Caring for business, people & nature, today & forever
Future Proofing Tourism in
Emeritus Professor, MMU, Institute of Place Management
Director Responsible Tourism Partnership
Future Proofing Tourism in
• That is a big ask……..
• I hardly know the county
• Futurology – shocks and trends
• Tourism is perhaps the easy bit…..
• It will be what we make it …
• In particular it will be what you make it
Some off piste comments
• Global warming will continue for some time
• Different climate effects in different places
• The currency is unlikely to recover its full strength
– good for domestic and inbound tourism
• Public expenditure will be tight – particularly for
tourism and agriculture.
• Infrastructure investment in rural areas will be
• Holidays taken away will shorten
• Living standards will be stagnant or decline
I did some homework
• To remain the champion of the tourism industry in
• To develop new markets and maximise sustainable
• To work with marketing partners, provide member
benefits and trade engagement.
The future of tourism in Pembrokeshire is where it
should be - in the hands of the industry and we all have
a great opportunity now to not only shape the future but
also ensure that Pembrokeshire develops and strengthens
its reputation as the premier coastal destination in Wales.
Is Pembrokeshire as destination? Or is it destinations?
a long history?
• 1972 World Commission on Environment & Development
• 1980 World Conservation Strategy
• 1987 Brundtland Report & Our Common Future
• 1992 Rio Environment & Development –
UN Commission on Sustainable Development
• 2000 Millennium Development Goals
• 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
• 2012 Rio+20
• Sustainable Development Goals
Very little to show for it………
UN IY of Sustainable Tourism for
1. Make optimal use of
2. Respect the socio-
cultural authenticity of
3. Provide socio-
economic benefits to
• Continuous process
• Informed participation
of all stakeholders &
• strong political
• High level of tourist
2004 Technical Definition
It is not a technical issue. It is a political issue about intergenerational equitywww.haroldgoodwin.info 9
• to respond, to act,
• responsibility implies and requires action.
• critical to creating change is acknowledging
and owning up to problems, and taking
responsibility for making changes.
• Responsibility is free – you can take as much
of it as you can handle
What is Responsible Tourism?
• Identifying issues which matter and address
them through tourism
• a triple bottom line approach to Tourism
• a way of travelling – it offers a better
• a movement
• diverse: particular to cultures, places and
• characterised by transparency
• requires the acceptance of responsibility and
the willingness to take action
Responsible Travel takes a variety of forms, it is
characterised by travel and tourism which
1. minimises negative environmental, social and
2. generates greater economic benefits for local
people and enhances the wellbeing of host
communities, by improving working conditions
and access to the industry;
3. involves local people in decisions that affect their
lives and life chances.
Cape Town Declaration 2002
4. makes positive contributions to the conservation of
natural and cultural heritage and to the maintenance
of the world’s diversity;
5. provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists
through more meaningful connections with local
people, and a greater understanding of local cultural
and environmental issues;
6. provides access for physically challenged and socially
disadvantaged people; and
7. is culturally sensitive and engenders respect between
tourists and hosts.
Tourism: an opportunity?
• Tourists can bring additional spending power to a
community – jobs and economic development.
• Tourism can provide resources for environmental
• Tourism can provide social benefits keeping young
people in rural communities and valuing cultural
heritage – it can keep young people in rural areas
• But the value has to be captured and the impacts
have to be controlled – tourism has to be
Sir Colin Marshall
British Airways 1994
Tourism and the travel industry “is essentially
the renting out for short-term lets, of other
people’s environments, whether that is a
coastline, a city, a mountain range or a
rainforest. These ‘products’ must be kept
fresh and unsullied not just for the next day,
but for every tomorrow”
Successful tourist destinations
• offer the visitor something
• they create a sense of place, an
identity which is different from
• no two communities are ever
exactly the same…
Who to attract/invite?
• The experience
• Seeking memorable
• Driving increased
• Viral marketing
• Engagement in culture,
community and the
• Shared product of host
• Quality, depth,
You can taste the difference?
From the ridiculous to the sublime…..
The main attraction is the public realm.
The public realm is for free – but it
needs to be cleaned & maintained
The tragedy of the commons
• Public realm goods are
– Non-rival (light & view)
– Non excludable
But nowhere has infinite
Tourist behaviours affect
• “Therein is the tragedy.
Each man is locked into a
system that compels him
to increase his herd
without limit - in a world
that is limited. Ruin is the
destination toward which
all men rush, each
pursuing his own best
interest in a society that
believes in the freedom of
• Hardin 1968
• 2008 In the mile walk from the harbour to
St. Non's Chapel there were:
• four groups coasteering, comprising
three young adults exploring alone,
two groups of children with
instructors, and one group of adults
• two pairs of fishermen fishing from
the sandstone ledges.
• three groups of climbers.
• two small fishing boats, one checking
• two groups sailing kayaks and canoes.
• half a dozen groups of walkers.
• three families picnicing.
• one family crabcatching off the
1. Recreational use
2. Loss of habitat
3. Disturbance of wildlife
6. Infrastructure stress –
toilets, car parks.
7. Congestion lanes and
Erosion caused by Recreation
Pembrokeshire Coast Path
10,500 long distance walkers #
275,000 access walkers
“1996/97 revealed that only 4%
of users thought that their
walking experience had been
spoiled by the effects of erosion.
It is true that erosion is less of a
problem in Pembrokeshire than
on other National Trails.”
Overtourism the antithesis of
• Making better places to live
in and better places to visit
• In that order
• Running up against the
limits to growth
• Overtourism describes
destinations where hosts or
guests, locals or visitors, feel
that there are too many
visitors and that the quality
of life in the area or the
quality of the experience
Tourism is a polluting industry
• Travel and greenhouse gas emissions
• Litter, trampling – management costs
• Use of the public realm – the commons,
• Social and economic impacts on the high
street and in villages
• Induced effects with migration, second homes
and holiday lets – villages can be hollowed
The realisation of benefits depends on
• the creation of employment at all skill levels and
where there is existing capacity –
• the additional facilities, restaurants, festivals,
markets, attractions and retail …. ;
• the extent of linkages to existing local economy -
maximise linkages and minimise leakages
• It is not just about the money: sense of pride
generated by “being known”
• the extent of local/non-local ownership of tourist
enterprises – small scale and low risk.
Focused,co-operative opening &
Repeats & referrals
The moments and times we treasure?
• Temporary resident
• Culture – Celtic
• The back streets
• That conversation or
encounter with the
• Hosts & Guests
Tourism is not a natural phenomenon
• Tourism is what we – the
producers and the
consumers – make it
• Hosts & Guests
• Visitors and tourists
• It is a social construct
• We can make it better
• Access = Egress
• The metrics matter
– International arrivals
– Length of stay
– Spend and retained yield
– Key question is does a
destination use tourism or
is it used by it?
I haven’t talked about certification.
• Because it is the right thing
• Cost reductions
• Because it is expected
• Solar heating = cold
• The visitor should be able to
see it and experience it
• Enhance the guests should
have an enhanced
Partnerships and collaboration
• The competition is
• Co-operation is
– Accommodation and
– the communities
• But the choice of target
market has real
existing businesses ….
• to use tourism achieve
• sustainable development
• the aspiration of
Responsible Tourism is to
use tourism rather than to
be used by it.
• Talk to your suppliers
• Talk to politicians
• Schools, parents, farmers …
• Livelihood diversification