Access to Information (A2I)
Zero Draft
28 January 2013
 Introduction: Objectives, Methodology and Limitation
 Global E-indices: Looking @ Asia
 Rethinking ICT Indicators: Les...
33 million services provided to citizens from UISC
20 million utility bill payments
2 million purchase orders under e-purj...
Encouraging facts positive rankings?
Rhetoric-reality gap
 Objectives: Branding Bangladesh / Tracking the Digital
Transformation of Bangladesh
◦ Boost Bangladesh’s ranking (not av...
World Economic
Forum’s Network
Readiness Index (NRI)
International
Telecommunication
Union’s ICT
Development Index
(IDI)
U...
Table 1: Rankings in the Network Readiness Index (NRI)
Countries NRI Sub-indices
Environment Readiness Usage
2012 2011 201...
Figure 1: Changes in the NRI Ranking
Swe
den
Sing
apor
e
Finla
nd
Bang
lade
sh
Cam
bodi
a
Chin
a
India
Mala
ysia
Nep
al
Pa...
Table 2: Rankings in the IDI and ICT Price Basket (IPB)
Countries1 IDI IDI Sub-index IPB*
Access Usage Skills
2011 2010 20...
Sout
h
Kor
ea
Swe
den
Den
mar
k
Bhu
tan
Cam
bodi
a
Chi
na
Indi
a
Mal
aysi
a
Mal
dive
s
Mya
nma
r
Nep
al
Paki
stan
Phili
pp...
Table 3: Rankings in the E-Government Development Index (EGDI)
Countries EGDI Sub-indices
Online service index Technologic...
Figure 3.1: Changes in the EGDI Ranking (2005-10)
Repu
blic
of
Kore
a
Neth
erlan
ds
UK
Afgh
anist
an
Bang
lades
h
Bhut
an
...
Figure 3.2: Changes in the EGDI Ranking (2010-12)
Rep
ublic
of
Kore
a
Neth
erla
nds
UK
Afgh
anist
an
Bang
lade
sh
Bhut
an
...
Countries
in Asia
EGDI Individual indices IDI Individual indices NRI Individual indices
Online Telecomm Human
Capital
Usag...
 Secondary evidences on the weaknesses of global e-indices calls for a
rethink (box 1)
 Minges (2005)
◦ The results of p...
Box 1: Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics
Why the discrepancy between the statistics and the rankings? For one
thing, there...
 Core ICT Indicators developed by the Partnership on Measuring
Information and Communication Technology for Development
(...
Box 2: Latest indicators for measuring Information Society
A1 Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants
A2 Mobile cellular...
 Identify the international Index/Indices to track
 Identify which data to feed to who and how
 Devise strategies to mo...
 Dutta, S. and Bilabao-Osario, B. (eds). (2012). The Global Information Technology
Report 2012. Living in a Hyperconnecte...
 OECD.(2012). Innovation and Inclusive Development. Conference Discussion Report.
Geneva: Organisation for Economics Coop...
Thank you
hasanuzzaman@a2i.pmo.gov.bd
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E indices jan22-2013

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Bangladesh in Global e-Rankings

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E indices jan22-2013

  1. 1. Access to Information (A2I) Zero Draft 28 January 2013
  2. 2.  Introduction: Objectives, Methodology and Limitation  Global E-indices: Looking @ Asia  Rethinking ICT Indicators: Lessons Learned  Looking Ahead  References
  3. 3. 33 million services provided to citizens from UISC 20 million utility bill payments 2 million purchase orders under e-purjee E-tender, railway tickets, online tax calculations
  4. 4. Encouraging facts positive rankings? Rhetoric-reality gap
  5. 5.  Objectives: Branding Bangladesh / Tracking the Digital Transformation of Bangladesh ◦ Boost Bangladesh’s ranking (not avoiding public service delivery)  Rethink and revisit the different indicators of e-indices  Identify changes of the latest rankings of the e-indices ◦ Feed what to who, and how  Methodology ◦ Blends in a mix of primary and secondary sources of info ◦ A tracer study: Tack the fastest movers (relative ranking) in Asia ◦ Top 3, bottom 5, and 15 countries of Asia  Limitations ◦ Time and space (audience) ◦ Avoids investigating methodological issues ◦ Falls short of drawing lessons from other countries
  6. 6. World Economic Forum’s Network Readiness Index (NRI) International Telecommunication Union’s ICT Development Index (IDI) UN’s E-Government Development Index (EGDI) Environment Readiness Usage Access Usage Skills Online service Technological Infrastructure Human Capital
  7. 7. Table 1: Rankings in the Network Readiness Index (NRI) Countries NRI Sub-indices Environment Readiness Usage 2012 2011 2012 2011 2012 2011 2012 2011 Top 3 Sweden 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 Singapore 2 2 1 4 8 1 5 4 Finland 3 3 2 3 2 2 4 6 Asia Bangladesh 113 115 123 115 103 104 108 122 Cambodia 108 111 89 109 106 111 111 110 China 51 36 64 57 66 16 51 36 India 69 48 78 58 64 33 78 67 Malaysia 29 28 23 36 55 10 29 25 Nepal 128 131 125 134 111 118 135 133 Pakistan 102 88 112 96 97 60 107 96 Philippines 86 86 111 94 77 99 86 71 Sri Lanka 71 66 71 75 67 42 71 82 Thailand 77 59 59 64 75 53 83 61 Vietnam 83 55 96 78 86 35 69 73 Bottom 5 Chad 138 138 139 138 130 137 140 137 Mauritania 139 130 135 124 137 133 138 128 Angola 140 133 141 135 139 127 130 130 Yemen 141 n/a 134 n/a 136 n/a 141 n/a Haiti 142 n/a 142 n/a 142 n/a 139 n/a
  8. 8. Figure 1: Changes in the NRI Ranking Swe den Sing apor e Finla nd Bang lade sh Cam bodi a Chin a India Mala ysia Nep al Paki stan Phili ppin es Sri Lank a Thail and Viet nam Cha d Maur itani a Ang ola NRI 0 0 0 2 3 -15 -21 -1 3 -14 0 -5 -18 -28 0 -9 -7 Environment -2 3 1 -8 20 -7 -20 13 9 -16 -17 4 5 -18 -1 -11 -6 Readiness 0 -7 0 1 5 -50 -31 -45 7 -37 22 -25 -22 -51 7 -4 -12 Usage 2 -1 2 14 -1 -15 -11 -4 -2 -11 -15 11 -22 4 -3 -10 0 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Extentofchange
  9. 9. Table 2: Rankings in the IDI and ICT Price Basket (IPB) Countries1 IDI IDI Sub-index IPB* Access Usage Skills 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 2010 2011 Top 3 South Korea 1 1 11 11 1 1 1 1 32 Sweden 2 2 6 6 2 2 16 16 9 Denmark 3 3 9 8 3 4 12 12 7 Asia Bangladesh n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 110 Bhutan 118 117 121 120 108 111 125 125 84 Cambodia 121 119 113 111 135 143 120 120 130 China 78 79 82 83 66 69 89 89 67 India 119 116 116 115 120 124 115 115 85 Malaysia 58 57 54 51 56 48 90 90 51 Maldives 72 72 63 62 73 81 102 102 44 Myanmar 131 129 149 148 155 155 111 111 n/a Nepal 137 134 138 136 129 127 130 129 132 Pakistan 127 125 119 113 127 128 142 142 112 Philippines 94 94 105 105 98 94 77 78 113 Sri Lanka 105 105 103 102 112 112 98 98 50 Thailand 92 89 91 89 100 95 62 64 78 Vietnam 81 86 85 84 76 79 101 101 106 Bottom 5 Burkina Faso 151 151 141 138 144 142 154 154 156 Eritrea 152 151 155 155 134 132 139 139 155 Central African Rep. 153 153 154 152 147 147 152 151 n/a Chad 154 155 153 152 147 147 152 151 n/a
  10. 10. Sout h Kor ea Swe den Den mar k Bhu tan Cam bodi a Chi na Indi a Mal aysi a Mal dive s Mya nma r Nep al Paki stan Phili ppin es Sri Lan ka Thai land Viet nam Bur kina Fas o Eritr ea Cen tral Afri can Rep. Cha d Nig er IDI 0 0 0 -1 -2 1 -3 -1 0 -2 -3 -2 0 0 -3 5 0 -1 0 1 -1 Access 0 0 -1 -1 -2 1 -1 -3 -1 -1 -2 -6 0 -1 -2 -1 -3 0 -2 -1 0 Usage 0 0 1 3 8 3 4 -8 8 0 -2 1 -4 0 -5 3 -2 -2 0 0 1 Skills 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Extentofchange Figure 2: Changes in the IDI Ranking
  11. 11. Table 3: Rankings in the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) Countries EGDI Sub-indices Online service index Technological Infrastructure Human Capital Index 2012 2010 2005* 2012 2010 2005* 2012 2010 2005* 2012 2010 2005* Top 3 Republic of Korea 1 1 5 1 1 4 7 13 10 6 7 23 Netherlands 2 5 12 5 12 20 8 2 9 10 9 15 UK 3 4 4 4 4 3 10 4 14 34 32 6 Asia Afghanistan 184 168 168 148 106 124 168 163 189 184 179 174 Bangladesh 150 134 162 88 60 158 164 161 179 173 167 159 Bhutan 152 152 130 110 114 72 139 139 153 170 164 156 Cambodia 155 140 128 161 135 110 154 166 173 144 135 138 China 78 72 57 62 55 42 87 89 77 106 98 99 India 125 119 87 58 55 38 145 147 141 158 147 150 Malaysia 40 32 43 20 16 40 57 52 42 109 96 93 Maldives 95 92 77 120 127 82 74 60 102 84 90 55 Myanmar 160 141 129 181 154 139 190 190 182 127 127 124 Nepal 164 153 126 141 125 69 167 171 172 163 152 153 Pakistan 156 146 136 106 100 65 135 131 146 175 168 171 Philippines 88 78 41 71 49 19 110 118 97 67 78 59 Sri Lanka 115 111 94 101 97 80 116 120 134 120 107 103 Thailand 92 76 46 67 67 26 103 94 76 104 66 78 Vietnam 83 90 105 95 79 115 69 79 120 116 114 100 Bottom 5 Sierra Leone 186 177 167 170 189 152 177 179 178 183 169 174 Haiti 187 169 n/a 185 181 181 160 135 155 181 161 157 Niger 188 183 174 160 172 189 180 184 170 189 183 181 Chad 189 182 169 182 181 186 181 177 187 186 180 170 Somalia 190 184 n/a 167 n/a 190 189 183 168 190 n/a 190
  12. 12. Figure 3.1: Changes in the EGDI Ranking (2005-10) Repu blic of Kore a Neth erlan ds UK Afgh anist an Bang lades h Bhut an Cam bodi a Chin a India Mala ysia Maldi ves Myan mar Nepa l Pakis tan Phili ppin es Sri Lank a Thail and Vietn am Sierr a Leon e Haiti Niger Chad EGDI 4 7 0 0 28 -22 -12 -15 -32 11 -15 -12 -27 -10 -37 -17 -30 15 -10 0 -9 -13 Online service 3 8 -1 18 98 -42 -25 -13 -17 24 -45 -15 -56 -35 -30 -17 -41 36 -37 0 17 5 Technological -3 7 10 26 18 14 7 -12 -6 -10 42 -8 1 15 -21 14 -18 41 -1 20 -14 10 Human Capital 16 6 -26 -5 -8 -8 3 1 3 -3 -35 -3 1 3 -19 -4 12 -14 5 -4 -2 -10 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Extentofchange
  13. 13. Figure 3.2: Changes in the EGDI Ranking (2010-12) Rep ublic of Kore a Neth erla nds UK Afgh anist an Bang lade sh Bhut an Cam bodi a Chin a India Mala ysia Mald ives Mya nma r Nep al Paki stan Phili ppin es Sri Lank a Thail and Viet nam Sierr a Leon e Haiti Nige r Cha d EGDI 0 3 1 -16 -16 0 -15 -6 -6 -8 -3 -19 -11 -10 -10 -4 -16 7 -9 -18 -5 -7 Online service 0 7 0 -42 -28 4 -26 -7 -3 -4 7 -27 -16 -6 -22 -4 0 -16 19 -4 12 -1 Technological 6 -6 -6 -5 -3 0 12 2 2 -5 -14 0 4 -4 8 4 -9 10 2 -25 4 -4 Human Capital 1 -1 -2 -5 -6 -6 -9 -8 -11 -13 6 0 -11 -7 11 -13 -38 -2 -14 -20 -6 -6 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Extentofchange
  14. 14. Countries in Asia EGDI Individual indices IDI Individual indices NRI Individual indices Online Telecomm Human Capital Usage Access Skills Environm ent Readiness Usage 2010-12 2005-10 2010-12 2005-10 2010-12 2005-10 2010-12 2005- 10 2010- 11 2010- 11 2010- 11 2010-11 2011-12 2011-12 2011-12 2011-12 Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Malaysia Maldives Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam Table 4: A Snapshot of E-Indices Movement in Asia Heterogeneity of indicators: limitations in conception and design
  15. 15.  Secondary evidences on the weaknesses of global e-indices calls for a rethink (box 1)  Minges (2005) ◦ The results of perception-based surveys are often strikingly different when compared to the actual situation of the infrastructure.  Three recommendations in making e-indices’ rankings credible. ◦ Non-objective; consistency; and, income adjusted rankings  Jensen and Amy (2009): Extrapolating a clear picture of how women’s access to ICTs is urgent Having to contend with a low income economy does not necessarily imply that progress cannot be made, as the case of Bangladesh suggests.
  16. 16. Box 1: Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics Why the discrepancy between the statistics and the rankings? For one thing, there is often a bias of quantity over quality. The rankings are typically designed to favour a common denominator of widely available indicators, rate high per capita values without adjusting for methodological discrepancies, and do not include adjustments for qualitative differences. Scorecards are not very useful in accurately measuring ICT achievements in some countries. Global rankings also appear to be biased in favour of theoretical perceptions of competitiveness rather than actual achievement. Source: ITU (2005b)
  17. 17.  Core ICT Indicators developed by the Partnership on Measuring Information and Communication Technology for Development (box 2)  Little evidence that larger number of indicators are better  Two suggested principles guiding selection of indicators: ◦ Coherent ◦ Inclusive  Beyond the three e-indices: LIRNEasia model? Others?
  18. 18. Box 2: Latest indicators for measuring Information Society A1 Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants A2 Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants A3 Fixed Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants A4 Fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants A5 Mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants A6 International Internet bandwidth per inhabitant (bits/second/inhabitant) A7 Percentage of the population covered by a mobile cellular telephone network A8 Fixed broadband Internet access tariffs per month in United States dollars and as a percentage of monthly per capita income A9 Mobile cellular telephone prepaid tariffs per month in United States dollars and as a percentage of monthly per capita income A10 Percentage of localities with public Internet access centres (PIACs) HH1 Proportion of households with a radio HH2 Proportion of households with a television HH3 Proportion of households with telephone HH4 Proportion of households with a computer HH5 Proportion of individuals who used a computer in the past 12 months HH6 Proportion of households with Internet access HH7 Proportion of individuals who used the Internet in the past 12 months HH8 Location of individual use of the Internet in the past 12 months HH9 Internet activities undertaken by individuals in the past 12 months HH10 Proportion of individuals who used a mobile cellular telephone in the past 12 months HH11 Proportion of households with access to the Internet by type of access HH12 Frequency of individual use of the Internet in the past 12 months B1 Proportion of businesses using computers B2 Proportion of persons employed routinely using computers B3 Proportion of businesses using the Internet B4 Proportion of persons employed routinely using the Internet
  19. 19.  Identify the international Index/Indices to track  Identify which data to feed to who and how  Devise strategies to move up in rankings ◦ study our competition ◦ take aggressive measures in addressing our weaknesses  Align our National ICT Policy and e-Service projects in different ministries ◦ Do not compromise our own national vision for e-development  Recognize the International e-Ranking Strategy for Bangladesh as a core focus area for Statistics and Informatics Division (SID)
  20. 20.  Dutta, S. and Bilabao-Osario, B. (eds). (2012). The Global Information Technology Report 2012. Living in a Hyperconnected World. Geneva: World Economic Forum (WEF) and INSEAD.  Dutta, S. and Mia, I. (eds). (2011). The Global Information Technology Report 2010-11. Transformations 2.0. Geneva: World Economic Forum (WEF) and INSEAD.  ITU (2012). Measuring Information Society. Geneva: International Telecommunication Union (ITU).  ITU (2005a). Measuring ICT: The global status of ICT indicators. Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. Geneva: International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Paper available online at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/partnership/material/05-42742%20GLOBAL%20ICT.pdf (Accessed on 29/12/2012).  ITU (2005b). “A New, Inclusive ICT Index.” Available online at http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/digitalbridges/docs/DAI-Ch5.pdf (Accessed on 01/01/2013).  Jensen, M. and M. Amy. (2009). “Measuring Progress: Towards better measures of global ICT adoption and use.” Paper available online at http://www.giswatch.org/sites/default/files/measuring_progress_0.pdf (Accessed on 29/12/2012).  Minges, M. (2005).“Evaluation of e-Readiness Indices in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Santiago: United Nations. Available online at - http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/0/24160/w73.pdf
  21. 21.  OECD.(2012). Innovation and Inclusive Development. Conference Discussion Report. Geneva: Organisation for Economics Cooperation and Development (OECD). Available online http://www.oecd.org/sti/innovationinsciencetechnologyandindustry/oecd- inclusive-innovation.pdf (Accessed on 29/12/2012).  Rue, L.F. (2011). “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of theright to freedom of opinion and expression.”Available online at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/17session/a.hrc.17.27_en.pdf (Accessed on 03/01/2013).  Samarajiva, R. (2012). “How the poor use ICTs: Findings from multi-country studies of Teleuse at the Bottom of the Pyramid.” Paper presented at the FAO Regional Workshop on Mobile Technologies for Food Security, Agriculture and Rural Development, 3-4, April 2012.  UN (2012). E-Government Survey. E-Government for the People. New York: United Nations (UN).  UN (2010). E-Government Survey: Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis. New York: United Nations (UN).  UN (2005). Global E-Government Readiness Report 2005.From E-Government to E- Inclusion. New York: United Nations.  WEF. (2011). The Future of Government: Lessons from Around the World. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Available online - http://www3.weforum.org/docs/EU11/WEF_EU11_FutureofGovernment_Report.pdf (Accessed on 03/01/2013).
  22. 22. Thank you hasanuzzaman@a2i.pmo.gov.bd

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