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le corbusier

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a house is a machine

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le corbusier

  1. 1. • SUBMITTED BY • ABHISHEK GUPTA • HARPREET • JYOTI • PARVATI • III-B THEORY - A HOUSE IS A MACHINE FOR LIVING PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  2. 2.  Charles – Edouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier.  He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen 1930.  He was architect, designer urbanist and writer.  His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout Europe, India and America.  INFLUENCES  He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci’s and, the work of Leon Battista Alberti.  They used the proportions of the huan body to improve the appearance and function of architecture. October 6, 1887- August 27, 1965 PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  3. 3. LE CORBUSIER - PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  4. 4. Steiner House - Vienna, Austria PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE  A house has to fulfill two purposes.  First it is a machine for living in.  That is, a machine to provide us with efficient help for speed and accuracy in our work.  A diligent and helpful machine which should satisfy all our physical needs: comfort.  But it should also be a place conducive to meditation, and lastly, a beautiful place, bringing much needed tranquility to the mind.
  5. 5. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  6. 6. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  7. 7. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
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  10. 10. ADVANCES IN CONSTRUCTION Advances in construction technics and materials allowed for a shift in structural support. Whereas walls were once weight-bearing, and thus massive, support was now given by skeletal infrastuctures.  This change provided greater flexibility in window placement new possibilities, asymmetrical designs, arbitrary asymmetry would be a decorative device STEIN HOUSE LOVELL HOUSE SAVOYE HOUSE ALUMINIARE HOUSE PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  11. 11. 1. VILLA SAVOYE by: Le Corbusier PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  12. 12.  ARCHITECT: Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.  LOCATION: Poissy, FRANCE.  PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION: 1928 – 1931.  FUNCTION: RESIDENCE  CLIENT: Pierre and Emilie Savoye.  MATERIALS: RCC PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  13. 13.  Villa Savoye, by Le Corbusier is the most prominent example of house as a machine.  In 1963, Villa Savoye was declared as “Architectural Heritage” by the French government which then proceeded to restore.  It is currently a museum dedicated to the life and works of Le Corbusier and receives thousands of visitors per year. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  14. 14.  The Villa Savoye is a reflection of the five points for a new architecture of Le Corbusier:  the building which rests on pilotis (columns), leaving the area mostly free so that the landscape is integrated to the building.  Instead of sloping roofs, terraces are another garden more.  Free interior space, not rigidly distributed by fixed partitions.  The continuous window developed horizontally to achieve a profuse natural lighting. The free façade, i.e. independent of the supporting structure. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  15. 15. 5 THE FIVE POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE 1.Support of ground- level pilotis, elevating the building from the earth and allowed an extended continuity of the garden beneath. 2.Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, reclaiming for nature the land occupied by the building. 3.Free floor plan, relieved of load- bearing walls, allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed. 4.Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation. 5. Freely-designed facades, serving only as a skin of the wall and windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  16. 16. Free surface mostly with a hidden volume orchestrated by a play of shadows and glass walls. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  17. 17. FREE AND FLUID INTERNAL SPACES. NATURAL ILLUMINATION OF SPACES ORGANIZATION REVOLVES AROUND CIRCULATION. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  18. 18. FACTORING IN THE ELEMENTS OF NATURE AND INTEGRATING THEM INTO AN ARTIFICIAL SPACE ERECTED BY MAN. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  19. 19. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE TERRACE GARDEN
  20. 20.  The house appears to be floating supported by slender pilotis that seem to dissolve among the tree line, as the lower level is also painted green to allude to the perception of a floating volume.  Within the Villa Savoye, the architect has created a space that is dynamic. It contains ramps, elegant curves, splashes of color, and a clever interplay between interior and exterior.  The lower level serves as the maintenance and service programs of the house.  The curved glass facade on the lower level that is formed to match the turning radius of automobiles of 1929.  Inside, there becomes a clear understanding of the spatial interplay between public and private spaces. Typically, the living spaces of a house are relatively private, closed off, and rather secluded. First floor plan Ground floor plan
  21. 21.  The ramp became an important theme of modernism, not because it was invented here but because its purpose and disposition in this design is so well conceived.  The ramp is a subtle spatial experience that takes the observer from the darker lower level to the more brightly illuminated main floor and then on up to the completely exposed roof garden. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  22. 22.  Entrance to the house.  Dropped off by the chauffeur, the car proceeded around the curve to park in the garage.  The four column at the entrance leads the visitor to the ramp.  Ramp placed at the axis of entrance invites the user to go to the upper floor.  It can be seen from almost anywhere in the house.  It travels up to the first floor and continues from first floor garden to the solarium from outside.  The ramp makes the inhabitants to slow down and experience the movement between spaces.  Within the Villa Savoye, the architect has created a space that is dynamic. It contains ramps, elegant curves and a clever interplay between interior and exterior.
  23. 23. • The first floor is fitted with ribbon windows that blend seamlessly into the stark, white facade. The ribbon windows begin to play with the perception of interior and exterior.  Intentionally leaving voids within the wall spaces and roof meant that he could open the structure up to frame the surrounding environment.  Rooftop windows form voids in the ceiling are employed to bring light into the structure in calculated spots to create specific pools of light. • Le Corbusier uses this void - to frame the top of his architectural promenade - and allow it to extend outward from the physical form into the environment. PHILOSOPHY – HOUSE IS A MACHINE
  24. 24.  Pilotis perform a number of functions around the house, both inside and out.  On the two longer elevations they are flush with the face of the façade and imply heaviness and support, but on the shorter sides they are set back giving a floating effect that emphasizes the horizontal feeling of the house.  The wide strip window to the first floor terrace has two baby piloti to support and stiffen the wall above  He used wooden framed windows to allow for the glass to be pushed near the edges and to allow the wall to be seen as a series of parallel planes.
  25. 25.  Villa Stein, designed by Le Corbusier, was built in 1927 at Garches, France for Michael Stein.  Also Stein wanted the Villa to be a sort of a mini museum where they could display the arts they had collected.  Later House belonged to Gabrielle Monzie, a close friend of Stein and a faithful supporter of Le Corbusier.  . The building is also known as Villa Garches, Villa de Monzie, and Villa Stein-de Monzie.
  26. 26. • This is an exercise in which the intuition of the exterior of the building is secondary to the space and functional elements. • Since Le Corbusier also believed that the primary geometric forms should be used to embody the Architecture and established the relationship between the plan and its surroundings. • "The second shows an understanding of the organisms inside the rigid packaging, absolutely pure. The difficult problem, perhaps to the delight of the mind, is the cost to spiritual energy tied in the middle of the restrictions imposed.“(quoted by Le Corbusier).
  27. 27. Villa Stein-de Monzie is a building of isolated space and surrounded by gardens, with the servants quarters located next to the iron access gate. Like the Villa Savoye, it features open spaces formed by the various terraces and levels. GROUND FLOOR PLAN • The ground floor was mainly for the servants that lived in the house. • The ground floor has two main entrances-one for the servants which is enclosed and the other for the guests and a garage. • The enclosed stairs would enable the servants to be separated from the main building. • The servants would use the smaller door to the left - CIRCULATION SPACE SERVANTS
  28. 28. FIRST FLOOR PLAN • The servants would use the enclosed stair(It is the half oval shaped stair to the left) to go through the whole building. • Servants would have access to the whole building but would not have to be seen by the guests. • The planning here would let the Steins achieve their goal, the goal to make the Villa Stein as a small museum of their collections, more efficiently. • Most of the "real" space would start from the first floor. The residents would come through the entrance on the right side and would use the mini stair that connects to the second floor KITCHEN
  29. 29. SECOND AND THIRD FLOOR PLAN • The second floor and the third floor are mainly for private rooms for the residents and for guests. • The second floor also has a smaller terrace • The third floor has a roof garden
  30. 30. • Villa Stein sharply separates the spaces and is well designed in such a way that functioning of one does not cause any hindrance. • It shows of glimpse of “Five points of architecture” out of which only 3 have been followed - presence of long ribbon of windows - free facade - roof terrace • And another highlighting feature about Villa Stein is that how within a rigid shape or a structure, flexibility in the functions can be achieved as he emphasised in the concept of house as a machine. • But it can be rightly concluded that Villa savoye is much more expressive in terms of justifying house as a machine due to : - the smooth movement inside the house - and most importantly following the “5 Points of Architecture”
  31. 31.  Le Corbusier exhibited a model of his Maison Citrohan in 1920.  As he did with many of his Purist works, Le Corbusier designed the Citrohan house to be both aesthetically pleasing and functional.  Le Corbusier designed the Citrohan home with the intention of creating a space that was not only efficient but also affordable. 3.MAISON CITROHAN By making the house orderly and available to the masses, Le Corbusier envisioned creating a space that was uplifting and offered a solution to the chaos resulting from the war. His plans for the Maison Citrohan reflect his attempt to improve the standard of living after World War I.(1914-18)
  32. 32.  This prototype house was intended for mass production for urban living. Thus, to be easily produced and replicated in linear series, fabricated and assembled similar to machines  In essence, Maison Citrohan was to work efficiently like an automobile and function effectively as a machine for living. Le Corbusier envisioned the Citrohan house as being efficient like a car. In Le Corbusier: An Analysis of Form, Geoffrey H. Baker states that the relationship between the house and cars is evidenced by Le Corbusier’s name for the home: “He named it the Maison Citrohan as an intended compliment to the Citroën automobile manufacturing company and because he believed it to be as efficient as the new machines which are transforming twentieth century life.”
  33. 33. This three storey maisonette unit comprised of parking, garage and boiler room at ground level. Second floor double height living and dining space gets flooded with light by a double height window that was manufactured with industrial glass. Attached is garden space. A large balcony wraps around the front and sides on the first floor level. The Kitchen and maid’s room are at the rear. Some sleeping accommodations are on the gallery of the living room which is accessed by an internal spiral stair. The roof level encompasses sun terrace at the front and bedrooms and bathrooms at the rear.
  34. 34. Parking, garage and boiler room at ground level. Second floor double height living and dining space. A large balcony wraps around the front and sides on the first floor level. Attached is garden space.
  35. 35. Le Corbusier envisioned prefabricated houses, imitating the concept of assembly line manufacturing of cars, for instance. Maison Citrohan displayed the characteristics by which the architect would later define modern architecture: support pillars that raise the house above the ground, a roof terrace, an open floor plan, an ornamentation-free facade and horizontal windows in strips for maximum natural light. The interior featured the typical spatial contrast between open living space and cell-like bedrooms.
  36. 36. Each unit was to be stacked vertically or horizontally to create small housing blocks, planned for standardization but with flexibility for mass production. Domino structural system is applied in reinforced concrete construction. The cylindrical posts or pilotis frees the ground plane, frees the external walls to be non-load bearing walls. Thus frees the façade, allowing variation in location and flexible sizes of windows.
  37. 37. Spatial continuum of above elements, pure form and volume, rectangular floor plan, aesthetically sparse interior, built-in furniture other than chairs and tables are few main characteristics of this house. Movable furniture were made with tubular frames. Interior and exterior displays modernist white stucco walls. Roof garden connects inhabitants directly with nature.
  38. 38. Introduction The Pavilion de L'Esprit Nouveau was a temporary building constructed in 1925 within the framework of the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris. For Le Corbusier was a chance to show so provocative, his ideas on architecture and urbanism that had begun to develop with Pierre Jeanneret since 1922 4. L'Esprit Nouveau Pavilion (Paris)
  39. 39. Meaning This was a unique four plants, which together could cover all his height. The curved wall, and bulging of the outer hull suspended maintained a close relationship with the landscape of Finland.
  40. 40. Spaces The pavilion is composed of four floors for a total of 16 meters in height. The upper part of the exhibition shows the country. The following people. The third below the job. The area below summarizes these three conditions and presents the products. Thanks to a very free and available architectural inclined panels, the hearing could include images and objects away with the same ease that cimacios of inclined planes. This had a vertical and horizontal relationship between the graphical information and the objects themselves "Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau" was accordingly designed as a typical cell-unit in just such a block of multiple villa-flats. It consisted of a minimum dwelling with its own roof-terrace. Attached to this cell-unit was an annexe in the form of a rotunda containing detailed studies of town-planning schemes; two large dioramas, each a hundred square meters in area, one of which showed the 1922 "Plan for a Modern City of 3,000,000 Inhabitants"; and the other the "Voisin Plan" which proposed the creation of a new business centre in the heart of Paris. On the walls were methodically worked out plans for cruciform skyscrapers, housing colonies with staggered lay-outs, and a whole range of types new to architecture that were the fruit of a mind preoccupied with the problems of the future .
  41. 41. ELEVATIONS
  42. 42. Floor Plans GROUND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR TERRACE FLOOR ELEVATION
  43. 43. FLOOR PLANS SECTION INTERIOR
  44. 44. The "Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau" was a turning point in the design of modern interiors and a milestone in the evolution of architecture. A new term has replaced the old word furniture, which stood for fossilizing traditions and limited utilization. That new term is equipment, which implies the logical classification of the various elements necessary to run a house that results from their practical analysis. Standardized fitted cupboards, built into the walls or suspended from them, are allocated to every point in the home where a daily function has to be performed - wardrobes for hanging suits and dresses; cupboards for underclothes, household linen, plate and glass; shelves for ornaments and shelves for books - have replaced all the innumerable varieties of superannuated furniture that where known by half-a-hundred different names. This new domestic equipment, which is no longer of wood but of metal, is made in the factories that used to manufacture office-furniture. To-day it represents the entire "furnishing" of a home, leaving a maximum of unencumbered space in every room, and only chairs and tables to fill it. The scientific study of chairs and tables has, in turn, led to entirely new conceptions of what their form should be : a form which is no longer decorative but purely functional. The evolution of modern manners has banished the old conventional ritual that used to dictate our sitting posture. Since we can sit in many different positions, the new shapes of chair which a tubular-steel or strip-metal framework make possible ought to provide for all of them. Wood, being a traditional material, limited the scope of the designer's initiative

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