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Report on additive manufacturing, 3-D Printing and Rapid prototyping


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Technology of additive manufacturing, 3-D printing and rapid prototyping

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Report on additive manufacturing, 3-D Printing and Rapid prototyping

  1. 1. KRISHNA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, GHAZIABAD Seminar on “ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING” Submitted by: Submitted to: Harsh Kumar Mr. Arunesh Chandra Roll No.- 1202940074 ME Dept. Sec. A , ME(3rd year)
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. History 2. Introduction 3. Additive manufacturing techniques 4. Advantages 5. Disadvantages 6. Applications 7. Scope of additive manufacturing 8. References
  3. 3. HISTORY The technology for printing physical 3D objects from digital data was first developed by Charles Hull in 1984. He named the technique stereolithography and obtained a patent for the technique in 1986. The same year, he founded 3D Systems and developed the first commercial 3D Printing machine. AM processes for metal sintering or melting (such as selective laser sintering, direct metal laser sintering, and selective laser melting) usually went by their own individual names in the 1980s and 1990s. Nearly all metalworking production at the time was by casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining; even though plenty of automation was applied to those technologies (such as by robot welding and CNC), the idea of a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer was associated by most people only with processes that removed metal (rather than adding it), such as CNC milling, CNC EDM, and many others. Charles Hull
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION The process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies is known as Additive Manufacturing. Synonyms: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive layer manufacturing, layer manufacturing and freeform fabrication. As an Enabling Technology AM is used in a broad spectrum of manufacturing. Illustration of this process
  5. 5. Steps For Additive Manufacturing 1. Generate a 3D model Draw a 3D model of product on any software such as CAD, Solid Works etc. 2. Generation of STL(Stereolithography) file The STL (stereo lithography) file format is supported by many other software packages; it is widely used for rapid prototyping and computer- aided manufacturing (CAM). STL files describe only the surface geometry of a three dimensional object without any representation of color, texture or other common CAD model attributes. *An STL file describes a raw unstructured triangulated surface by the unit normal and vertices (ordered by the right-hand rule) of the triangles using a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Fig. STL File
  6. 6. 3. Software slices the 3D model into thin slices Fig. Slicing of 3D model Now computer scans this area and give instructions to printer or machine to procced for further operations. 4. Machine builds it layer by layer 5. Cleanup and post curing 6. Surface finishing
  7. 7. Additive Manufacturing technologies and their base materials : 1. 3D Printing (3DP): Various materials, including resins 2. 3D Ceramic Printing: Various clay and ceramic materials 3. Selective laser sintering (SLS): Thermoplastics, metals, sand and glass 4. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): Thermoplastics 5. Stereolithography (SL): Photopolymer 6. Laminated object manufacturing(LOM): Laminate sheets, often paper, and glue 7. Electron Beam Melting (EBM): Titanium alloys Machine Cost Response Time Material Application Fused Deposition Modeler 1600 (FDM) $10/hr 2 weeks ABS or Casting Wax Strong Parts Casting Patterns Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) $18/hr 1 week Paper (wood- like) Larger Parts Concept Models Sanders Model Maker 2 (Jet) $3.30/hr 5 weeks Wax Casting Pattern
  8. 8. Selective Laser Sintering 2000 (SLS) $44/hr 1 week Polycarbonate TrueForm SandForm light: 100%; margin: 0">Casting Patterns Concept Models Stereolithography 250 (SLA) $33/hr 2 weeks Epoxy Resin (Translucent) Thin walls Durable Models Z402 3-D Modeller (Jet) $27.50/hr 1 week Starch/Wax Concept Models 1. Selective laser sintering (SLS) This is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a high power laser to fuse small particles of plastic, metal, ceramic or glass powder into the desired 3-D shape. The laser selectively fuses the material by scanning cross sections generated from a 3-D digital description of the part, for example a CAD file. It can be used for both thermoplastics and metal. Powder is fed into a continuous layer. Laser is used to fuse/sinter powder particles layer-by-layer. Produces functional parts. Layer thickness 0.004” or less.
  9. 9. Fig. SLS Manufacturing Technique SLS Samples: A Basket A complex model
  10. 10. 2. Electronic beam melting (EBM) This solid freeform fabrication method produces fully dense meta, parts directly from metal powder. The EMB machine reads data from a 3-D CAD model and lays down successive layers of powdered material. The layers are melted together with the help of a computer controlled electron beam. This way it builds up the parts. The process takes place under a vacuum, which makes it suited to manufacture parts made out of reactive materials • Dispensed metal powder in layers • Cross-section molten in a high vacuum with a focused electron beam • Process repeated until part is completed • Stainless steel, Titanium, Tungsten parts • Ideal for medical implants and injection molds • Still very expensive process Fig. EBM manufacturing technique
  11. 11. EBM samples:
  12. 12. 3. 3D Printing(3DP) Fig. 3D Printing technology • Layer of powder is first spread across build area • Inkjet-like printing of binder over the part cross-section • Repetition of the process with the next layer • Can produce multi-colored parts • Useful only for presentation media • Lowest resolution of all techniques • Market Leader: Z-Corp
  13. 13. 3D Printing samples: Piston with cam-follower Morongo Casino, Palm Springs, Model 4. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers. A plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to an extrusion nozzle. The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved horizontally and vertically. The part, or model, is produced by extruding mall beads of thermoplastic material to form layers and the material hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle. • Extruder on a cartesian robot • Extrudes thermoplast polymers “spaghetti” • Moderately fast and inexpensive • Stratasys is the market leader • Functional parts, ABS and nylon • Best choice for mechanical engineers and product developers • Can be used for direct digital manufacturing
  14. 14. • Systems starting from $14,000 Fig. FDM manufacturing technique FDM samples Internal gear A Model
  15. 15. 5. Laminated Object Modeling (LOM) In some printers, paper can be used as the build material, resulting in a lower cost to print. During the 1990s some companies marketed printers that cut cross sections out of special adhesive coated paper using a carbon dioxide laser and then laminated them together. In 2005 Mcor Technologies Ltd developed a different process using ordinary sheets of office paper, a tungsten carbide blade to cut the shape, and selective deposition of adhesive and pressure to bond the prototype. There are also a number of companies selling printers that print laminated objects using thin plastic and metal sheets. • Object made by deposition and cutting of layers of tapes • Introduced in 1991 by Helisys Inc of Torrance. • Cubic and Helisys offer this technology • Slow, sharp edges • Research on composites prepregnated moldless manufacturing • Inexpensive depending on accuracy, large scale models possible • Slow and inaccurate (knives vs lasers)
  16. 16. Fig. LOM manufacturing technique LOM samples Fig. 1- parts made up of plastics 2-model made up of paper 3-model made up of paper
  17. 17. 6. Stereolithography (SLA) Stereolithography is a process for creating three-dimensional objects using a computer-controlled laser to build the required structure, layer by layer. It does this by using a resin known as liquid photopolymer that hardens when in contact with the air. • Patented in 1986 • 3D System is the market leader • Highest resolution and smoothness • UV Laser beam cure cross-sections of parts in a liquid batch of photoreactive resin • Subvariants: DLP entire layer projection Fig. SLA manufacturing technique
  18. 18. SLA samples An aeroplane model Nokia Lumia 820 Case ADVANTAGES OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING  Adopted 3D printing as a way to increase innovation.  Mechanical properties of products are more as compared to that which are made by conventional process.  Reduce costs and speed up the process.  3D models of buildings can be easily created and edited as plans develop something that used to take a significant amount of time to make.  Freedom of creation of more complex geometries.  More Complex Geometries  Internal Features & Structures  Parts Consolidation
  19. 19.  Enables business models used for 2D printing, such as for photographs, to be applied to physical components Fig. 2D Printing  The unattainable triangle of speed, price and quality.  Eliminates drivers to concentrate production  “Design Anywhere / Manufacture Anywhere” is now possible  Manufacture at the point of need rather than at lowest labor location  Changing “Just-in-Time Delivery” to “Manufactured-on- Location Just-in-Time” DISADVANTAGES OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING  Construction of large parts is not possible but research are going to make large machines.  Machine cost is high  The current slow print speed of 3D printers limits their use for mass production.
  20. 20. APPLICATIONS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING  Medical procedures  Advances in research  Product prototyping  Historic Preservation  Architectural Engineering Construction  Advanced Manufacturing  Food Industries  Automotive  Accessories
  21. 21. 1. Architectural Engineering Construction Morongo Casino, Palm Springs, Model Morongo Casino, Palm Springs 2. Automotive Fig. Engine model Fig. Tyre rim
  22. 22. 3. Medical procedures Bespoke Entire titanium jaw SCOPE OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
  23. 23.  First ever 3-D printed car.  Urbee is the first prototype car ever to have its entire body 3D printed with an additive process. All exterior components, including the glass panel prototypes, were created using Dimension 3D Printers and Fortus 3D Production Systems at Stratasys' digital manufacturing service. Fig. URBEE- First 3D printed car  3-D printed Buildings?  Architect Enrico Dini is planning to build the first ever 3-D printed building with the help of fellow architects.
  24. 24. REFERENCES  Professor John Hart(, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology(MIT)  Wright, Paul K. (2001). 21st Century manufacturing. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.  Lipson, Hod, Francis C. Moon, Jimmy Hai, and Carlo Paventi. (2007) "3D-Printing the History of Mechanisms." Journal of Science.