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Seminar PPT.pptx

  1. Visveshvaraya Technological University , Belagavi Government Engineering College , Hassan Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Technical Seminar On “BUBBLE POWER”(Other Source Of Nuclear Energy) Under the guidance of : Presented By : Mrs.Bhagyalakshmi R B.E,MTech Archana C S Assistant Professor 4GH18EC002 GEC Hassan
  2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Objectives  Basic requirements  Experimental set up  Working of Sonofusion  Advantages  Disadvantages  Applications  Future Developments  Conclusion  References
  3. INTRODUCTION  One of the conventional methods of producing bulk energy is nuclear power.  A new step that has developed in this field is ‘Bubble Power’ is the new energy source.  It is working under the principle of Sonofusion.  It was derived from the related phenomenon known as Sonoluminescence.  Sonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded by sound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse.
  4. SONOLUMINESCENCE  when a gas bubble in a liquid is excited by ultrasonic acoustic waves it can emit short flashes of light suggestive of extreme temperatures inside the bubble.  These flashes of light known as sonoluminescence, occur as the bubble implode or cavitates.  Sonoluminescence is also called single–bubble sonoluminescence involves a single gas bubble that is trapped inside the flask by a pressure field.  That is gas bubbles in a liquid can convert sound energy in to light.
  5. SONOFUSION  For several years Sonofusion Research team from various organization have joined force to create acoustic fusion technology energy consortium(AFTEC) to promote the development of sonofusion.  The idea Sonofusion was derived from related phenomenon Sonoluminescence.  In sonofusion a piezoelectric crystal attached to liquid-filled flask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting the motion of tiny gas bubbles.
  6. OBJECTIVES  Improving the harnessing efficiency of non-conventional energy sources like solar, wind etc. as a substitute for the conventional sources is under research.  One of the conventional methods of producing bulk energy is nuclear power. There are two types of nuclear reactions, namely fission & fusion. They are accompanied by the generation of enormous quantity of energy.
  7. BASIC REQUIREMENTS  Pyrex flask  Vacuum pump  Piezoelectric crystal  Wave generator  Amplifier  Neutron generator  Neutron and gamma ray detector  Photomultiplier  Microphone & speaker
  9. HOW SONOFUSION WORKS  Action of vacuum pump.  Fill the flask with deuterated acetone.  For initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHz applied to the ring.  Fire a pulsed neutron generator.
  10. ACTION OF VACUUM PUMP  The naturally occurring gas bubbles cannot withstand high temperature and pressure.  All the naturally occurring gas bubbles dissolved in the liquid are removed virtually by attaching a vacuum pump to the flask and acoustically agitating the liquid
  11. ACTION OF THE WAVE GENERATOR  To initiate the sonofusion process, we apply an oscillating voltage with a frequency of about 20,000 hertz to the piezoelectric ring.  The alternating contractions and expansions of the ring-and there by of the flask-send concentric pressure waves through the liquid.
  12. ACTION OF THE NEUTRON GENERATOR  Precisely when the pressure reaches its lowest point, a pulsed neutron generator is fired.  This is a commercially available, baseball bat size device that sits next to the flask.  The generator emits high-energy neutrons at 14.1 mega electron volts in a burst that lasts about six microseconds and that goes in all directions
  13. ACTION IN THE FLASK  Neutrons flying through athe flask create a bubble  The retrieve I  Hjji  Jbnnlklkmlk Stage (1) Stage(2) Stage(3) Stage(4)
  14. ACTION IN THE FLASK  STAGE(1) - Neutons flying through the flask create a bubble ciuster in the deuterated aceton liquid.  STAGE(2) - The negetive pressur in the liquid makes the bubble in size(from nano to millimeter-scale).  STAGE(3) - The liquide pressure turns positive and compresses the bubble,causng them to implode with great violence.  STAGE(4) – The implosion creates an instantaneous pressure of 10 trillion kilopascals and temperature of more than 100 million degree C, making the deuterium fuse.
  15. FUSION REACTION Nhnfgfhf Gndgfhjg Gdgjhjhg Hgjfgjfhj Hjgfjhjgfjhm Hgfjdjgjfj Deuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable outputs , helium and a 2.45 –MeV neutron or tritium and a proton. The energy of 2.45-MeV neutron can be harnessed in a reactor to create water vapor & drive an electricity generator.
  16. ADVANTAGES  It is self sustaining.  Easily control.  It Produce more energy that it consumes.  Low cost.  Easily available raw materials.  Environmental friendly.
  17. DISADVANTAGES  The neutrons emitted during implosion can possibly hit the other Pyrex flask apparatus when multiple reactors are aligned side by side.
  18. APPLICATIONS  User Thermonuclear fusion gives a new, safe, environmental friendly way to produce electrical energy.  This technology also could result in a new class of low cost, compact detectors for security applications.  Devices for research that use neutrons to analyze the molecular structure of materials.  A new technique to study various phenomenon in cosmology, including the working of neutron star and black holes.
  19. FUTUR DEVELOPMENT  One of the possible ways is to put two complete apparatuses side by side so that they would exchange neutrons and drive each other’s fusion reactions.  when the liquid pressure is low in one, it is high in the other. That is, their pressure oscillations are 180 degrees out of phase.  Suppose hit the first apparatus with neutrons from the external neutron generator, causing the bubble cluster to form inside the first flask.
  20. FUTUR DEVELOPMENT  Then turn off the neutron generator permanently.  As the bubble cluster grows and then implodes, it will give off neutrons, some of which will hit the neighboring flask.  If all is right, the neutrons will hit the second flask at the exact moment when it is at the lowest pressure, so that it creates a bubble cluster there.  If the process repeats, get a self-sustaining chain reaction.
  21. CONCLUSION  With the steady growth of world population and with economic progress in devoloping countries, average electricity consumption per person has increased significantly.  Therefore seeking new sources of energy just important, it is necessary.
  22. REFERENCES [1] Richard T.Lahey Jr, Rusi P. Taleyarkhan & Robert I. Nigmatulin , bubble power, IEEE spectrum, page no:30-35,May 2005. [2] Fuels and combustion, author Samir Sarkar. [3] Principles of Inorganic chemistry, authors-Puri, Sharma, Kalia. [4] [5] [6] [7]