What is CFD??
• Computational Fluid Dynamics is “a
wind tunnel in the computer.”
• It is a method by which one uses certain algorithms or other
numerical formulas to analyze the fluids' flow.
• We can say it is the smoke profile made in computer.
ExamPLEs OF aPPLiCatiONs OF CFDExamPLEs OF aPPLiCatiONs OF CFD
Why it is NECEssary??
To improve product performance & quality.
To Reduce development costs.
To Reduce lead-times and “time-to-market”
To get optimal results.
CFD software is portable, easy to use.
We can modify the geometry if not satisfied
with the results.
Simulations are parallel and multiple-purpose.
How does it works?
The analysis begins with building the computer simulated model of a
Conservation of matter, momentum, and energy must be satisfied throughout
the region of interest.
Fluid and model properties are defined.
Simplifying assumptions are made in order to make the problem tractable
(e.g., steady-state, incompressible, two-dimensional).
Initial and boundary conditions are provided.
The computer software divide geometric structure into specific cells or grids.
The set of algebraic equations are solved numerically to calculate the
quantities on each of the cell.
The resulting data is used to compute the quantities of interest (like- mass,
momentum, pressure, lift, drag etc.) and effects of all of these on the model
mesh (5 million cells)
model of ship
- The higher number of cells, gives more accurate results.
- CFD also concern with the ignition process of gasoline in
order to create power.
- It gives Simulations of hot exhaust gases, engine cooling,
brake heating/cooling events, tire deformations, and fuel
filling and sloshing.
How does it works?
Domain is discretized into a finite set of control volumes or cells. This process
is called as meshing.
The meshing is classified in two main groups-
Unstructured meshing Structured meshing
The structured meshing is again then classified into following sub-types-
prism or wedgehexahedron arbitrary
For simple geometries, quadrilateral or hexahedron meshes can provide
high-quality solutions with fewer cells.
For complex geometries, quadrilateral or hexahedron meshes show no
numerical advantage, and you can save meshing effort by using a
triangular or tetrahedron meshes.
Compute the solution
The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively. A
number of iterations are usually required to reach a converged
Convergence is reached when:
Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are
Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend.
Overall property conservation is achieved.
The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon:
Appropriateness and accuracy of the physical models.
Grid resolution and independence.
BMW Sauber F1 Team- Albert series.
Renault F1 team- Mistral
Force India Formula One Team- eka
Products by CRAY supercomputers.
Results are usually reviewed in one of two ways. Graphically or Alpha-numerically.
– Vector plots.
– Flow lines.
– Integral values.
– Drag, lift, torque calculations.
– Averages, standard deviations.
– Minima, maxima.
– Compare with experimental data.
Contours of static pressure
It improves the aerodynamic efficiency and capability of racecar.
It enhance the understanding of how various designs will perform.
The more experiments are done in shorter amount f time.
It is capable of analyzing overtaking conditions.
Gives Better fuel economy & limit CO2 emissions.
The millions of calculations are required to
be done to get the result.
It is very complex.
It's not 100% effective.
In this way, we can conclude that the Use of CFD is
very essential in the design of racecar.
It has many advantages and it also saves time and
It reduces human efforts with improved efficiency.
Supercomputing in F1 – Unlocking the Power of CFD
Motor Sport Drives CFD Technology to a New Level(2008)
Computational Fluid Dynamics in Formula 1 Design (1999)
How Does CFD Work? (5th