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Early mederterranean wine trade


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An introduction to some of the earlier players in the wine trade and thier legacy today

Early mederterranean wine trade

  1. 1. Early Mediterranean Wine Trade By Catherine Hardiman
  2. 2. Introduction The history of wine- growing is as old as the ark. When Noah’s ark is said to have come to rest somewhere in the eastern region of Turkey, he planted grapes. Carbon dating of grape pip concentrations amongst pottery remains, found at various sites nearby , estimate that they date back to 5000B.C. Since that time the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans to name just some, fostered viticulture and the art of wine making, either by establishing vineyards in lands that they conquered, or by trading wine with other peoples for necessary commodities.
  3. 3. Ancient Egypt (3000-30BC) <ul><li>Wine – the drink of Egyptian aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>both sweet and dry red and white wines made </li></ul><ul><li>Best vineyards in the Delta region </li></ul><ul><li>Grapevines grown on overhead trellises </li></ul>
  4. 4. Egyptian Grape Harvesting
  5. 5. Egyptian Winemaking
  6. 6. The Phoenicians (about 1200BC-) <ul><li>Diligent students of viticulture and winemaking re-cording ancient knowledge (Carthaginian Treatises) </li></ul><ul><li>A shipping nation, they dominated early wine trade </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the use of amphorae or the “Canaanite jar” for storage and transport of wine. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled craftsmen in pottery, textiles, ivory ware and metal work (demand for these also all over the Mediterranean and Near East.) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Phoenician Winemaking
  8. 8. Phoenician Trade Routes
  9. 9. Winemaking in Ancient Greece (800-300BC)
  10. 10. Greek Wine Trade Routes
  11. 11. Greek Amphora
  12. 12. The Gauls
  13. 13. Gaul Territory
  14. 14. Gaul Barrels
  15. 15. The Roman Conquerors (of Gaul)
  16. 16. Domitien’s Decree <ul><li>In 92 AD Emporor Domitien decreed that the vineyards in Gaul be destroyed and corn be planted instead </li></ul><ul><li>A veiled attempt to protect the Italian wine market by ensuring that restricting wine production in Gaul would inflate Italian wine prices </li></ul><ul><li>Decree not fully lifted until 276AD (by Emporor Probus </li></ul>
  17. 17. Roman Barrels <ul><li>After the conquest of the Gauls, the Romans adopted the use of wooden barrels (from the Gauls) instead of using skins or earthernware pots to store wine </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden barrels proved to be lighter, more easy to manoeuvre and transport over </li></ul><ul><li>land </li></ul>
  18. 18. Roman Empire 117AD
  19. 19. Roman contribution to Wine History <ul><li>The Romans carried vines with them wherever they fought or conquered </li></ul><ul><li>They recorded their observations about grapes and vines (including pest and disease susceptibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Are credited with placing France at the hub of the world wine industry </li></ul>
  20. 20. References   Dal Piaz, G. (2009). Introduction to sweet wine. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from   Dal Piaz, G. (2009). The history of wine part three: Wine storage – barrels. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from   Dal Piaz, G. (2009). Wine storage – the early days: The basic material – pottery. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from   Nurse, K. (1994). The last of the (Roman) summer wine. History Today , 44, 1.   Pellechia, T. (2006). Wine: The eight –thousand – year – old story of the wine trade. New York: Thunder’s Mouth. Unwin, T. (1996). Wine and the vine: An historical geography of viticulture and the wine trade. New York: Routledge.