What Is Six Sigma ?• A metric — standard deviations in a normal curve• A goal — 3.4 defects per million opportunities• A rigorous, process focused methodology– the DMAIC process• A managementphilosophyBusinessand/or CustomerRequirement123456Defects Good
Where Does Six Sigma Come From?• Necessity is the mother of invention Motorola was losing market share to foreign rivals who hadbetter quality and lower cost. A Japanese firm took over a Motorola television factory. Afterimplementing changes, the factory was producing with 1/20ththe defect rate. Same people, same equipment, samedesigns…..different management and different processes.• ―Our quality stinks.‖ — Art Sundry, Motorola
• Late 1970s Mikel Harry (the man with two first names), a senior staffengineer, is using statistical analysis for problem solving. He was working inthe Government Electronics Group (GEG)• Though certainly not the first to apply statistical thinking to manufacturinganalysis, he is the one who went on to refine a methodology and then call it―Six Sigma.‖ He wrote an internal paper called ―The Strategic Vision forAccelerating Six Sigma Within Motorola."Who Developed Six Sigma ?
• Bill Smith and throughput yield:– Motorola had quality issues even on products that hadhighly capable processes. Why?– Bill Smith (sometimes referred to as the father of SixSigma) examines the issue.– Individual yields are combined into a ―rolledthroughput yield.‖ (So a 100-component product withindividual yields of 99.9% still only gives a completedproduct with 90% reliability.)– He also developed many of the tools and techniques thatbecame the Six Sigma methodology.Why Six of Those Sigmas ?
Six Sigma Early Development• By the mid-1980s, Bob Galvin, Motorola CEO, has the company focused onimproving quality.• 1988, Motorola wins the first Malcolm Baldridge Quality Award. Part ofwinning this national quality award is the agreement to share the methods usedto achieve the high levels of quality.• Other companies initiate ―Six Sigma‖ programs, notably Larry Bossidy at AlliedSignal.• Larry tells his friend Jack Welch about it. Jack applies it at GE in a very big,very GE way.
Six Sigma’s MethodologiesSix SigmaProcess ManagementImprove EXISTINGprocesses so thattheir outputs meetcustomerrequirementsControl and manage cross-functionprocesses to meet business goalsDesignNEW productsand processesthat meetcustomer needs
• Project management• Voice of the Customer• Process mapping• Data collection• Data graphs• Gage R&R• Operational definitions• Process Capability Assessment• Hypothesis testing• Regression analysis• Designed experiments• Statistical process control• FMEA• Stakeholder analysis• Implementation planning• Tollgate reviewsCommon Six Sigma Toolsnothing new here . . .
MeasureCol # 1 2 3 4 5 6Inspector A BSample # 1st Trial 2nd Trial Diff 1st Trial 2nd Trial Diff1 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 0.02 2.0 3.0 1.0 2.5 2.5 0.03 1.5 1.0 0.5 2.0 1.5 0.54 3.0 3.0 0.0 2.0 2.5 0.55 2.0 1.5 0.5 1.5 0.5 1.0Totals 10.5 9.5 3.0 9.5 8.5 2.0Averages 2.1 1.9 0.6 1.9 1.7 0.4Sum 4.0 Sum 3.6XA 2.0 XB 1.8RARBValidate MeasurementSystemsDisplay Data01000-100010 20 30UCLXLCLD B F A C E OtherIdentify the MetricsData Collection PlanOperational Definition and ProceduresData Collection PlanWhat questions do you want to answer?DataWhat Measure type/Data typeHowmeasuredRelatedconditionsSamplingnotesHow/whereHow will you ensureconsistency and stability?What is your plan forstarting data collection?How will the data be displayed?Prioritize the MetricsI1I2I3I4O1 O2 O3 O4FMEAIdentify Process CapabilityLSL USLCp = 0.4s = 2.7MeasuretheprocessI P OInputMeasuresProcessMeasuresOutputMeasures
A Philosophy ?• Identify the process and customers right up front.• Time spent identifying root causes and not just symptoms is time well spent.D, M, A, then I !!• ―Show me the Data !‖ (valid data please)• Great ideas with poor support will fail.• Put good people in a bad process and the process will win every time.• Y = f (x)
An Illustrative Project ExamplePROCESSESTOOLSSKILLSTRAININGLEAN SIGMA(DMAIC +)Integrated ImprovementY1y1VOICE OF...• MarketCustomer•Employee••BusinessFEEDBACKCORE & ENABLING PROCESSESPROCESSMAPS SYSTEMSEXECUTION (PROCESS MANAGEMENT)WORKOUTSIX SIGMALEAN SIGMASTRATEGYIf new productor processBig Y’sSub Y’sPROCESSDFSS (DMADV)Fundamental RedesignDRIVESSUPPORTSFlexible Problem Solving ModelsY1y1VOICE OF...• Market• Customer• Employee• BusinessBUSINESSOBJECTIVESRESULTS:Top-LevelIndicators(Dashboards)PROCESSMAPSSYSTEMSPROCESS IMPROVEMENTSTRATEGYIf new productor processProjectsPROCESSDFSSDRIVESSUPPORTSPROCESSCONTROLALIGNMENTSIX SIGMA(DMAIC)Incremental ImprovementGE WORKOUTQuick WinsAccelerated ImprovementThe power of the Lean Tools &Principles fully integrated intoDMAIC & DFSSThe power of the Lean Tools &Principles fully integrated intoDMAIC & DFSS