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Introduction to Civil Engineering (Harsh Gupta)


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basic about civil engineering.

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Introduction to Civil Engineering (Harsh Gupta)

  2. 2. What is Civil Engineering? • Civil Engineering is broad field of engineering, which deals with the planning, construction and maintenance of structures or public works as they are related earth, water or in space.
  3. 3. Specializations in Civil Engineering o Structural Engineering o Transportation Engineering o Geotechnical Engineering o Water Resource/Irrigation Engineering o Remote Sensing/Geo- informatics/Surveying o Environmental Engineering o Earthquake Engineering o Geology Engineering o Project Management/Construction Management o Maintenance Engineering o And so on…!
  4. 4. ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERS… o Preparation of layout of open plot: He has to do survey of the open plot or the purposed construction site, obtain the details and finally prepare a layout on paper to a suitable scale. o Preparation and approval of plan: Civil engineers prepares plans on the layout of the proposed construction project and sends it for approval. o Preparation of structural design and estimation of cost: After construction or approval of plan; he prepares the structural design and finds out portable cost of the project by estimation. After the budgetary sanction, the actual construction of project starts.
  5. 5. (Continue..) o Finding the foundation details: Civil Engineer is also responsible for carrying out foundation investigation by the method of soil exploration at proposed site and prepares an investigation report. o Testing, supervision and execution: The civil engineer has the responsibility of testing of the construction material a quality work by proper supervision, get the work executed as per the drawing and make payments for finished work to the construction and laborers.
  6. 6.  ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERS IN TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING… o The innovative technique in the design of roadways, harbors, airports, docks, tunnels etc will be essential for fast, quick, easy, and comfortable service of transportation. o To develop the technology by which a proper communication facility is planned, quick and comfortable transport for human being. o Hence role of civil engineering has to pay more attention to the design, development, construction and maintenance of roadways, airport, railways, harbors, tunnels and bridges.
  7. 7.  ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEERS IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING… o Industrial buildings for the manufacture of automobiles, compressors, pipes, diesel engines, heavy vessels, storage tank for oil, conveyor system etc.. o Installations of different types of machines and equipments. o Actual supervision and execution of construction work.  ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEER IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING… o Planning, design, construction and maintenance of building for the chemical plant. o Suggestion a proper type of acid resistance flooring, non-erodable finish to walls and roofs. o A civil engineer has to pay special attention towards the construction of chemical tanks and petrochemicals. o Designing of open sheds for various hazardous processes.
  8. 8.  ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEER IN INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNCATION… o Selects the site for the location of antenna towers. o Design and planning of control room according to function. o Construction of RCC foundation for the telecommunication tower is done under the supervision and execution of civil engineer. o Excavation for cable duct for telecommunication is done and underground network of cable duct is done for proper telecommunication. o Towers for receiving the signals are carefully and properly erected on the top of building, selected for communication.
  9. 9.  ROLE OF CIVIL ENGINEER OTHER THAN THE BASIC ROLE DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN INDUSTRIAL SHED.. o In mechanical engineering, the civil engineer performs following role: 1. Planning and designing of the industrial structure such as industrial sheds or industrial building for the manufacture of automobile, compressors, pipes, diesel engines, heavy vessel etc… 2. Actual supervision and execution of construction work. 3. Installations of different types of machines and equipments. o PLANNIG: 1. Location of different shops in sequence as per the process of machine work. 2. Enough space in between machine. 3. Changing room for workers. 4. Location of administration building near main entrance or main gate.
  10. 10. (Continue..) o DESIGNING: Industrial buildings or shed can be designed by the methods of design such as R.C.C. Design or steel design. Most probably industrial sheds are designed by steel design. Civil engineer designs the industrial structure either by or steel design depending upon the requirement of industries. Live load, dead load and seismic forces are considered in the design and some times, wind load is considered in design. E.g. design of chimney. The Gantry girder and the column supporting the gantry girder are designed by civil engineer.
  11. 11. IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING.. o Planning is a preliminary activity in which the development of a frame work involving the co-ordination and control over the entire construction project. o To complete the given project in a proper manner. o For planning of construction work weather price fluctuations, deficiency of labors are carefully considered. o It gives the correct time of inception and completion within the specific period.
  12. 12. SCHEDULING AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT… • The technique used for completing the project work within a stipulated time is known as scheduling. Scheduling Critical Path Method (CPM) Program Evolution and Review Technique. (PERT) Resource Allocation and Multi-Project Scheduling. (RAMS)
  13. 13. SOME MEGA STRUCTURES.. Lærdal Tunnel of Norway The Longest road tunnel in the world !! 24.51 Km !! Lærdal Tunnel is a 24.51-kilometre long road tunnel connecting Lærdal and Aurland in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway and located approximately 175–200 kilometres north-east of Bergen. It is the longest road tunnel in the world succeeding the Gotthard Road Tunnel. CROSS-SECTION OF A BRIDGE
  14. 14. Eiffel Tower under construction between 1887 and 1889. The Yesanhe was one of China’s first big rivers to be crossed by a very high bridge when a reinforced concrete arch span of 295 feet (90 mtrs) opened in 1977. At the time it was the highest bridge ever built in China at 400 feet (122 mtrs). It was not surpassed for 18 years until the Jiangjiehe arch bridge was built in 1995.