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Assessing 21st century skills


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What are the 21st Century skills that we need to develop in our students and how to evaluate them.

Published in: Education, Technology

Assessing 21st century skills

  2. 2. Buckminster Fuller’s knowledge building curve says that new knowledge that doubled every century shall now double every 18 months! 2
  3. 3. If Rip Van Winkle were to wake up today, he would be awestruck by the multimedia messages and the world around him. But if he were to wake up in a classroom, the only thing that would have changed is the colour of the blackboard!!! • Einstein said “ We cannot solve problems using the same kind of thinking that we used when we created them.” Applied to education, we cannot educate today's children using the same methods we used yesterday. 3
  4. 4. In education, most of the change has focused on Teaching-Learning. The focus now is shifting to assessment, which is believed to be the driving change in education. • The challenge lies in reformulating curriculum, reformatting standards, developing instructional strategies to deliver them and designing assessments that measure these skills. 4
  5. 5. Using the data driven approach towards assessment, teachers and students would have multiple ways to measure competencies. A balance of formative, summative and alternate assessment would be the norm. • Tests would be taken over time as students show readiness and mastery of content. Test scores would show growth rather than merely comparisons to others. 5
  6. 6. •Fundamental skills include core skills of Reading, Writing, Math, Science and Social studies. Once the foundations are built, 21st century skills support, enable and facilitate the fundamental skills. 6
  7. 7. WHAT THEN ARE THESE 21st CENTURY SKILS? 1) THINKING Critical thinking Problem solving Creating Metacognition 7
  8. 8. 2) ACTING Communicating collaborating Digital literacy Technology literacy Initiative and self direction 8
  9. 9. 3) LIVING IN THE WORLD Civic responsibility and Citizenship Global understanding Leadership and Responsibility College and career readiness 9
  10. 10. 21st CENTURY ASSESSMENT FUNDAMENTALS • 21st century assessment will be part of a larger system that supports student learning, and is incorporated at all levels. 10
  11. 11. ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE RESPONSIVE • Visible performance based work generates data that can inform curriculum and instruction. • Assessments are developed keeping incorporating best practices in feedback and formative assessment. • Feedback is to be targeted to the goal and outcome. 11
  12. 12. ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE FLEXIBLE • Lesson design, curriculum and assessment require flexibility. • Assessment needs to be adaptable to students and settings. • Students‟ decisions, actions, applications vary, thus making assessment flexible too. 12
  13. 13. ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE INTEGRATED • Assessment needs to be incorporated on a day to day basis, rather than a once a year activity. • Assessments are informed by awareness of meta cognition. Students consider their choices, identify alternative strategies and represent knowledge through different means. 11/24/2013 13
  14. 14. ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE INFORMATIVE • The desired 21st Century goals and objectives should be clearly stated and explicitly taught. • Learning objectives, Instructional strategies and assessment methods should be clearly aligned. • Students build on prior learning in a logical sequence. 14
  15. 15. ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE USING MULTIPLE METHODS. • Assessment continuum should include a spectrum of strategies. • Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and skills through relevant tasks, projects and performances. • Authentic performance based assessment should be emphasized. 15
  16. 16. ASSESSMET SHOULD BE COMMUNICATED • Results should be routinely posted on a database along with standard based commentary. • Students receive routine feedback of their progress • Educational community recognizes achievement of students beyond standardized tests. 16
  17. 17. ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE TECHNICALLY SOUND. • It should be precise and technically sound, so that use are consistent with their administration and interpretation. • It should measure stated objectives and 21st century skills with legitimacy and integrity. • Assessment should be fair to all. 17
  18. 18. BLENDING OF FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS • Formative assessment requires a systematic and planned approach. Evidence is gathered throughout the instructional process and teaching is responsive to that evidence. • Summative assessments are administered at the end of the instruction. It provides a snapshot of a student‟s knowledge at that particular time. 18
  19. 19. CHALLENGES AHEAD • There is little consensus on what 21st century skills are. • Complex thinking is difficult to express. Assessing it will require explicit processes and measures. • Need to alter the perception that 21st century skills are an add on. Instead they need to be integrated into the teaching learning system. • Intensive professional development is required for students, teachers, school leaders and policy makers. 19
  20. 20. THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE ANT If instruction involves the business of conveying knowledge, then assessment is sometimes the languid grasshopper. 20
  22. 22. st 21 • • • • CENTURY ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES Rubrics Checklists Student Contracts Self reflection/ assessment • Peer review • Observation • • • • • • • Logs Anecdotal records Concept maps Journals Questioning Conferences Portfolio review 22
  23. 23. RUBRICS • Rubrics are generally the most specific of the 21st century measures and include explicit indicators of achievement at all levels. • They are more descriptive than rubrics and can be used by both teachers and students for peer and self evaluation. 23
  24. 24. RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMM. SKILL EXEMPLARY PROFICIENT BASIC NOVICE Conveys message for a selected target Recognizes purpose, can organize & present info to meet it. Is aware or the purpose and can organize the info to meet the purpose Unclear of the purpose, compromises quality of information and presentation. Confused about the purpose of communicatn Has difficulty focusing on content. Receptive communication Listens, reads, views purposefully Distinguishs facts from opinion, recognizes intent of message Identifies facts, summarizes main ideas. Can identify some facts in a message. developing skills in interpreting message. Partially understands the purpose of the message. Uses a full range of resources to express ideas. Uses a combination of comm. resources appropriate to the topic. Regularly selects a few resources that are a good match for the assignment. Requires support to communicate through additional resources. Familiar with only a few modalities for expressing ideas, result compromised work. 24
  25. 25. CHECKLISTS • Checklists are more functional and contain a list of essential targets and desired outcomes. They can be used while the students are in the process of learning or on the completion of the activity. CHECKILST FOR PRESENTATION COMMENTS Introduction captures attention of audience Objectives are stated in the introduction Content is clear and understandable. Presentation is logically sequenced Projects voice so all can hear Uses technology to effectively support message Summary synthesizes main idea. 25
  26. 26. STUDENT CONTRACTS • Learning contracts are agreements between students and teachers that describe the learning outcomes and strategies for achieving them. • They give the students a choice over personal goals and strategies to achieve these goals. • They provide for differentiation of learning and assessing and can be used to hold learners accountable. • They encourage a blending of core content and 21st century outcomes. 26
  27. 27. LEARNING CONTRACT NAME________________________ TOPIC, UNIT OR GOAL_______________________ Student‟s responsibilities: Completion dates and deadlines: Teacher‟s responsibilities Evidence required: Resources recommended/ required Assessment of learning ( formative and summative): Student‟s signature_______________ Parent‟s signature________________ Teacher‟s signature_______________ 27
  28. 28. SELF ASSESSMENT/ REFLECTION • Self reflection and assessment are important lifelong skills that can be developed and supported in the classroom. • Self assessment may be daily or long term, oral or written, done individually or in small groups. • Elements of self assessment include opportunity for reviewing learning, identifying confusion, providing evidence of learning, evaluating progress, planning and improving outcomes. 28
  29. 29. SAMPLE SELF ASSESSMENT • • • • GENERIC QUESTIONS: What did I learn? What worked and what did not? What‟s next? • • • • SPECIFIC QUESTIONS: What steps can I take to improve my writing? What three habits of mind did I use and how did I apply them? How well did I listen to the ideas of others and make a contribution to the group? • If I were to do this again, here is what I would do differently: 29
  30. 30. PEER REVIEW • It is important to make students aware of the importance of non judgmental peer review and to make it a regular part of the learning process. • A structure such as a checklist can help students stay focused on the learning outcomes. Peer Assessment of Group Project 4=Strongly agree 3=Agree 2=disagree 1=strongly disagree SCORE All members contributed equally and fairly to the group. Members of the group worked together well When we disagreed , we were able to settle it promptly without hurting each others feelings Group members encouraged each other towards achievement of goals 30
  31. 31. OBSERVATION • Teacher can use formal or informal observation to assess student understanding to use 21st century skills. • Observation can be anecdotal or may be combined with a checklist or rubric. • Teacher can note the use of web based reference material, actively listening to others‟ contributions, building on others ideas, adding original ideas to the discussion etc. to the checklist. 31
  32. 32. LOGS • Logs help students track their work towards a target. They can be used by both teachers and students to show progress towards a benchmark. • Eg, a student assembling an electronic portfolio may track his own progress, set schedules and post messages to other students. PROJECT PROGRESS LOGS: DATE PROGRESS EVIDENCE What goals have I worked towards? What have I learned? What are my next steps? What is the timeframe? Whom can I collaborate with to improve my work? How have I used my critical thinking skills? How would I assess my progress so far? 32
  33. 33. CONCEPT MAPS • Graphic organizers can be used to assess students‟ knowledge, understanding and critical thinking. • A design that contains only partial information can be given to the students , who can then fill it with teacher support. Video Web 2.0 Sims • You tube • Movie maker • Digital storytelling • Blog • Twitter • Facebook • Xtranormal • Secondlife 33
  34. 34. JOURNALS • They provide a window into a student‟s thinking and learning. • A journal entry begins with a response to a question. “Compare a decision you had to make to the one made by the character in the story”. Or “How will you use your new knowledge in your next blog posting?” • They help students assimilate new content, describe points of confusion or reflect on controversial issues. • They can be supported with wikis and other supporting software. 34
  35. 35. QUESTIONNING • Formal and informal questioning can be used to move students forward with their learning. • Formally they can be used to assess previous knowledge in the beginning of a lesson or for closure of a lesson. • A series of questions ranging in cognitive complexity from understanding to application, analysis and synthesis can add depth to the lesson. 35
  36. 36. PORTFOLIO REVIEW • Portfolios can be used to demonstrate processes and growth in relation to selected Learning Objectives. • They can be used to display 21st century skills such as Problem solving, creativity and information literacy and reflect strengths and weaknesses. • To be objective and comprehensive, assessment of student portfolios should be based on contracts, rubrics, peer/self assessment. • E- portfolios are becoming increasingly popular. 36
  37. 37. 21ST CENTURY SKILLS 37
  38. 38. CRITICAL THINKING • Definitions of Critical Thinking include concepts of analyzing information, applying strategies for deciding, readiness to consider ideas ,using logical enquiry, making inferences, appraising evidence, testing conclusions, making accurate judgments and analyzing assumptions. 38
  39. 39. IN PRACTICE: Mrs GREENLY’S CLASSROOM • Mrs Greenly is covering an interdisciplinary unit on Genetically modified food. • Begins with an introductory KWL activity, wherein students write on sticky notes and paste them on the KWL chart. • She determines their knowledge level and presents them with core knowledge and vocabulary needed along with a self assessment rubric where students can track their progress. • After a quick formative assessment she decides which resources and strategies to use. • She puts the students in groups to read two opposing articles on GM food. • Groups are then reformulated with student choice. They can choose to be a scientist, farmer, nutritionist, politician etc. 39
  40. 40. • Using previously acquired digital literacy skills, they complete a web quest for in depth information on GM foods. • A world forum is set up with representatives from each interest group. Some students present the groups‟ findings while others become part of the evaluation panel. • All students participate in peer review, using a specially designed rubric. • Finally, the groups prepare a product that can be a brochure, power point presentation, prezi, video, website, blog, poster or any other platform. • Each group presents 5 important facts for the others to know. • The desired critical thinking skills are woven into the assignment and are clear to the students. 40
  41. 41. ASSESSMENT • • • • • • Student friendly rubrics Checklists Self assessment Peer reflection Journaling Learning logs 41
  42. 42. PROBLEM SOLVING • Problem solving is the basic process of identifying problems, considering options and making informed choices. • It is used when an easy answer to problem does not exist. • • • • • It involves the following Knowledge and Skills: Describing the problem with depth and clarity. Evaluating alternatives and considering multiple perspectives. Gathering information to make informed choices. Implementing and monitoring. Evaluating the problem. If required, revisit it. 42
  43. 43. STEPS IN PROBLEM SOLVING • Understand the problem • Brainstorm possible solutions • Devise a plan • Carry out the plan • Evaluate the result Beyond the classroom, Problem solving has global, local and personal applications. Those of us who develop problem solving skills are better equipped at solving conflicts in the real world. 43
  44. 44. IN PRACTICE • Create a pretend scenario for students that requires them to think creatively to make it through. An example might be getting stranded on an island, knowing that help will not arrive for three days. The group has a limited amount of food and water and must create shelter from items around the island. Encourage working together as a group and hearing out every child that has an idea about how to make it through the three days as safely and comfortably as possible. 44
  45. 45. PROBLEM SOLVING RUBRIC EXPERT COMPETENT APPRENTICE NOVICE IDENTIFIES THE PROBLEM Clearly describes the problem including details and supporting information. Describes the basics of the problem with some details & supporting information. Explains a part of the problem but has trouble understanding all parts of the problem. Has difficulty recognizing and defining parts of the problem. IDENTIFIES MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS Comes up with a number of feasible and clearly defined solutions. Say four. Described three possible solutions. Described 1 or 2 possible solutions. Had no solution or is not sure of his solution. Evaluates the solutions and picks one that seems feasible. Gave a simple explanation for one choice. Is not able to explain a solution. Analyzes all the DEFENDS SOLUTIONS possible solutions and picks up one that shows his understanding of the problem. 45
  46. 46. CREATIVITY • Creativity is the ability or power to create, to produce through imaginative skill and to bring into existence something new. • Originality, uniqueness, imagination, flexibility, fluency, making connections and forming new patterns are the core of Creativity. • Creativity is the process of making something that hasn't been made before - be it a painting, an idea, a solution, a relationship or a new dance move. It is a set of beliefs and attitudes as much as it is a toolbox of skills and knowledge. Creativity.aspx 46
  47. 47. PODUCTS THAT STUDENTS HAVE DESIGNED • A dog leash/collar that carries the dog‟s water bottle. • A twirling spaghetti fork and an automatic coffee stirrer. • A car seat for a pet. • A sleeve sneeze catcher. • An educational twister game. • A new musical instrument with both percussion and wind. 47
  48. 48. IN PRACTICE • In my Physics class (VIII) at the end of the session when the students are familiar with the concepts of air resistance, buoyant force, Newton‟s laws, they are given to design an Egg Lander that would land an egg from a height without breaking. • Students are divided into groups of 4 or 5 and work collectively to create an Egg Lander, that they research, design, test their design, modify if needed and finally launch the Lander. • Each group then prepares a product like a ppt, video, prezi etc. 48
  49. 49. METACOGNITION • Metacognition is an expensive way of saying “Thinking about one‟s own Thinking”. • It requires taking active control over thinking and learning and using strategies for enhancing learning and performance. • It considers how learners take in, store and retrieve information. 49
  50. 50. • Darwin observed that “Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge” • In classrooms, ignorance cannot be bliss. • When an athletic team loses a game, they go back and review the tapes. They analyze errors and device strategies to improve their performance in the next game. This is Metacognition. 50
  51. 51. SELF ASSESSMENT CAN HELP STUDENTS UNCOVER THEIR THINKING PROCESS • Assessment strategies can be wrapped into other assessments: • Think aloud: Students talk, think and record their processes. • Written responses to writing prompts. • Graphic organizers while the work is in progress • Anecdotal records. • Questionnaires that give students insight into their work. 51
  52. 52. METACOGNITIVE REFLECTION PLANNING: •What do you know about this topic? •What do you want to know about this topic? •What resources are you considering exploring? •Where did you start? What did you do first? Why? ACTING: •Describe your steps. •Which resources seem worthwhile? Why? •How did you know you were doing along? What did you ask yourself? •What problems did you run into? How did you adjust your process in response? •How did you know you reached your goal? EVALUATING: •What worked to produce a high quality product? •Describe any new strategies you used. •What would you do differently if you were starting over? 11/24/2013 you do in relation to the requirements of the assignment? copyright •How did 2006 All Rights Reserved 52
  53. 53. COMMUNICATION SKILLS • Communication involves creating meaning, imparting knowledge, skills and beliefs to others and receiving inputs from multiple sources. • Learning in school and in the outside world is based on effective communication. Today‟s teacher has a vast array of resources like audio, video, digital images and technologies that connect students in real time, even to remote areas. • Students can record their learning and explain their thinking, share with others, display their work, thus increasing the relevance and meaning of knowledge. 53
  54. 54. COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY CLASSROOM. • Verbal communication such as conversation, debate, persuasion, constructive dialogue etc. • Receptive communication skills: Paying attention, listening and comprehending. • Reading, viewing and listening to multiple types of media. • Producing effective communication through oral, written, visual, non verbal and technical media. • Expressing views and preferences in a neutral manner. 54
  55. 55. • • • • • • • ACTIVITIES THAT INVOLVE COMM. SKILLS Reading Multicultural understanding Math Games Summarizing Teach another Debates They can be integrated with other instruction or used as a stand alone. Communication skills can be assessed using checklists and Rubrics. 55
  56. 56. COLLABORATION • Collaboration is learning to plan and work together, to consider diverse perspectives, to participate in discourse by contributing, listening and supporting others. It is about recognizing and valuing individual contributions towards the group‟s productivity and improvement. • Collaborative learning is based on the idea of synergyThat the whole equals more than the individual parts. • A brilliant example: Facebook was created from the collaborated ideas of many people 56
  57. 57. st 21 ESSENTIAL CENTURY COLLABORATION SKILLS • Balance listening and speaking, leading and following in a group. • Demonstrate flexibility, compromise, empathy. • Consider, prioritize and advance the needs of the larger group. • Work together to create new ideas and new products. • Share responsibility for completing work. • Work respectfully with others to make decisions that include the views of multiple individuals. 57
  58. 58. ASSESSMENT OF COLLABORATION SKILLS • • • • • • Rubric Contracts Narratives Portfolios Graphic Organizers Checklist / rating scale • Self and peer evaluation and reflection • Teacher observation • Student logs and journals 58
  59. 59. VISUAL LITERACY • Visual literacy refers to both understanding (interpretation, analysis, evaluation) and production ( creativity and synthesis of ideas) of digital images. • Methods and modes include pictures, photographs, comics, symbols, maps, graphic organizers, infographics, graphs, timelines, flowcharts. 59
  60. 60. IN PRACTICE • Students of class 8 of my School worked in groups to research on topics of their choice and prepared infographics as the end product, to illustrate what they have learnt. • A checklist or a rubric to assess Visual literacy should include organization, labelling, use of colour etc. This will help the students to understand the grading criteria and it will also ensure consistency on the part of the teacher. 60
  61. 61. A CHECKLIST OR RUBRIC FOR ASSESING STUDENT WORK • • • • • • Interprets symbols used in the imagery. Understands meanings and draws inferences. Compares source to other resources on the topic Draws on previous knowledge to make meaning. Critically analyzes the work. Translates images into written language in one‟s own words. • Creates a visual response to the work. 61
  62. 62. TECHNOLOGY LITERACY • 8 to 18 year olds are spending 8 to 10 hours a day interfacing with media in the form of TV, music, computer, smart phones, video games. • Nicholas Carr states that deep reading is being replaced by superficial and cursory learning, die to the bombardment of the brain with constant stimuli. • In his research found that digital natives are better at multitasking and short term decision making and less capable of complex reasoning and emotional aptitudes like empathy. 62
  63. 63. THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE TEACHER • The teacher‟s role has changed from a deliverer of information to that of a conductor of learning who helps the students to reflect and apply what they have learnt. • Thus, assessment too must be flexible. Multiple methods using multiple modalities will help students demonstrate their skills and knowledge in many ways. • Technology will both guide and track learning and support assessment. 63
  64. 64. ASSESSMENT • • • • • • • • Rubrics and checklists Student contracts Learning logs Thinking and acting logs and journals Peer and self assessment Observation, student conferences Portfolio work Storytelling 64
  65. 65. CIVIC & CITIZENSHIP SKILLS • These are the skills that we need to live in a world that we cannot visualize today. • Studies have shown that these skills can be explicitly taught.( • Value of civic engagement has shown to improve with participation, increased understanding, tolerance and respect for others. 65
  66. 66. IN PRACTICE • Prepare a skit on Historical figures and present them to the elementary/junior school students. • Topic Day: Students can research topics like „Services for seniors‟, „Health care for the underprivileged children‟ prepare and present a product like a ppt, poster, prezi, tweet, infograph, website, blog etc. 66
  67. 67. GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING • Cultural awareness to recognize, respect and accept the interdependence of all cultures and countries. • Education should empower students to build a knowledge of global issues. 67
  68. 68. IN PRACTICE • Student exchange programs provide both the cultures an opportunity to learn from each other! • Youth for Understanding is an International Cultural program that my school is participating in. 68
  69. 69. COLLEGE AND CAREER / WORKPLACE SKILLS • Begin with a good foundation in core areas, but academic knowledge alone is not enough. • Students should be able to rise to higher levels of Blooms Taxonomy, solve problems, draw on their creativity, and are insightful into how they think and learn. • Communication, Collaboration, Technology expertise build workplace skills that employees value. • The emphasis on college and career skills to reduce the gap between skills learnt in high school and skills needed in college and the workplace. 69
  70. 70. MYTHS AND TRUTHS ABOUT 21ST CENTURY TEACHING, LEARNING & ASSESSING MYTHS TRUTHS It is not for everyone Students of all ages, grades, subjects, genders, cultures and achievement levels benefit from it. It is too hard for some students When used thoughtfully and appropriately, all level of students benefit. Classrooms will become chaotic There may be some messiness, but learning occurs in a non linear fashion It is more important to teach core content Core content must be integrated with 21st century skills, as they support each other. They must be assessed together It makes more work for the teachers It is a change that requires a different approach to teaching and assessing. It will replace tests It will increase the spectrum of assessment that are used to determine learning. 70
  71. 71. REFERENCES • Assessing 21st century skills by Laura Greenstein. • • 71