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- 1. An incremental network for on-line unsupervised classification and topology learning Shen Furao Osamu HasegawaNeural Networks, Vol.19, No.1, pp.90-106, (2006)
- 2. Background: Objective of unsupervised learning (1) Clustering: Construct decision boundaries based on unlabeled data. – Single-link, complete-link, CURE • Computation overload • Much memory space • Unsuitable for large data sets or online data – K-means: • Dependence on initial starting conditions • Tendency to result in local minima • Determine the number of clusters k in advance • data sets consisting only of isotropic clusters
- 3. Background: Objective of unsupervised learning (2)Topology learning: Given some high-dimensional data distribution, find a topological structure that closely reflects the topology of the data distribution – SOM: self-organizing map • predetermined structure and size • posterior choice of class labels for the prototypes – CHL+NG: competitive Hebbian learning + neural gas • a priori decision about the network size • ranking of all nodes in each adaptation step • use of adaptation parameter – GNG: growing neural gas • permanent increase in the number of nodes • permanent drift of centers to capture input probability density
- 4. Background: Online or life-long learningFundamental issue (Stability-Plasticity Dilemma): How can a learning system adapt to new information without corrupting or forgetting previously learned information – GNG-U: deletes nodes which are located in regions of a low input probability density • learned old prototype patterns will be destroyed – Hybrid network: Fuzzy ARTMAP + PNN – Life-long learning with improved GNG: learn number of nodes needed for current task • only for supervised life-long learning
- 5. Objectives of proposed algorithm• To process the on-line non-stationary data.• To do the unsupervised learning without any priori condition such as: • suitable number of nodes • a good initial codebook • how many classes there are• Report a suitable number of classes• Represent the topological structure of the input probability density.• Separate the classes with some low-density overlaps• Detect the main structure of clusters polluted by noises.
- 6. Proposed algorithm First Layer Second LayerInput Growing First Growing Secondpattern Network Output Network Output Insert Delete Classify Node Node
- 7. Algorithms• Insert new nodes – Criterion: nodes with high errors serve as a criterion to insert a new node – error-radius is used to judge if the insert is successful• Delete nodes – Criterion: remove nodes in low probability density regions – Realize: delete nodes with no or only one direct topology neighbor• Classify – Criterion: all nodes linked with edges will be one cluster
- 8. Experiment• Stationary environment: patterns are randomly chosen from all area A, B, C, D and E• NON-Stationary environment: Environment I II III IV V VI VII A 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 B 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 C 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 D 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 E1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 E2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Original Data Set E3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
- 9. Experiment: Stationary environmentOriginal Data Set Traditional method: GNG
- 10. Experiment: Stationary environmentProposed method: first layer Proposed method: final results
- 11. Experiment: Non-stationary environment GNG result GNG-U result
- 12. Experiment: Non-stationary environment Proposed method: first layer
- 13. Experiment: Non-stationary environment Proposed method: first layer
- 14. Experiment: Non-stationary environmentProposed method: first layer Proposed method: Final output
- 15. Experiment: Non-stationary environmentNumber of growing nodes during online learning (Environment 1 ~ Environment 7)
- 16. Experiment: Real World Data(ATT_FACE)Facial Image (a) 10 classes (b) 10 samples of class 1
- 17. Experiment:Vector Vector of (a) Vector of (b)
- 18. Experiment: Face Recognition results 10 clusters Stationary Correct Recognition Ratio: 90% Non-Stationary Correct Recognition Ratio: 86%
- 19. Experiment: Vector Quantization Stationary Environment: Decoding Original Lena (512*512*8) image, 130 nodes, 0.45bpp, PSNR = 30.79dB
- 20. Experiment: Compare with GNG Stationary Environment Number bpp PSNR of Nodes First-layer 130 0.45 30.79 GNG 130 0.45 29.98 Second-layer 52 0.34 29.29 GNG 52 0.34 28.61
- 21. Experiment: Non-stationary EnvironmentFirst-layer: 499 nodes, 0.56bpp, Second-layer: 64 nodes, 0.375bpp,PSNR = 32.91dB PSNR = 29.66dB
- 22. Conclusion• An autonomous learning system for unsupervised classification and topology representation task• Grow incrementally and learn the number of nodes needed to solve current task• Accommodate input patterns of on-line non- stationary data distribution• Eliminate noise in the input data

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