• It refers to the intentional addition of some unwanted
substances to food or the removal of valuable substance from
• Economic adulteration implies that food is adulterated by
dilution (adding water to milk), removal (removing 11% fat from
food and using 2% fat), or using substitutes (using Equal for
• "Adulteration" is a legal term meaning that a food product fails
to meet federal or state standards.
In 2012, a study in India conducted by the Food Safety Standards Authority
of India (FSSAI) across 33 states found that milk in India is adulterated with
detergent, fat and even urea, as well diluted with water. Of the 1791 random
samples from 33 states, just 31.5% of the samples tested (565) conformed
to the FSSAI standards while the rest 1226 (68.4%) failed the test.
Indian Veterinary Research Institute discovered in a survey in
2013 that 28 per cent of the eggs sampled in Bareilly,
Izzatnagar (Uttar Pradesh) and Dehradun(Uttarakhand) were
contaminated with E.coli.
Different Types of Food Adulteration
Intentional food adulteration:
• Sand, marble chips, stones, mud, other filth, talc , chalk
powder, water, mineral oil
Incidental food adulteration
Pesticide residues tin from can, droppings of rodents,
larvae in foods.
METALLIC FOOD ADULTERATION
Arsenic from pesticides, lead from water, mercury from
effluent, from chemical industries, tins from cans.
• Packaging Hazards
Polyethylene , polyvinyl chloride and allied compounds are used
to produce flexible packaging material.
DALS AND PULSES
• It can be separated by visual examination
Adulterant: Khesari Dal
• Health hazard: highly carcinogenic, stomach disorders.
GREEN CHILLIES, GREEN PEAS &OTHER
• Adulterant : Malachite Green,
• Health hazard: carcinogenic if consumed over a long period of time
Take a small part of the sample and place it on a piece of
moistened white blotting paper. The impression of colour on the
paper indicates the use of malachite green, or any other low
priced artificial colour.
• Adulterant : water,starch
• The presence of water can be analyzed by putting a drop of
milk on a polished slanting surface.
• The drop of pure milk flow slowly leaving a white mark behind it.
• Adulterated milk flow immediately without leaving a mark.
• 2 ml of milk is taken in a test tube
• Add few drops of iodine solution .Formation of blue colour
indicates the presence of starch.
DETECTION OF DETERGENT IN MILK
1.TAKE 5-10 ML OF SAMPLES WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF
2.SHAKE THE CONTENTS THOROUGHLY.
3.IF MILK IS ADULTERATED WITH DETERGENT ,IT FORMS DENSE
4.PURE MILK WILL FORM VERY THIN FOAM LAYER DUE TO
MUSTARD SEEDS AND MUSTARD OIL
• Take small quality of mustard seeds in glass plate.
• Examine visually for the argemone seeds.
• Mustard seeds have smooth and when pressed,inside it is yellow colour.
• Argemone seeds have grainy, rough surface and black in colour. When
pressed, inside it is white in colour.
• Adulterant : Argemone seeds,
•Health hazard: epidemic dropsy and severe glaucoma
REASONS FOR ADULTERATION
• To get more profit.
• High demand.
• To increase the weight.
• To increase volume of trade by showing lower prices.
• Lack of proper food laws.
• Outdated processing techniques.
• Lack of government initiatives.
• Not aware of its effects.
• Adulterant: Pepperonil, Ethylacetate,Butraldehyde, Nitrate,
Washing powder etc
• Health hazard: Pepperonil is used as a pesticide and ethyl
acetate causes diseases affecting lungs, kidneys and heart.
• Detection :
• Pure coffee will always float on the water.
• If there are powdered tamarind seeds, they will sink to bottom
• Adulterant : Tamarind seeds,
• Health hazard: diarrohea, stomach disorders,
giddiness and severe joint pains
• Adulterant: vanaspathi
• One teaspoonful of melted sample is taken and added equal
quantity of conc.HCl to it. Added a pinch of sugar ,shaken for
one minute and kept aside for 5 minutes. Appearance of
crimson colour indicates the presence of vanaspati or
• Adulterant :urea, chalk powder
• If Urea is present it gives the smell of ammonia when dissolved
• 10g of sample is dissolved in a 50 ml of water allowed for
settling, chalk will settle down at the bottom.
Adulterant: Saw Dust
• Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample.
• Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at
the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
• Adulterant: sugar solution
• Cotton wick is dipped in honey and burnt over flame.
• The presence of water will not allow honey to burn and it will
produces cracking sound.
• Adulterant :washing soda
• Small amount of Jaggary solution is taken and added few drops
• Formation of effervescence shows the presence of
• Adulterant :iron flakes
• Small quantity of the sample is spread over a paper,
• A magnet was drawn over it, if iron flakes are present
clings to the magnet.
• Adulterant: bricks powder
• Add teaspoon of chilli powder to a glass of plain water.
• It may turn reddish-brown due to presence of brick powder.
• Pure red chilli powder does not really dissolve in water.
• Adulterant : papaya seeds
• Papaya seeds easily floating on water surface
• But, black pepper deposited at the bottom
• Adulterant :common salt
• A piece of potato is taken and added salt to it, after a minute
• Two drops of lime juice is added, In case of iodized salt blue colour will
• In case of common salt there will be no coloration.
• Adulterant: saw dust, lead chromate
• Small amount of sample is taken in a test tube, added few drops of
• The pink color is observed, Indicates saw dust.
• The sample is dissolved in dil. HCl. Then H2S gas is passed into the
• Black precipitate indicates the presence of Lead chromate.
• Adulterant :other oils
• A small bottle of oil is placed in a refrigerator.
• Coconut oil solidifies leaving the adulterant as a separate layer.
BAN ON MAGGI
• • It all started with the sampling and testing of Maggi by the
office of Commissioner of Food Safety, Uttar Pradesh
The FSSAI then advised the Commissioners of Food Safety in
various states to draw samples of Maggi and get the same
tested from authorized laboratories.
Three major violations have been noted by the
• Presence of Lead detected in the product in excess of the
maximum permissible levels of 2.5 ppm
• Misleading labelling information on the package reading “No added
• Release of a non-standardised food product in the market, viz.
“Maggi Oats Masala Noodles with Tastemaker” without risk
assessment and grant of product approval.
MSG: THE NOTORIOUS TASTE ENHANCER
• It is normally known as Ajinomoto, the secret ingredient is
actually called Monosodium Glutamate (MSG).
• It interacts with the other flavuors (mainly salty and sour) and enhances the
taste by triggering the receptors of your taste buds.
• Excessive MSG consumption causes headache, flushing, sweating, facial
pressure, numbness, chest pain, nausea and weakness.
• it also cause brain damage and eye problems for children.
The Indian Parliament has recently passed the Food Safety and
Standards Act, 2006 that overrides all other food related laws.
1.Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
2.Fruit Products Order,1955
3.Meat Food Products Order ,1973;
4.Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947
5.Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order 1988
6.Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992.
PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION ACT,1954
• It came into existence on 1954
• The act concerns about public health and safety
• It mainly deals with the following aspects
1. To protect the public from poisonous and harmful foods.
2.To prevent the sale of substandard foods.
3.To protect the interests of the consumers by eliminating fraudulent
4.The act says that the ministry of health and family welfare is
responsible for ensuring safe food to the consumers.
FRUIT PRODUCTS ORDER, 1955
Requirements and quality standards
Sanitary and hygienic conditions of premises.
Portability of water .
Quality control facility and technical staff
Limits for preservatives and other additives.
MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS ORDER, 1973
• The order makes it mandatory for all entities engaged in the
business of manufacturing ,packing, repacking, re-labelling
meat food products for sale to be licensed.
• But, excluded for those who manufacture products for
consumption on the spot, such as restaurants, hotels and so
• Production of meat is governed by local laws.
• Slaughtering is a state subject, so slaughterhouses are
controlled by local health authorities.
Criteria for selection of food
• Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is
essential for daily life.
• It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual
examination when the toxic contaminants are present in
• Label declaration on packed food is very important
for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value .
• The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic
• Proper understanding of the adulteration issues.
• By knowing the difference between the natural and aesthetic
attributes [texture, appearance & taste] of foods
• Develop validated simple, quick and authentic test procedures to
scan the ingredients, additives & processing aids for positive
• Make practically feasible rules, requirements and regulations on the
adulterants and updating them at regular intervals.
• Update of information regarding outbreaks of food safety issues
pertaining to adulteration.
FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS AUTHORITY OF
• It was started in 2011,located in New Delhi.
• The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been
established under Food Safety and Standards Act,2006
• FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for
articles of food
• To regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to
ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS)
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India,
resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization,
Certification and Quality
• Harmonious development of standardization ,marketing and quality
• To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control.
• To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and
integrating them with growth and development of production and exports.
The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection enforces the Agricultural
Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937. Under this Act Grade standards
are prescribed for agricultural and allied products.
• Quality Certification Mark .
• It ensures quality and purity of a product.
• It acts as a Third Party Guarantee to Quality Certified.
• Quality standards for agricultural commodities are framed based on their