliputra, Patna he was one of the most able rulers who ruled Died: 232 BCE (aged 72) India. Under his rule, the entire India was united as Place of death: Pataliputra, Patna Buried: Ashes immersed in the Ganges one single entity with smooth administration. His River life is an inspiration to many as he excelled in Predecessor: Bindusara everything he did. The name Ashoka means Successor: Dasaratha "without any sorrow" in Sanskrit. Wives: Kaurwaki, Devi, Padmavati Tishyaraksha Father: Bindusara Mother: Dharma Children:Mahendra, Sanghamitra, Tivala, Kunala, Jaluka, Charumati Religious beliefs: Buddhism
Charlemagne (c.742-814), also known as Karl and Charles the Great, was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. In 771, Charlemagne became king of the Franks, a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany. He embarked on a mission to unite all Germanic peoples into one kingdom, and convert his subjects to Christianity. A skilled military strategist, he spent much of his reign Father: Pepin the Short engaged in warfare in order to accomplish his goals. In Mother: Bertrada of Laon 800, Pope Leo III (750-816) crowned Charlemagne Born: 2 April 742 Liège, Frankish Kingdom emperor of the Romans. In this role, he encouraged the Died: 28 January814 (aged 71) Carolingian Renaissance, a cultural and intellectual Aachen, Carolingian Empire revival in Europe. When he died in 814, Charlemagne’s Burial: Aachen Cathedral empire encompassed much of Western Europe, and he Religion: Christian had also ensured the survival of Christianity in the West. Today, Charlemagne is referred to by some as the father of Europe.
After five centuries, Columbus remains a mysterious and controversial figure who has been variously described as one of the greatest mariners in history, a visionary genius, a mystic, a national hero, a failed administrator, a naive entrepreneur, and a ruthless and greedy imperialist. Columbuss enterprise to find a westward route to Asia grew out of the practical experience of a long and varied maritime career, as well as out of his considerable reading in geographical and theological literature. Born: 31 October 1451 He settled for a time in Portugal, where he tried unsuccessfully Genoa, Republic of Genoa (Italy) to enlist support for his project, before moving to Spain. After Died: 20 May 1506 (aged c. 54) Valladolid, Crown of Castile many difficulties, through a combination of good luck and (Spain) persuasiveness, he gained the support of the Catholic Nationality: Genoese (Italy) monarchs, Isabel and Fernando. Occupation: Maritime explorer The widely published report of his voyage of 1492 made Title: Admiral of the Ocean Columbus famous throughout Europe and secured for him the Sea;Viceroy and Governor of the title of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and further royal patronage. Indies Columbus, who never abandoned the belief that he had reached Religion: Roman Catholic Asia, led three more expeditions to the Caribbean. But intrigue Spouse(s): Filipa Moniz and his own administrative failings brought disappointment and Perestrelo political obscurity to his final years. Partner(s): Beatriz Enríquez de Arana Children: Diego, Fernando
Kong Qui, better known as Confucius, was born in 551 B.C. in the Lu state of China. His teachings, preserved in the Analects, focused on creating ethical models of family and public interaction, and setting educational standards. He died in 479 B.C. Confucianism later became the official imperial philosophy of China, and was extremely influential during the Han, Tang and Song dynasties. Confucius was an influential Chinese philosopher, teacher and political figure known for his popular aphorisms and for his models of social interaction. Born: 551 BCE Zou, Lu state Died: 479 BCE (aged 71-72) Lu State Be not ashamed of mistakes and thus make them crimes. Nationality: Chinese Era: Ancient philosophy Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it. Region: Chinese philosophy I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. School Founder of Confucianism It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop. Main interests: Moral Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in getting up every time we do. philosophy, Social philosophy, Ethics Respect yourself and others will respect you. Notable ideas: Confucianism Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
Constantine I was born on February 27, c280 in modern day Serbia to army officer, Flavius Valerius Constantius. In 305 he was passed over in imperial succession, so Constantine fought a series of civil wars, finally becoming the sole Roman emperor. He ascribed his success to his conversion to Christianity. He renamed Byzantium as Constantinople and made it his capital. He died in 337. NAME: Flavius Valerius Constantine I was the first Christian Roman Emperor. Constantinus He ruled at the beginning of the 4th century and began OCCUPATION: General, Political the evolution of the empire into a Christian state. Leader, Religious Leader, Emperor BIRTH DATE: c. February 27, 280 DEATH DATE: March 22, 337 PLACE OF BIRTH: Niš, Serbia PLACE OF DEATH: Ancyrona, Turkey AKA: Constantine the Great
Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian painter and a genius in many realms of science. He is best known for two paintings: the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper.“ Born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy, Leonardo da Vinci was concerned with the laws of science and nature, which greatly informed his work as a painter, sculptor, inventor and draftsmen. His ideas and body of work -- which includes Virgin of the Rocks,The Last NAME: Leonardo di ser Piero da Supper, Leda and the Swan and Mona Lisa -- have Vinci influenced countless artists and made da Vinci a OCCUPATION: Mathematician, Arti leading light of the Italian Renaissance. st, Inventor, Musician, Writer BIRTH DATE: April 15, 1452 “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.” DEATH DATE: May 02, 1519 PLACE OF BIRTH: Vinci, Italy "Nothing strengthens authority so much as silence." PLACE OF DEATH: Amboise, France AKA: Leonardo da Vinci
Mongolian warrior and ruler Genghis Khan created the largest empire in the world, the Mongol Empire, by destroying individual tribes in Northeast Asia. Genghis Khan was born in Mongolia around the 1155. He married at age 16, but had many wives during his lifetime. At 20, he began building a large army with the intent to destroy individual tribes in Northeast Asia and unite them under his rule. He was successful – the NAME: Genghis Khan Mongol Empire was the largest empire in the world OCCUPATION: Warrior before the British Empire and lasted well after his own BIRTH DATE: c. 1155 death. DEATH DATE: c. 1227 PLACE OF BIRTH: Mongolia PLACE OF DEATH: Mongolia ORIGINALLY: Temujin "The Greatest happiness is to scatter your enemy, to AKA: Chingis Khan drive him before you, to see his cities reduced to ashes, AKA: Jingis to see those who live him shrouded in tears, and to gather into your bosom his wives and daughters."
"Courage is knowing what not to fear." Ancient Greek philosopher Plato founded the Academy and is the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence in Western thought. Ancient Greek philosopher Plato was the student of Socratesand the teacher of Aristotle. His writings explored justice, beauty and equality, and also contained discussions in aesthetics, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the NAME: Plato philosophy of language. Plato was the founder of the OCCUPATION: Philosopher, Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions of Writer higher learning in the Western world. BIRTH DATE: c. 424 BCE DEATH DATE: c. 347 BCE "All the gold which is under or upon the earth is not PLACE OF BIRTH: Athens, Greece enough to give in exchange for virtue." PLACE OF DEATH: Athens, "Attention to health is lifes greatest hindrance." Greece AKA: Aristocles "Dictatorship naturally arises out of democracy, and AKA: Platon the most aggravated form of tyranny and slavery out of the most extreme liberty."
Venetian merchant and adventurer Marco Polo travelled from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. He wrote Il Milione, known in English as The Travels of Marco Polo. Marco Polo was born in 1254, in Venice, Italy. He travelled extensively with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. He remained in China for 17 of those years. Around 1292, he left NAME: Marco Polo China, acting as consort along the way to a Mongol OCCUPATION: Explorer, Journali princess who was being sent to Persia. His book Il st Milione describes his travels and experiences and BIRTH DATE: c. 1254 influenced later adventurers and merchants. DEATH DATE: January 08, 1324 "I have not told half of what I saw." PLACE OF BIRTH: Venice, Italy PLACE OF DEATH: Venice, Italy
1169 – Succeeded the defeated faction and his uncle as vizier in this year. 1170 - He retreated from an invasion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem on this year. 1171 – He had the imams pronounce the name of Al-Mustadi, the Sunni and, more importantly, Abbassid caliph in Baghdad, at sermon before Friday prayers; authority simply deposed the old line in the month of September on this year. 1174 – He assumed the title of sultan in Egypt on this year with Nur ad-Din’s death. 1176 – He managed to impose his influence and authority on them in this year. And on the same year the elite shadowy assassin group attempted to murder him. 1177 - He was defeated by the combined forces of Baldwin IV of Jerusalem on the 25th day of November on this year, Raynald of Chatillon and the Knights Templar. Only one tenth of his army made it back to Egypt. Name : Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn 1179 – He spent the subsequent year recovering from his defeat and rebuilding Ayyūb his army, renewing his attacks in this year. He also captured the castle at Bait al- Born : Muslim year 532: Ahazon and approximately 700 prisoners were taken and executed on the 29th Between 19 Sept. 1137 day of August of this year. and 8 September 1138 1183 – He besieged Kerak, Raynalds fortress in Oultrejordain, in this year until 1184. Birthplace : Tikrit, Iraq 1187 - He conquered most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem on this year and on the Died : March 4, 1193 (aged 4th day of July on the same year, he faced at the Battle of Hattin the combined 55) forces Guy of Lusignan, King consort of Jerusalem, and Raymond III of Tripoli. Damascus, SyriaBuriedUmayy 1188 – He released Guy of Lusignan and returned him to his wife, Queen Sibylla of ad Jerusalem on this year. Mosque, Damascus,SyriaPred 1189 – He sought to reclaim Tire for their kingdom on this year. However, Conrad ecessorNur ad-Din Zangi who did not recognize Guy as King refused him admission. Religious beliefs : Islam 1191 – His army met King Richard I of England at the Battle of Arsuf on the 7th day of September of this year at which he was defeated.
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, in Shadwell, Virginia. He was a draftsman of the U.S. Declaration of Independence; the nations first secretary of state (1789- 94); second vice president (1797-1801); and, as the third president (1801-09), the statesman responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. Jefferson died in bed at Monticello (located near Charlottesville, Virginia) on July 4, 1826. Thomas Jefferson was a draftsman of the Declaration of Independence and the third U.S. president (1801-09). He NAME: Thomas Jefferson OCCUPATION: Diplomat, U.S. was also responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. President, U.S. Vice President, U.S. Governor, Government Official " ...How little do my countrymen know what precious blessings they are in BIRTH DATE: April 13, 1743 possession of, and which no other people on earth enjoy." DEATH DATE: July 04, 1826 EDUCATION: College of William and Mary "All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience PLACE OF to remain silent." BIRTH: Shadwell, Virginia PLACE OF DEATH: Monticello (near Charlottesville), Virginia "We have the wolf by the ears, and we can neither hold him nor safely NICKNAME: "Sage of Monticello" NICKNAME: "Apostle of the let him go. Justice is in one scale, and self-preservation in the other." Constitution" NICKNAME: "Long Tom"
Born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, England, Isaac Newton was an established physicist and mathematician, and is credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution. With discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics, Newton developed the principles of modern physics. In 1687, he published his most acclaimed work, Philosophiae, Natrualis, Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), which has been called the single-most NAME: Sir Isaac Newton OCCUPATION: Philosopher, Mathem influential book on physics. Newton died in London on atician,Astronomer, Physicist March 31, 1727. BIRTH DATE: January 04, 1643 DEATH DATE: March 31, 1727 EDUCATION: The Kings School, University of Cambridge, "Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend Trinity College is truth." PLACE OF BIRTH: Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom PLACE OF DEATH: London, "I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to England, United Kingdom have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself AKA: Isaac Newton now and then in finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."
“Be less curious about people and more curious about ideas.” Marie Curie distinguished herself as one of the leading scientists of all time during an era when few women attended college and fewer still became scientists. With the help of her husband Pierre Curie, she discovered two new elements: polonium and radium. The Curies study of radioactivity led to advances in the treatment of cancer as well as the development of nuclear power. NAME: Madam Marie Curie Marie Curie was the first female recipient of a Nobel OCCUPATION: Scientist Prize and the first individual to win it twice. BIRTH DATE: 7 November 1867 Marie Curie died on July 4, 1934 at the age of 66. The DEATH DATE: 4 July 1934 (66 years) official cause of death was listed as a plastic pernicious EDUCATION: Poland, Paris, France anemia, caused by long-term exposure to radiation. PLACE OF BIRTH: Warsaw, Poland Marie did not live to see her daughter Iréne win a Nobel FATHER: Wladislaw Sklodowski MOTHER : Bronislava Sklodowska Prize in Chemistry a year later. HUSBAND : Pierre Curie DAUGHTERS : Irene, Eve “Life is not easy for any of us. But what of that? We ACHIEVEMENTS: Noble Prize in Physics (1903), Chemistry (1911) must have perseverance and above all confidence in ourselves. We must believe that we are gifted for something and that this thing must be attained.”
“Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.” Albert Einstein, the most famous scientist of the 20th century, revolutionized scientific thought. Having developed the Theory of Relativity in 1917, Einstein opened the door for the creation of the atomic bomb. In 1905, Einstein wrote five scientific papers, which were all published in the Annalen der Physik (Annals of Physics, a major physics journal). Three of these were published together in NAME: Albert Einstein September 1905. Einstein worked at the University of OCCUPATION: Scientist, Writer, Teacher, Professor Zurich (Switzerland), then the German University in Prague BIRTH DATE: 14 March 1879 (Czech Republic), and then back to Zurich for the DEATH DATE: 18 April 1955 (76 years) Polytechnic Institute. On April 12, 1955, Einstein collapsed EDUCATION: Germany, Italy, at his home. Just six days later, on April 18, 1955, Einstein Switzerland died when the aneurysm that he had been living with for PLACE OF BIRTH: Ulm, Germany FATHER: Hermann Einstein several years had finally burst. He was 76 years old. MOTHER : Pauline Einstein “Strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value.” WIVES : Mileva Maric, Elsa “The value of a man should be seen in what he gives and not in what he is able to SONS: Hans Albert, Eduard ACHIEVEMENTS: Noble Prize in receive.” Physics (1921) “Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.”
Diana Frances Spencer is Lady Diana Spencer; Her Royal Highness, the Princess of Wales; Princess Di; Diana, Princess of Wales. Diana was born in 1961 as the third daughter of Edward John Spencer and his wife Frances Ruth Burke Roche. Diana grew up in a very privileged family that had a long history of close ties with the royal family. When Dianas paternal grandfather passed away in 1975, Dianas father became the 8th Earl of Spencer and Diana gained the title of "Lady.“ In 1981, she engaged to Prince Charles and later married on July 29, 1981 at St. Pauls Cathedral. Diana gave birth to William Arthur Philip NAME: Diana Frances Spencer Louis on June 21, 1982 and to Henry ("Harry") Charles Albert OCCUPATION: Consort, charity worker, celebrity, (Princess of Wales) David on September 15, 1984. In December 1992, a formal BIRTH DATE: 1 July 1961 separation was announced between Diana and Charles and in DEATH DATE: 31 August 1997 (36 1996, a divorce was agreed to which was finalized on August 28. years) In the settlement, Diana was given $28 million, plus $600,000 EDUCATION: Kent, Switzerland PLACE OF BIRTH: Ulm, Germany per year but she was to give up the title, "Her Royal Highness.“On FATHER: Viscount Edward John Spencer August 31, 1997, Diana was riding in a Mercedes with her MOTHER : Hon. Frances Shand-Kydd boyfriend (Dodi Al Fayed), bodyguard, and chauffer when the car HUSBAND: Prince Charles crashed into a pillar of the tunnel under the Pont de lAlma bridge SONS: Prince William, Prince Harry in Paris while fleeing from paparazzi. Diana, age 36, died on the ACHIEVEMENTS: The UCP operating table at the hospital. Her tragic death shocked the Humanitarian Award (1995) world. “Life is just a journey.”
Thomas Alva Edison was born on February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio; the seventh and last child of Samuel and Nancy Edison. When Edison was seven his family moved to Port Huron, Michigan. Edison lived here until he struck out on his own at the age of sixteen. Edison had very little formal education as a child, attending school only for a few months. He was taught reading, writing, and arithmetic by his mother, but was always a very curious child and taught himself much by reading on his own. This belief in self-improvement remained throughout his life. The NAME: Thomas Alva Edison success of his electric light brought Edison to new heights of OCCUPATION: Telegrapher, Inventor BIRTH DATE: 11 February 1847 fame and wealth, as electricity spread around the world. Edisons DEATH DATE: 18 October 1931 role in life began to change from inventor and industrialist to EDUCATION: Port Huron, Michigan cultural icon, a symbol of American ingenuity, and a real life PLACE OF BIRTH: Milan, Ohio Horatio Alger story. The last experimental work of Edisons life FATHER: Samuel Edison was done at the request of Edisons good friends Henry Ford, and MOTHER : Nancy Elliott Harvey Firestone in the late 1920s. A series of ailments caused WIVES: Mary Stilwell, Mina Miller his health to decline even more until he lapsed into a coma on CHILDREN: Marion, Thomas Jr., William Leslie, Madeleine, Charles, Theodore October 14, 1931. He died on October 18, 1931, at his estate, INVENTION: “Universal Stock Printer” Glenmont, in West Orange, New Jersey. (1869), the tin foil phonograph (1878), electric light (1879), disc (1929) ACHIEVEMENTS : Medal of Honor (1928)
Malayan governmental figure since graduating from college, Tunku Abdul Rahman became his country’s first prime minister and foreign minister after it gained its independence, continuing in that post when the federation of Malaysia was formed in 1963. In 1913, he went to study at Debsurin School in Bangkok, and in 1919, he was awarded a scholarship to further his studies at Cambridge University. After a lengthy trip from Singapore aboard a cargo ship, during which he contracted malaria, Tunku disembarked in the village of Little Stukeley, England. He NAME: Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim graduated from Cambridge in 1925 and returned in 1926 for an Shah honors degree in law. OCCUPATION: Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman was chief minister of the Federation of BIRTH DATE: February 08, 1903 Malaya (1955–1957), the first prime minister of an independent DEATH DATE: December 06, 1990 (87 Malaya (1957–1963), and the prime minister of Malaysia years) PLACE OF BIRTH: Alor Setar, Malaysia (1963–1970). Before attaining independence of the country, PLACE OF DEATH: Kuala Lumpur, Abdul Rahman was also a member of the United Malays National Malaysia Organization, an organization struggling against Britains Malayan WIVES : Meriam Ching, Violet Coulson, Union. Also known as Bapa Kemerdekaan, he became the first Sharifah Rodziah Syed Alwi Barakbah, Bibi Chong Prime Minister of the country after Sarawak, Sabah and ACHIEVEMENTS : Founding Father of Singapore merged to form Malaysia in 1963. He played a key role independent Malaysia when the Organization of Islamic Conference was established in 1969 and served as its first Secretary-General.
Winston Churchills life was a trajectory of events leading to his stand against Adolph Hitlers threat to control Europe. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, Churchill helped lead a successful Allied strategy with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and General Secretary Joseph Stalin during WWII to defeat the Axis powers and craft post-war peace. After the breakdown of the alliance, he alerted the West to the expansionist threat of Soviet Communism. On September 3, 1939, the day that Britain declared war on Germany, Churchill NAME: Sir Winston Leonard Spencer- Churchill (aka Winston Churchill) was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the OCCUPATION: Prime War Cabinet, and by April, 1940, he became chairman of the Minister, Journalist Military Coordinating Committee. He was appointed Minister of BIRTH DATE: November 30, 1874 Defense between October 1951 and January 1952, and became DEATH DATE: January 24, 1965 prime minister in October 1951. He introduced various reforms EDUCATION: St. Georges School, Brunswick School, Harrow School, Royal such as the Mines and Quarries Act of 1954, improving working Military College (Academy) at Sandhurst conditions in mines, and the Housing Repairs and Rent Act of PLACE OF BIRTH: Blenheim Palace, 1955, establishing standards for housing. Despite his poor Woodstock, England health, Churchill was able to remain active in public life, albeit PLACE OF DEATH: Hyde Park Gate, London, England mostly from the comfort of his homes in Kent and Hyde Park FATHER : Lord Randolph Churchill Gate, in London. On January 15, 1965, Churchill suffered a MOTHER : Jeannie Jerome severe stroke that left him gravely ill. He died at his London home BOOKS : The Story of the Malakand nine days later, at age 90, on January 24, 1965. Field Force (1898), The River War (1899)
Yasser Arafat was a leader of the state of Palestine and 1st President of the Palestinian National Authority. The leader is also known as the Chairman of the Palestine liberation Organization who founded the secular political party Fatah in 1959, stepping in as its leader. Mainly known for his anti-Israeli stance, Arafat pushed the country in to a long war with Israel in the name of self-determination. While he is portrayed as a martyr in his own country Palestine, Arafat is also condemned for his attacks on Israeli civilians. The tension between these countries finally FAMOUS AS: 1st President of the began subsiding with the acceptation of UN Security Council Palestinian National Authority BORN ON: 24 August 1929 resolution 242 in 1988, and he eventually succeeded in BORN IN: Cairo, Egypt managing the uneasy balance between militancy and diplomacy DIED ON: 11 November 2004 in the Middle East. Arafat made the mistake of supporting NATIONALITY: Palestinian Territories Saddam Hussein during the Kuwait crisis of 1990 and paid the WIFE: Suha Arafat price of political isolation in the Gulf. In 1994, Yasser Arafat was CHILDREN : Zahwa Arafat awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Shimon Peres and PROFESSION: Civil Engineer Yitzhak Rabin. WORKS & ACHIEVEMENTS: PLO Leader and Nobel Peace Prize winner
"If you want to shine like sun first you have to burn like it." Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated World War II and oversaw fascist policies that resulted in millions of deaths. Adolf Hitler was born in Branau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889. He rose to power in German politics as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, also known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator from 1934 to 1945. As a leader NAME: Adolf Hitler of the Nazi party, Hitler promoted nationalism, anti-Semitism, OCCUPATION: Military anti-communism by establishing a Fascist dictatorship in Leader, Dictator BIRTH DATE: c. April 20, 1889 Germany and espoused a foreign policy of world conquest. His DEATH DATE: April 30, 1945 interpretation of racial subjugation and anti-Jewish policies PLACE OF BIRTH: Braunau am Inn, caused death of an estimated 6 million Jews and several other Austria groups of people, including his political opponents. Atrocities PLACE OF DEATH: Berlin, Germany committed by him during the war including genocide of Jews, NICKNAME: Der Führer widely known as The Holocaust put him against the peace and FATHER : Alois Hitler MOTHER : Klara Polzl unity in world and eventually led to his downfall after his defeat in the Second World War. Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker. "Those who want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve to live."
"The only history that is worth a tinkers damn is the history we make today." One of Americas foremost industrialists, Henry Ford revolutionized assembly-line modes of production for the automobile. Henry Ford created the Ford Model T car in 1908 and went on to develop the assembly line mode of production, which revolutionized the industry. As a result, Ford sold millions of cars and became a world-famous company head. Henry Ford was the founder of the Ford Motor Company. He also sponsored NAME: Henry Ford the development of the assembly line technique of mass OCCUPATION: Entrepreneur production. Fords launching of the Model T refashioned BIRTH DATE: July 30, 1863 transportation and American automobile industry simultaneously. DEATH DATE: April 07, 1947 He was highly deemed for his concept Fordism - which involved EDUCATION: Goldsmith, Bryant & huge production of cheap goods paired with higher pay to Stratton Business College in Detroit PLACE OF BIRTH: Greenfield workers. Ford had a universal perception with consumerism as Township,Michigan the root to peace. His earnest commitment to orderly decreasing PLACE OF DEATH: Dearborn, Michigan costs came out in numerous innovations related to technical and WIFE : Clara Ala Bryant business. In 1920s, Ford was recognized globally for a "Fordism HONORS & ACHIEVEMENTS : Franklin Institutes Elliott Cresson Medal (1928), System" that was looked to guarantee modernity, high salaries Grand Cross of the German Eagle (1938), and inexpensive consumer goods but Fords "Anti-Semitism" led Gallups List of Widely Admired People of to controversy in the same time period. the 20th Century (1999), Prominent Americans series (1965 – 1978) "If you think you can do a thing or think you cant do a thing, youre right."
Alexander Fleming was a great Scottish biologist and pharmacologist who made way for antibiotic medicines with his discovery of penicillin from the mould "Penicillium notatum". Flemings discoveries brought new hope to mankind in battling certain diseases and treating bacterial infections. Flemings various works are recorded in his articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. He won his Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his outstanding contributions and path breaking discoveries in medicines. Such is the impact of the great FAMOUS AS: Biologist, Pharmacologist man that his name had even featured in the list of 100 Most BORN ON: 06 August 1881 Important People of the 20th Century as recently as in 1999. BORN IN: Lochfield, Scotland Present day penicillin upgrades carried put by the medicine world DIED ON: 11 March 1955 stand on one mans quest and that is none other than Fleming. NATIONALITY: United Kingdom By discovering synthetic penicillin Fleming paved the way for WORKS & ACHIEVEMENTS: Discovered enzyme preventing and fighting serious illnesses like syphilis, gangrene lysozyme and antibiotic penicillin (1929), and tuberculosis which were never imagined of being treated Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or before Flemings discoveries. Medicine in 1945 MARRIED TO : Sarah Marion McElroy, Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas ARTICLES: The Lancet (WW1)
If the world knows any name as the father of science then Galileo Galilei is surely the one. Galilei is a name that starts and ends modern day Science and its revelations. Galilei was the one who opposed all existing ideas that all planets and object in the universe revolved around the earth. It was Galileo who became controversial for affirming that Sun was at the centre and everything else in the universe revolved around it. Galileo was an Italian scientist who led the Scientific Revolution, proposing the then controversial idea of Copernicanism, the idea that earth orbits the sun. Galilei is a historically renowned scientist who NAME: Galileo Galilei changed the way the world viewed science with his astronomical OCCUPATION: Astronomer BIRTH DATE: February 15, 1564 observation theories, modern science and modern physics. DEATH DATE: January 08, 1642 Galilei struggled his way against the religious bodies to uphold his EDUCATION: Monastery school at science and technological methods and theories. Galilei Vallombrosa, near Florence, University of discovered the 4 largest satellites present in the planet Jupiter Pisa PLACE OF BIRTH: Pisa, Tuscany, Italy and these were called Galilean moons. Galileis scientific efforts PLACE OF DEATH: Arcetri, Italy include major inventions such as improvement in military FAMOUS AS: Astronomer, compass and other instruments. The genius in Galileo never got Mathematician, Philosopher, Rebel recognition during his lifetime. All his inventions and theories Scientist, Physicist were supported and referred to after his death. WORKS & ACHIEVEMENTS: Founded Galilean Telescope, Stated the Heliocentric Cosmology, Discovered "All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to Jupiters 4 moons discover them."
Dr. Louis Pasteur discovered that microbes were responsible for souring alcohol and came up with the process of pasteurization, where bacteria is destroyed by heating beverages and then allowing them to cool. His work in germ theory also led him and his team to create vaccinations for anthrax and rabies. Pasteurization (a process of toning and treating milk free of damage causing microbes) is the most common reference to the great chemist and biologist who ever lived on this earth, Louis Pasteur. He is a well known name in the medical world as well as for millions of people around the world. The French chemist was NAME: Louis Pasteur OCCUPATION: Inventor, also a brilliant microbiologist known for his outstanding Doctor, Chemist breakthroughs in medicines and invention of vaccines for BIRTH DATE: December 27, 1822 diseases that were never known to be treated. Pasteur was the DEATH DATE: September 28, 1895 first man on earth to have discovered cure for dangerous PLACE OF BIRTH: Dole, France puerperal fever and created the first type of vaccine for rabies PLACE OF DEATH: Marnes-la-Coquette, France and anthrax. Louis Pasteur made great discoveries in chemistry FAMOUS AS: Chemist, Microbiologist besides striking gold in microbiology. Chemical discoveries by WORKS & ACHIEVEMENTS: Created Pasteur include the very famous molecular basis for the vaccine for rabies and anthrax for the asymmetry of certain crystals. Pasteur will always be first time, invented Pasteurization for milk, Made several discoveries in remembered even by future generations for his notable disease medicines prevention theories and medicines. "The universe is asymmetric and I am persuaded that life, as it is known to us, is a direct result of the asymmetry of the universe or of its indirect consequences."
Ernest Rutherford is a prominent figure in the field of nuclear physics. He is known for his discoveries of chemical relations between radioactive substances. Rutherford is known for his scattering of atom which is popularly known as Rutherford model which he achieved through his brilliant Rutherford scattering and gold foil experiment. Rutherford attained great heights while researching on radioactivity and discovering and coining the terms alpha, gamma and beta which are different types of radiation. Rutherford received his knighthood, Order of Merit and was made the Baron Rutherford of Nelson, of Cambridge in the NAME: Ernest Rutherford County of Cambridge for his outstanding atomic and nuclear OCCUPATION: Physicist BIRTH DATE: August 30, 1871 findings. Such was the brilliance of Rutherford that most of the DEATH DATE: October 19, 1937 researching students working under him achieved great heights EDUCATION: Nelson Collegiate School, and were awarded Nobel Prizes. Rutherfords experiments were Canterbury College regarded as the finest and most controlled ones for which he will PLACE OF BIRTH: Spring Grove, New Zealand always be remembered as one of the greatest scientists ever PLACE OF DEATH: Cambridge, United after Sir Isaac Newton. Rutherfords tomb lies next to Newtons Kingdom which says how much he is respected and how greatly he is AKA: 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson remembered. FAMOUS AS: Physicist, Chemist He is remembered as “Father of the Nuclear Age” . WORKS & ACHIEVEMENTS: Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1908), Discovered radioactive half life, named alpha and beta radiation differently