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Nutrigenomics

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the new emerging field of science that is nutrigenomics can deal with the issues of health and improve out health with the simple tools by understanding the risk and the baic genome of a person

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Nutrigenomics

  1. 1. Nutrigenomics Under the guidance of: Dr. P.A.Pawar Delivered by: Miss Ankita Govind Chaudhari
  2. 2. Index  Introduction  Nutrigenomics  Genes  Nutrigenomic Timeline  Indian Scenario of Increasing Chronic Diseases  Nutrigenomic Overview  Single Nucleotide Polymorphism(SNPs)  Obesity  Cancer  Type II Diabetes  Food Industry  Conclusion and Perspective
  3. 3. Introduction Food intake and the environment are the main factors that affect the health or illness of an individual. However, after Human Genome Project (HGP), a new insights about the influence of nutrients into people’s diet were postulated which included  Will gene expression in response to metabolic process influence the health of an individual?  Are gene expression and metabolic response the result of interaction between genotype and nutrient?  How this interaction process occurs between nutrient and gene?
  4. 4. Chromosomes  The total complements of genes in an organism or cell is known as genome, which may be stored in one or more chromosomes.  A chromosome is a package and organized structure containing most of DNA of organism.  It consist of a single, very long helix of which thousands of genes are encodes.  A single human cell contains approximately 2m long single thread of DNA distributed among its 46 (23 pairs) chromosomes.
  5. 5. DNA  Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) is a chain made from 4 types of nucleotide subunits each composed of a five-carbon sugar (2-deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases; adenine, cytosine, guanine and thiamine.  The two chains are twisted around each other.  The length of DNA is usually defined as number of nucleotides (or a pair of nucleotide referred to as base pairs) present in it.
  6. 6. Genes  A gene is a locus(region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product and is molecular unit of heredity. The location of a particular gene is called as allele.  The transmission of gene is basis of inheritance of phenotypic traits.  Humans carry 20,000-25,000 gene.  In 1990 HGP set out sequence of complete human genome within ten years.
  7. 7. Nutrigenomics  Nutrigenomics is the branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression. This means that nutrigenomics focuses on understanding molecular-level interaction between nutrient and other dietary bioactives with genome.  It brings together the science of bioinformatics, nutrition, molecular biology, genomics, epidemiology, proteomics, metaboliomics , and transcriptomics.
  8. 8. Nutrigenomic Timeline 1999 1953 1869 2003 2003 2007 2004 2011 2008 2015
  9. 9. 1869 First Isolation of DNA: 1st Apr 1869, first DNA isolation from pus-filled bandage by Swiss doctor Friedrich Miescher. He named it ‘nuclein’.
  10. 10. 1953 Discovery of DNA Structure: 25th Apr 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published “The Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acid:DNA” and gave double helix nature.
  11. 11. 1999 Nutrigenomics First Appeared: 1st Mar 1999 Nancy Fagg-Johnson and Alex Merolli used for publication in March 2000 issue of NutraCeutical World.
  12. 12. 2003 US Nutrigenomic Center: 27th Jan 2003 US Nutrigenomic center opens. The National Center of Excellence in Nutritional Genomics.
  13. 13. 2003 Human Genome Published: 24th Apr 2003 Human Genome Project started in 1990 completed.
  14. 14. 2004 European Nutrigenomics Organization Established: 2nd Jan 2004 NuGO started as a project and now it is an association of universities and research institutes globally.
  15. 15. 2007 Nestle teams up with Genomics Super-League: 23rd Nov 2007 Nestle Research Center joined industrial platform of Kluyver Center of Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, Netherlands. Also joined by Akzo Nobel DSM, Friesland Foods, Heineken, and Tate & Lyle.
  16. 16. 2008 UCB Predicted Human Genome Test(HGT): 11th Jul 2008 University of California, Barkeley stated ready-to-use HGT kit would be available to purchase within 5yrs.
  17. 17. 2011 Metabolic Typing: 3rd Feb 2011, Metabolic typing promises personalized nutrition. Its funded by NuGO led by ZIEL Research Center of Nutrition and Food Science, Germany.
  18. 18. 2015 Nutrigenomic Foods: 28th Feb 2015, Nutrigenomic Foods fill the supermarkets.
  19. 19. Indian Scenario of Increasing Rates of Chronic Diseases  In India, the rates of fatal diseases are lower than those in Western countries.  Rate is increasing with increasing migration of rural population to cities and changing lifestyle.  India has some of the highest Coronary Heart Diseases(CHD) rates in the world.  Rates for obesity and diabetes are increasing dramatically in urban and high-income rural residences.  Diet appears to be related to high rates, although a genetic component may exist in some cases. Therefore, a general awareness of diet and diet related problems leading to gene alteration has to known.
  20. 20. Nutrigenomic Overview  Throughout 20th century, Nutritional Science focused on finding vitamins and minerals, defining their use and preventing the deficiency diseases that they caused.  As nutrition related health problems of the developed world shifted to over-nutrition the focus of modern medicine and Nutritional Science changed.  Nutrigenomics involves the characterization of gene products, their physiological function and their interaction.  With information obtained from HGP, it was found that humans have 99.9% identity and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms(SNPs) are reason for 0.1% variation in genome.
  21. 21. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)  SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism, pronounced as ‘snips’) is a DNA sequence variation occurring commonly within a population in which a single nucleotide in the genome differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes.  Scientists have identified about 1.4 million locations where single base DNA differences occur in humans.  An example comes from the work showing caffeine can minimize heart attack risk. Its only for those with a fast version of CYPIA2 gene(gene responsible for breakdown of caffeine in liver) while for those with slow version the same amount may increase the risk.
  22. 22. Obesity  Recent studies showed that 80% of difference observed in Body Mass Index(BMI) of twins are related to genetic factors.  As obesity causes a chronic process of inflammation.  Some food contains anti-inflammatory bio-actives which acts inhibiting the expression of COX2 and iNOS genes through reducing the translocation of Kappa-B nuclear factor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus  Primary mechanism of gene expression modulation is during transcription where the synthesis of inflammatory mediator occurs.
  23. 23. Cancer  Earlier studies showed that the deficiency of micronutrients such as folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, C, E, zinc, selenium, and niacin can cause changes into the DNA similar to what seen after radiation exposure.  These alterations can lead to rupture of DNA structure, oxidative lesion or both, and narrowly related to development of cancer.  Various minerals work as protector against cancer development:  Selenium-stimulates production of glutathione peroxidase to reduce H2O2 and maintain cell integrity.  Prostacyclin-decreases oxidative damage of DNA, lipids and lipoproteins.  Zinc-maintain genomic stability, genetic expression and apoptosis modulation.
  24. 24. Type II Diabetes  Diabetes count for more than 90% of all diseases of the world.  Genomic study showed that there are 65 SNPs associated with the risk of developing Type II Diabetes.  Gene-diet interaction studies revealed that the adiponectin gene polymorphism contributed to insulin resistance and this was exaggerated in those consuming diets with higher glycemic loads.  With the advances of genome sequencing and the decoding of human genome, tests for the detection of SNPs related to Type II Diabetes became available to public.
  25. 25. Food Industry The practical applications of nutrigenomics involve the use of genetic predisposition to diseases that can be mitigated or modulated with dietary interventions in a clinical or direct-to-consumer (DTC) context. The potential of nutrigenomics for the food industry is to provide good tasting products formulated to the scientific targets. Consumers have and will continue to expect sensory satisfaction from foods even foods for health.
  26. 26. Conclusion and Perspective Nutrigenomics shows a new way of working with nutrition and, now the knowledge of how food interferes with the genetic code and how the organism responds to these interferences and with the phenotype can be clarified. The ultimate aim of this emerging field of science is prevention than cure. This is very similar to the dictum of Father of Medicine-Hippocrates(400-360BC), who said “Leave your drugs in the chemist’s pot if you can heal the patient with food”.
  27. 27. Any Queries???.....
  28. 28. Thank You

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