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Tourism & Local Development

Presentation in Sendai Japan February 2017

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Tourism & Local Development

  1. 1. Tourism and Local Economic Development Emeritus Professor Harold Goodwin WTM Responsible Tourism Advisor Director Institute of Place Management at Manchester Metropolitan University & Director of the Responsible Tourism Partnership 1
  2. 2. • The fundamental question that should be asked is Will our village, town, city or region be used by tourism or shall we use tourism to make a better place for us to live in? 2
  3. 3. Menu…….. 1. Tourism 2. Responsibility 3. Responsible Tourism 4. Local Economic Development 3
  4. 4. TOURISM 4
  5. 5. What about putting something back? “Take only photographs, leave only footprints”
  6. 6. Sir Colin Marshall, British Airways 1994 Tourism and the travel industry “is essentially the renting out for short- term lets, of other people’s environments, whether that is a coastline, a city, a mountain range or a rainforest. These ‘products’ must be kept fresh and unsullied not just for the next day, but for every tomorrow”
  7. 7. Our holidays their homes Tourism in unusual in that consumers travel to the point of production (the factory) to consume the product. Opportunities for additional sales of goods and services: Complementary product
  8. 8. Culture & Tourism “Your everyday life is someone else’s adventure” Swedish NGO fly-posting in Ljubljana, Summer 1997
  9. 9. Tourism is a social construct • Tourism is what we – consumers and producers make it. • We can change it. • “every individual tourist builds up or destroys human values while travelling.” • “rebellious tourists and rebellious locals” • “Orders and prohibitions will not do the job – because it is not a bad conscience that we need to make progress but positive experience, not the feeling of compulsion but that of responsibility.” 9 Jost Krippendorf
  11. 11. Why Responsible? Accountability Actions and consequences can be attributed to individuals or legal entities, who can be held accountable, and legally they are liable. Respons-ability Individuals and organisations are expected to respond and to make a difference. This requires partnerships, a plurality of relationships, learning, praxis, and critical reflection. The Ostrich problem • They’ll sort something out
  12. 12. Why Responsibility? • to respond, to act, • responsibility implies and requires action. • critical to creating change is acknowledging and owning up to problems, and taking responsibility for making changes. • Responsibility is free – you can take as much of it as you can handle
  13. 13. • 責任を取る is to take responsibility (actively) • 責任を負う is to bear responsibility (with a negative, burdensome connotation) • 責任を持つ is to carry responsibility (more neutral than bearing responsibility) • 責任がある is to have responsibility (objective fact of having an obligation, e.g. legally) • 君は本当に無責任だな You really have no sense of responsibility. 13
  14. 14. The antonym is Irresponsible Two primary meanings • Unreliable, untrustworthy, unlikely to be held to account or mentally or financially unfit to be held accountable • Lacking a sense of responsibility, akin to carefreeness the trait of being without worry or responsibility Manchester Metropolitan University. Centre for Responsible Tourism MMU 14
  15. 15. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM An attitude of mind.. 15
  16. 16. “Sustainable and Responsible” • Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Tourism are not the same thing • Responsible Tourism is about taking responsibility for achieving sustainable development through tourism.
  17. 17. Tour Operator Inbound Operator Hotelier/ Accommodation Local/ National Government Attraction Managers National Parks/ Heritage Local Community Tourists Travellers Holidaymakers Taking and Exercising Responsibility Economic, Social & Environmental Principle of Sustainablity WTO Global Code of Ethics Taking responsibility You cannot outsource responsibility .. Whose responsibility? Everyone’s Nobody’s
  18. 18. Responsible Travel takes a variety of forms, it is characterised by travel and tourism which 1. minimises negative environmental, social and cultural impacts; 2. generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the wellbeing of host communities, by improving working conditions and access to the industry; 3. involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances. Cape Town Declaration 2002
  19. 19. Better places for people to live in, better places for people to visit 4. makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage and to the maintenance of the world’s diversity; 5. provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural and environmental issues; 6. provides access for people with disabilities and socially disadvantaged people; and 7. is culturally sensitive and engenders respect between tourists and hosts.
  20. 20. 20 What’s in • EFM is becoming more important than VFM • Experience for money vs. value for money • We are seeing experience inflation • Brits once thought Florida was a big adventure • Now they want to visit Orangutans in Borneo or dive the Barrier reef
  21. 21. 21 Responsible Responsible tourism More authentic experiences that create better places to live in and to visit Tourism is a cultural process. Memories of a place are jointly produced by the tourists, the locals and the place – the physical space and the human activity that takes place there. “the destination of the tourist and the inhabited landscape of local culture are … inseparable” Ringer (1998)
  23. 23. Successful tourist destinations • offer the visitor something unique • they create a sense of place, an identity which is different from their competitors…. • no two communities are ever exactly the same… Numbers => yield Seasonality & extending length of stay
  24. 24. 24 Resource Uniqueness “Generally, the less unique a destination or the weaker its sense of place, the harder it will be both to draw people in and compete in the tourism market place. Indeed, if every tourism destination offered virtually the same set of [experiences] tourism would become somewhat meaningless.” Godfrey & Clarke The Tourism Development Handbook
  25. 25. 25 Destinations are cultural landscapes • A place has a topography, buildings and managed land – it also embodies meanings. • Residents and visitors find meaning in the experience. • Memories are co-created by locals and guests, by residents and visitors.
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  28. 28. Stories & Meaning 28
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  31. 31. Local Economic Development • Extent of linkages to the local economy – the more the better. • Who benefits? • Community, local elite, national elite, source market businesses • Tourism as an additional livelihood strategy? • Dangers of dependency? 31
  32. 32. It is not tourism until it is sold • Transport to and in the destination • Accommodation • Food and drink • Attractions • Crafts, souvenirs… • Purchased locally, mail order or in city shops. • Ownership • Supplementary livelihood • Employment – local? • Tourism services – local? • Young people 32
  33. 33. Eat the view Improve the market for products which: • come from forms of land management which enhance or protect an area’s distinctive landscape, wildlife, and historic features and which help conserve soil and water resources • strengthen the sense of place of the area in which they are produced and in doing so provide an opportunity for the farmer to ‘add value’ to the product 1. Consumer awareness of the link 2. Increase demand for distinctive local products 3. Enhance market opportunities 33
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  39. 39. 39 Shoreditch Tanzanian “Fair Trade” coffee sold in Dutch supermarkets
  40. 40. ‘Overtourism’
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