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H2020 CLINT - Challenges in developing
an AI-Enhanced operational demonstrator
of sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting
of detection and attribution of heatwaves
and warm nights
H. Loukos (the climate data factory) with input from
I. Pechlivanidis (SMHI) and V. Torralba (CMCC)
3rd WMO Workshop on Operational Climate Prediction
OCP3 - 20-22 September 2022 - Lisbon
Service & data provider
Climate data management
& processing
H2020 CLINT
Climate Intelligence
AI/ML framework
Detection/Causation/Attribution
Extreme Events + impacts
S2S + Projections
15 partners
2021-2025
H2020 CLINT
15 partners
EXTREME EVENTS
Tropical Cyclones
Heatwaves and Warm Nights
Extreme Droughts
Compound Events and
Concurrent Extreme Events
EXTREME EVENTS
IMPACTS
Water-Food-Energy Nexus
● Water
○ Floods
○ Hydrological drought risk
● Food
○ Crop yield
○ Crop suitability
○ Areas of concerns
● Energy
○ Power generation cost
○ Load cuts
○ Carbon intensity
Growing
societal demand
for extreme event
attribution
Near real time
attribution of extreme
weather events
is possible
From Raising
Risk Awareness
Project 2017
Challenges in developing an
AI-Enhanced operational demonstrator
of sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting
of detection and attribution
of heatwaves and warm nights
Scientific - Technical - Computational - (Communicational)
Scientific
Improve Detection
Improve Forecast
Improve Attribution
of Heatwaves/Warm nights
● Detect/define H/WN
○ Indices: many definitions of Heatwaves
○ Drivers (causation/detection)
● Forecast
○ Member picking
○ Seamless S2S
○ What are we actually forecasting?
● Attribution
○ Existing Frameworks/Methods
eg Oldenborgh et al. 2021, Leach et al. 2021.
○ Not many references using ML
○ Which ones are applicable to forecast?
van Oldenborgh et al. 2021 Pathways and pitfalls in extreme event
attribution.
Leach et al, 2021. Forecast-based attribution of a winter heat wave
within the limit of predictability.
Prodhomme, C., Materia, S., Ardilouze, C., White, R. H., Batté, L., Guemas, V., ... & García-Serrano, J.
(2022). Seasonal prediction of European summer heatwaves. Climate Dynamics, 58(7), 2149-2166.
Heat Wave
Magnitude
Index (HWMI)
Summer
heatwave
propensity
(THWMI)
Prodhomme, C., Materia, S., Ardilouze, C., White, R. H., Batté, L., Guemas, V., ... & García-Serrano, J.
(2022). Seasonal prediction of European summer heatwaves. Climate Dynamics, 58(7), 2149-2166.
“Useful
information at the
regional scale up
to two months
ahead for THWM
integrated over
one, two or three
months for the
whole European
domain, the
Mediterranean
region and
Eastern Europe.”
Illustration …
Carvalho-Oliveira, J., Borchert, L. F., Zorita, E., & Baehr, J. (2022). Self-organizing maps identify
windows of opportunity for seasonal European summer predictions. Frontiers in Climate, 4.
Set 1: Training & Evaluation (1902-2008) Set 2 Verification (1980-2016)
From Befort, D. J., Brunner, L., Borchert, L. F., O’reilly, C. H., Mignot, J., Ballinger, A. P., ... & Weisheimer, A. (2022).
Combination of decadal predictions and climate projections in time: Challenges and potential solutions. Geophysical
Research Letters, 49(15), e2022GL098568..
“ML post-processing can act as a bridge between the
physical representation of the atmosphere provided by
numerical weather prediction and the decision-making
requirements of end-users.”
Haupt et al. 2021 Towards implementing artificial intelligence post-processing in
weather and climate, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 379: 20200091.
Technical
Data availability
Data handling and
processing
Coherency
● Data availability
○ Exploit large reanalysis datasets
■ ERA5 (1950-now, 0.25°, Hourly)
■ ERA20C (1900-2010, 1°, 3-Hourly)
■ 20CrV3 (1836-2015, 1°, 3-Hourly)
○ Exploit large S2S datasets
■ C3S (seasonal), S2S project
■ ML benchmarks datasets ?
■ But hindcast period is 20y (need more)
● Data handling and processing
○ Burst & Lagued forecast members
(complicates processing & intercomparison)
○ Object storage: NCZarr (NetCDF+zarr)
○ CDO libraries optimisation/validation
● Coherency
○ Daily data calibration (Quant. Mapping &co)
○ Forecast calibration/Indicator definition
○ Between forecasted indicators (if ML training
specific to each one)
Computational
(Cloud)
Performance/Cost
Budget
● Performance/Cost ratio
○ Acceptable performance and cost
○ Time of delivery vs original forecast
○ Costs vs skill (forecast’s added value)
Cost-function including HW/WN - CS tailoring
● Budget
○ Cloud benefits
■ Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC)
■ Serverless (compute environment)
■ Easy testing/scaling
○ Project necessary resources are unspecified
■ Project budget will shape the demo
Seasonal BA-Calibration batch chain (cloud):
1 model 1 variable 50 members Global 1°
T1 T2 T3 T4
T5
T6 T7 T8
C2
T5
C2 M2 M2
M16
R8 M2 C2
M16
Batch
(Code)
Instances
46’ 10’ 56’ 31’ 90’ 53’ 9’ 20’
Time
(5.5H)
(3 Lead times)
SSD
FSX200
(125-1000 MB/S)
Conclusion
Hope we can make it
Thank you
harilaos@theclimatedatafactory.com

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Presentation at the 3rd Workshop on operational climate prediction

  • 1. H2020 CLINT - Challenges in developing an AI-Enhanced operational demonstrator of sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting of detection and attribution of heatwaves and warm nights H. Loukos (the climate data factory) with input from I. Pechlivanidis (SMHI) and V. Torralba (CMCC) 3rd WMO Workshop on Operational Climate Prediction OCP3 - 20-22 September 2022 - Lisbon
  • 2. Service & data provider Climate data management & processing
  • 3. H2020 CLINT Climate Intelligence AI/ML framework Detection/Causation/Attribution Extreme Events + impacts S2S + Projections 15 partners 2021-2025
  • 5. EXTREME EVENTS Tropical Cyclones Heatwaves and Warm Nights Extreme Droughts Compound Events and Concurrent Extreme Events
  • 6. EXTREME EVENTS IMPACTS Water-Food-Energy Nexus ● Water ○ Floods ○ Hydrological drought risk ● Food ○ Crop yield ○ Crop suitability ○ Areas of concerns ● Energy ○ Power generation cost ○ Load cuts ○ Carbon intensity
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  • 10. Near real time attribution of extreme weather events is possible From Raising Risk Awareness Project 2017
  • 11. Challenges in developing an AI-Enhanced operational demonstrator of sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting of detection and attribution of heatwaves and warm nights Scientific - Technical - Computational - (Communicational)
  • 12. Scientific Improve Detection Improve Forecast Improve Attribution of Heatwaves/Warm nights ● Detect/define H/WN ○ Indices: many definitions of Heatwaves ○ Drivers (causation/detection) ● Forecast ○ Member picking ○ Seamless S2S ○ What are we actually forecasting? ● Attribution ○ Existing Frameworks/Methods eg Oldenborgh et al. 2021, Leach et al. 2021. ○ Not many references using ML ○ Which ones are applicable to forecast? van Oldenborgh et al. 2021 Pathways and pitfalls in extreme event attribution. Leach et al, 2021. Forecast-based attribution of a winter heat wave within the limit of predictability.
  • 13. Prodhomme, C., Materia, S., Ardilouze, C., White, R. H., Batté, L., Guemas, V., ... & García-Serrano, J. (2022). Seasonal prediction of European summer heatwaves. Climate Dynamics, 58(7), 2149-2166. Heat Wave Magnitude Index (HWMI) Summer heatwave propensity (THWMI)
  • 14. Prodhomme, C., Materia, S., Ardilouze, C., White, R. H., Batté, L., Guemas, V., ... & García-Serrano, J. (2022). Seasonal prediction of European summer heatwaves. Climate Dynamics, 58(7), 2149-2166. “Useful information at the regional scale up to two months ahead for THWM integrated over one, two or three months for the whole European domain, the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe.”
  • 15. Illustration … Carvalho-Oliveira, J., Borchert, L. F., Zorita, E., & Baehr, J. (2022). Self-organizing maps identify windows of opportunity for seasonal European summer predictions. Frontiers in Climate, 4. Set 1: Training & Evaluation (1902-2008) Set 2 Verification (1980-2016)
  • 16. From Befort, D. J., Brunner, L., Borchert, L. F., O’reilly, C. H., Mignot, J., Ballinger, A. P., ... & Weisheimer, A. (2022). Combination of decadal predictions and climate projections in time: Challenges and potential solutions. Geophysical Research Letters, 49(15), e2022GL098568..
  • 17. “ML post-processing can act as a bridge between the physical representation of the atmosphere provided by numerical weather prediction and the decision-making requirements of end-users.” Haupt et al. 2021 Towards implementing artificial intelligence post-processing in weather and climate, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 379: 20200091.
  • 18. Technical Data availability Data handling and processing Coherency ● Data availability ○ Exploit large reanalysis datasets ■ ERA5 (1950-now, 0.25°, Hourly) ■ ERA20C (1900-2010, 1°, 3-Hourly) ■ 20CrV3 (1836-2015, 1°, 3-Hourly) ○ Exploit large S2S datasets ■ C3S (seasonal), S2S project ■ ML benchmarks datasets ? ■ But hindcast period is 20y (need more) ● Data handling and processing ○ Burst & Lagued forecast members (complicates processing & intercomparison) ○ Object storage: NCZarr (NetCDF+zarr) ○ CDO libraries optimisation/validation ● Coherency ○ Daily data calibration (Quant. Mapping &co) ○ Forecast calibration/Indicator definition ○ Between forecasted indicators (if ML training specific to each one)
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  • 20. Computational (Cloud) Performance/Cost Budget ● Performance/Cost ratio ○ Acceptable performance and cost ○ Time of delivery vs original forecast ○ Costs vs skill (forecast’s added value) Cost-function including HW/WN - CS tailoring ● Budget ○ Cloud benefits ■ Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC) ■ Serverless (compute environment) ■ Easy testing/scaling ○ Project necessary resources are unspecified ■ Project budget will shape the demo
  • 21. Seasonal BA-Calibration batch chain (cloud): 1 model 1 variable 50 members Global 1° T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 C2 T5 C2 M2 M2 M16 R8 M2 C2 M16 Batch (Code) Instances 46’ 10’ 56’ 31’ 90’ 53’ 9’ 20’ Time (5.5H) (3 Lead times) SSD FSX200 (125-1000 MB/S)
  • 22. Conclusion Hope we can make it Thank you harilaos@theclimatedatafactory.com