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This presentation is about one of the largest and famous religions.
1. Islam
2. Christianity
3. Judaism
4. Hinduism

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  2. 2.    INTRODUCTION Religion is a system of divine beliefs, cultural practices and the world which usually describe the meaning of life and faith But in sociology religion is defined as: “ it involves beliefs that take the form of ritualized practice; it provides a sense of purpose”
  3. 3. Religion In Sociology  Religion as defined by sociologists has three key elements: it is a form of culture; it involves beliefs that take the form of ritualized practice; it provides a sense of purpose  Sociologists of religion study every aspect of religion from what is believed to how persons act while in worship and while living out their stated convictions  They study the changing role of religion both in the public arena (political, economic and media) and in intimate interpersonal relationships
  5. 5. ISLAM  Islam is the second most common religion in the world.  Muslim belief is expressed in their profession of faith: “There is no god but ALLAH, and Muhammad (PBUH) is the Prophet of God.”  Muslims believe that after the final judgment there will be an after life, either in heaven or in hell.
  6. 6. ISLAM  The Quran is the holy book from which they get their spiritual guidance.  They also receive spiritual guidance from the Hadith, which contains the words and deeds of Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and his followers.  It is a monotheistic religion like Christianity. To believe in only one god
  7. 7. ORIGIN  Islam is a monotheistic religious tradition that developed in the Middle East in the 7th century  Islam, which literally means "surrender" or "submission”.  It was founded on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) as an expression of surrender to the will of Allah, the creator and sustainer of the world.
  8. 8.  It is essential in Islam to believe that Allah is the one and true God with no partner or equal.  One of the unifying characteristics of Islam is the Five Pillars, the fundamental practices of Islam  These five practices include a ritual profession of faith, ritual prayer, the zakat (charity), fasting, and the hajj (a pilgrimage to Mecca).
  9. 9. profession of faith, prayer, zakat , fasting, and hajj
  10. 10.    The testimony of faith is saying with conviction, “La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammadur rasoolu Allah.” This saying means “There is no true god (deity) but God (Allah),1 and Muhammad is the Messenger (Prophet) of God.” The first part, “There is no true god but God,” means that none has the right to be worshipped but God alone, and that God has neither partner nor son.
  11. 11.    This testimony of faith is called theShahada, a simple formula which should be said with conviction in order to convert to Islam. Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) was Allah's great Prophet and Messenger. The Prophet's mission, however, is universal. Allah tells mankind that Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) is no more than a Messenger, the unlettered Prophet who believes in Him and His Words. He is the Seal of the Prophets and the true universal Messenger of Allah to the whole mankind. The profession of faith is the most important pillar of Islam.
  12. 12.    Muslims perform five prayers a day. Each prayer does not take more than a few minutes to perform. Prayer in Islam is a direct link between the worshipper and God. There are no intermediaries between God and the worshipper. Prayers are performed at dawn, noon, midafternoon, sunset, and night. A Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in fields, offices, factories, or universities.
  13. 13.     All things belong to God, and wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. The original meaning of the word zakat is both „purification‟ and „growth.‟ Giving zakat means „giving a specified percentage on certain properties to certain classes of needy people.‟ The percentage which is due on gold, silver, and cash funds that have reached the amount of about 85 grams of gold and held in possession for one lunar year is two and a half percent.
  14. 14.    Our possessions are purified by setting aside a small portion for those in need. Like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances and encourages new growth. A person may also give as much as he or she pleases as voluntary alms or charity.
  15. 15.    Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from dawn until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. Although the fast is beneficial to health, it is regarded principally as a method of spiritual self-purification. By cutting oneself off from worldly comforts, even for a short time, a fasting person gains true sympathy with those who go hungry, as well as growth in his or her spiritual life.
  16. 16.    The annual pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah is an obligation once in a lifetime for those who are physically and financially able to perform it. About two million people go to Makkah each year from every corner of the globe. Although Makkah is always filled with visitors, the annual Hajj is performed in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
  17. 17.    Male pilgrims wear special simple clothes which strip away distinctions of class and culture so that all stand equal before God. The rites of the Hajj include circling the Kaaba seven times and going seven times between the hillocks of Safa and Marwa, as Hagar did during her search for water. Then the pilgrims stand together in Arafa and ask God for what they wish and for His forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Day of Judgment.
  18. 18.   The end of the Hajj is marked by a festival, Eid Al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers. This, and Eid al-Fitr, a feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are the two annual festivals of the Muslim calendar.
  19. 19. Christianity - An introduction  Christianity is the largest religion in the world with over 2 billion followers.  Christianity is focussed on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Jesus was born in Bethlehem in the Middle East over 2000 years ago.  The holy book of Christians is the Bible.
  20. 20. Christianity - An introduction  Many Christians worship in churches.  'Church' means the gathering of Christians as well as the building in which Christians worship.  Their leaders are called priests or fathers.
  21. 21. Christianity – History  Started at around 30 AD, Christianity is based on the teachings and life of Jesus Christ.  Christianity was founded in the first century in Palestine by the disciples of Jesus.
  22. 22. Christianity – History  Next to Jesus, the Bible is the foundation of Christianity.  It holds the teachings and expectations for Christians.  The Bible consists of 39 books from the Old Testament and 27 book from the New Testament.
  23. 23. Christianity – History  Groups within Christianity include differing books as part of their sacred writings, most prominent among which are the biblical apocrypha or deuter-o-canonical books.  From its beginnings, Christianity has been an apostolic, or missionary faith based on Jesus' exhortation to "go and make disciples of all nations" (Matthew 28:19-20).
  24. 24. Christianity – Basic Beliefs  God loves us and would like for us to live eternally with     Him in glory. Because of our sin (= willful rebellion), we are separated from God. We cannot overcome sin by our own efforts. Because God loves us, He came to earth in human form (as Jesus) and died on the cross to take the penalty for our sins. We receive salvation by making a life-changing commitment to Christ, not merely by accepting doctrines or joining an organization.
  25. 25. Christianity – Church History  1054 A.D: After centuries of tension over the increasing political power of the Pope, the Roman Catholic church in Western Europe splits with the Orthodox Church in the eastern Mediterranean and Russia.
  26. 26. Christianity – Church History  521 A.D: Protesting abuses within the Catholic Church (which the Church itself later condemned), Martin Luther starts a movement intended to reform the church, but ends up splitting it. Numerous selfgoverning Protestant churches are formed (Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, etc.).  In the 1500s, the Church of England (Episcopal Church) takes a "middle way" between Catholicism and Protestantism, forming a church that is locally governed but preserves Catholic traditions.
  27. 27. Christianity – Festivals  Beside these, there are so many festivals of Christians some of the important festivals are:  Easter  Christmas  Good Friday  Holy Week  Lent  Easter: Easter is the most important festival in the Christian calendar. It celebrates the resurrection from the dead of Jesus, three days after he was executed. The Easter story is at the heart of Christianity.
  28. 28. Christianity – Festivals  Christmas: Christmas is celebrated on the 25 December. Christmas is a Christian holy day that marks the birth of Jesus who Christians believe to be the Son of God. • How Christians celebrate Christmas?  The story of Jesus' birth (the nativity) is often retold by children through 'Nativity Plays'
  29. 29. Christianity – Festivals  Church services often include carol singing - these are happy songs which tell the Christmas story.  The celebration of Christmas is often accompanied by the giving and receiving of presents and cards. This reminds Christians of the gift of Jesus, the son of God, beginning his earthly life.
  30. 30. Christianity - Festivals  Good Friday It is a famous Christian festival which is celebrated on the Friday before Easter which is celebrated in March –April to commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus Christ who sacrificed on the cross for the sake of entire humanity.
  31. 31. Christianity - Festivals Holy Week Christ in his final week of life is called as the Holy Week. It is considered as a very holy week for the death and resurrection of Lord Jesus Christ.  Important days of Holy week are named Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday.  There are some specific hymns sung on these occasions like Ride on, Ride on in Majesty, and all glory, laud and honor.
  32. 32. Christianity - Festivals  Lent Christians remember Jesus - they go to church and have the sign of the cross marked on their foreheads in ash. There are special services in the church on behalf of Lent. During this people sit together and talk about Christianity and its faith.
  33. 33. JUDAISM
  34. 34. JUDAISM  Judaism is a religious tradition with origins dating back nearly four thousand years, rooted in the ancient near eastern region of Canaan  CANNAN is the region which is now Israel and Palestinian territories  Judaism did not emerge until the 1st century C.E. Judaism traces its heritage to the covenant God made with Abraham
  35. 35.  The primary figures of Israelite culture include the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the prophet Moses, who received God's law at Mt. Sinai.  Their main book from which they receive guidance is “TORAH”  Jews continue to be unified on the basis of their common connection to a set of sacred narratives expressing their relationship with God as a holy people.
  36. 36. JUDAISM  Judaism tends to emphasize practice over belief.  Jewish worship is centered in synagogues  Which completely replaced the Second Temple after its destruction in 70 C.E  Jewish religious leaders are called rabbis, who oversee the many rituals and ceremonies essential to Jewish religious practice.
  37. 37. Hinduism
  38. 38. What is Hinduism?  One of the oldest religions of humanity  The religion of the Indian people  Gave birth to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism  Tolerance and diversity: "Truth is one, paths are many"  Many deities but a single, impersonal Ultimate Reality  A philosophy and a way of life – focused both on this world and beyond
  39. 39. How did Hinduism begin?  No particular founder  Indus River Valley Civilization >5000 years ago  Aryans enter 4000 - 3500 years ago  Vedic Tradition 3500 – 2500 years ago:  rituals and many gods (polytheism)  sacred texts (Vedas)  social stratification (caste system)  Upanishads (metaphysical philosophy) 2800 – 2400 years ago  Vedic Tradition develops into Hinduism
  40. 40. What are the Sacred Texts?  Shruti (“heard”) – oldest, most authoritative:  Four Vedas (“truth”) – myths, rituals, chants  Upanishads - metaphysical speculation  Plus other texts  Smriti (“remembered”) – the Great Indian Epics: Ramayana  Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita)   Plus others
  41. 41. What do Hindus believe?  One impersonal Ultimate Reality – Brahman  Manifest as many personal deities  True essence of life – Atman, the soul, is Brahman trapped in matter (“That art thou”)  Reincarnation – atman is continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara)  Karma – spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad)  Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha)
  42. 42. Who do Hindus worship?  Shiva, god of constructive destruction (the transformer)  Appears as Shiva Nataraj, lord of the dance of creation.  and with his wife, Parvati, and son Ganesha (the elephant headed remover of obstacles).  Saraswati, goddess of wisdom, consort of Brahma  Lakshmi, goddess of good fortune, consort of Vishnu
  43. 43. How do Hindus worship?  Bhakti Yoga is seeking union with the divine through loving devotion to manifest deities   In the home(household shrines) In the Temples (priests officiate)  Puja– making offerings to and decorating the deity images Darsan – “seeing” the deity (not idol worship)  Prasad – taking the divine within your own being through  eating of food shared with the deity