Under the guidance of:
Miss Ankita Govind
Indian Scenario of
Type II Diabetes
Food intake and the environment are the main factors that
affect the health or illness of an individual. However, after
Human Genome Project (HGP), a new insights about the
influence of nutrients into people’s diet were postulated
Will gene expression in response to metabolic process
influence the health of an individual?
Are gene expression and metabolic response the result
of interaction between genotype and nutrient?
How this interaction process occurs between nutrient
The total complements of genes in
an organism or cell is known as
genome, which may be stored in
one or more chromosomes.
A chromosome is a package and
organized structure containing most
of DNA of organism.
It consist of a single, very long helix
of which thousands of genes are
A single human cell contains
approximately 2m long single
thread of DNA distributed among its
46 (23 pairs) chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) is a
chain made from 4 types of
nucleotide subunits each
composed of a five-carbon sugar
(2-deoxyribose), a phosphate
group, and one of four
nitrogenous bases; adenine,
cytosine, guanine and thiamine.
The two chains are twisted around
The length of DNA is usually
defined as number of nucleotides
(or a pair of nucleotide referred to
as base pairs) present in it.
A gene is a locus(region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA
or protein product and is molecular unit of heredity. The location
of a particular gene is called as allele.
The transmission of gene is basis of inheritance of phenotypic
Humans carry 20,000-25,000 gene.
In 1990 HGP set out sequence of complete human genome
within ten years.
Nutrigenomics is the branch of nutritional genomics and
is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents
on gene expression. This means that nutrigenomics
focuses on understanding molecular-level interaction
between nutrient and other dietary bioactives with
It brings together the science of bioinformatics,
nutrition, molecular biology, genomics, epidemiology,
proteomics, metaboliomics , and transcriptomics.
1869 First Isolation of DNA:
1st Apr 1869, first DNA isolation from
pus-filled bandage by Swiss doctor
Friedrich Miescher. He named it ‘nuclein’.
1953 Discovery of DNA Structure:
25th Apr 1953, James Watson and Francis
Crick published “The Molecular Structure
of Nucleic Acid:DNA” and gave double helix
1999 Nutrigenomics First
1st Mar 1999 Nancy Fagg-Johnson and
Alex Merolli used for publication in
March 2000 issue of NutraCeutical
2003 US Nutrigenomic Center:
27th Jan 2003 US Nutrigenomic
center opens. The National Center of
Excellence in Nutritional Genomics.
2003 Human Genome Published:
24th Apr 2003 Human Genome
Project started in 1990 completed.
2004 European Nutrigenomics
2nd Jan 2004 NuGO started as a
project and now it is an association
of universities and research
2007 Nestle teams up with
23rd Nov 2007 Nestle Research Center
joined industrial platform of Kluyver
Center of Genomics of Industrial
Fermentation, Netherlands. Also joined
by Akzo Nobel DSM, Friesland Foods,
Heineken, and Tate & Lyle.
2008 UCB Predicted Human
11th Jul 2008 University of California,
Barkeley stated ready-to-use HGT kit
would be available to purchase within
2011 Metabolic Typing:
3rd Feb 2011, Metabolic typing
promises personalized nutrition. Its
funded by NuGO led by ZIEL Research
Center of Nutrition and Food Science,
2015 Nutrigenomic Foods:
28th Feb 2015, Nutrigenomic Foods fill
Indian Scenario of Increasing Rates
of Chronic Diseases
In India, the rates of fatal diseases are lower than those
in Western countries.
Rate is increasing with increasing migration of rural
population to cities and changing lifestyle.
India has some of the highest Coronary Heart
Diseases(CHD) rates in the world.
Rates for obesity and diabetes are increasing
dramatically in urban and high-income rural residences.
Diet appears to be related to high rates, although a
genetic component may exist in some cases.
Therefore, a general awareness of diet and diet related
problems leading to gene alteration has to known.
Throughout 20th century, Nutritional Science focused on
finding vitamins and minerals, defining their use and
preventing the deficiency diseases that they caused.
As nutrition related health problems of the developed
world shifted to over-nutrition the focus of modern
medicine and Nutritional Science changed.
Nutrigenomics involves the characterization of gene
products, their physiological function and their
With information obtained from HGP, it was found that
humans have 99.9% identity and Single Nucleotide
Polymorphisms(SNPs) are reason for 0.1% variation in
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism, pronounced as
‘snips’) is a DNA sequence variation occurring commonly
within a population in which a single nucleotide in the
genome differs between members of a biological species
or paired chromosomes.
Scientists have identified about 1.4 million locations
where single base DNA differences occur in humans.
An example comes from the work showing caffeine can
minimize heart attack risk. Its only for those with a fast
version of CYPIA2 gene(gene responsible for breakdown
of caffeine in liver) while for those with slow version the
same amount may increase the risk.
Recent studies showed that 80% of difference observed in Body
Mass Index(BMI) of twins are related to genetic factors.
As obesity causes a chronic process of inflammation.
Some food contains anti-inflammatory bio-actives which acts
inhibiting the expression of COX2 and iNOS genes through
reducing the translocation of Kappa-B nuclear factor from the
cytoplasm to the nucleus
Primary mechanism of gene expression modulation is during
transcription where the synthesis of inflammatory mediator
Earlier studies showed that the deficiency of
micronutrients such as folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, C, E,
zinc, selenium, and niacin can cause changes into the
DNA similar to what seen after radiation exposure.
These alterations can lead to rupture of DNA structure,
oxidative lesion or both, and narrowly related to
development of cancer.
Various minerals work as protector against cancer
Selenium-stimulates production of glutathione
peroxidase to reduce H2O2 and maintain cell integrity.
Prostacyclin-decreases oxidative damage of DNA,
lipids and lipoproteins.
Zinc-maintain genomic stability, genetic expression
and apoptosis modulation.
Type II Diabetes
Diabetes count for more than 90% of all diseases of the
Genomic study showed that there are 65 SNPs
associated with the risk of developing Type II Diabetes.
Gene-diet interaction studies revealed that the
adiponectin gene polymorphism contributed to insulin
resistance and this was exaggerated in those consuming
diets with higher glycemic loads.
With the advances of genome sequencing and the
decoding of human genome, tests for the detection of
SNPs related to Type II Diabetes became available to
The practical applications of nutrigenomics involve the use
of genetic predisposition to diseases that can be mitigated
or modulated with dietary interventions in a clinical or
direct-to-consumer (DTC) context. The potential of
nutrigenomics for the food industry is to provide good
tasting products formulated to the scientific targets.
Consumers have and will continue to expect sensory
satisfaction from foods even foods for health.
Conclusion and Perspective
Nutrigenomics shows a new way of working with nutrition
and, now the knowledge of how food interferes with the
genetic code and how the organism responds to these
interferences and with the phenotype can be clarified. The
ultimate aim of this emerging field of science is prevention
than cure. This is very similar to the dictum of Father of
Medicine-Hippocrates(400-360BC), who said “Leave your
drugs in the chemist’s pot if you can heal the patient with