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Running php on nginx

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Slides from my talk at the PHPSW Meetup in Bristol, UK in February 2015

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Running php on nginx

  1. 1. 1 #Dynatrace Proper  configura-on  for  high  performance  websites   Harald  Zeitlhofer   February  2015     Boost  your  website  by  running   PHP  on  Nginx   @HZeitlhofer   harald.zeitlhofer@dynatrace.com    
  2. 2. 2 #Dynatrace Nginx  
  3. 3. 3 #Dynatrace • Lightweight  HTTP  server   • Fast  especially  at  high  load   • Open  Source  project  (BSD)     by  Igor  Sysoev   • Nginx,  Inc.  founded  in  2011   • Nginx+:  enhanced  func-onality   and  enterprise  support   •  Load  balancer   •  Media  server  
  4. 4. 4 #Dynatrace Leading  among     top  10.000  websites  
  5. 5. 5 #Dynatrace Nginx  vs  Apache  
  6. 6. 6 #Dynatrace Request  handling  
  7. 7. 7 #Dynatrace • mod_php   • mod_fcgid   • mod_fastcgi     Integra-on   • ngx_h+p_fastcgi_modul  
  8. 8. 8 #Dynatrace PHP   FastCGI  Process  Manager  
  9. 9. 9 #Dynatrace • Apache  Module   •  used  for  most  PHP  environments   • CGI   •  Command  Line  Interface  (CLI)   • FastCGI  (PHP-­‐FPM)   •  Available  since  5.3.3,  stable  since  5.4.1   •  Run  mul-ple  PHP  worker  processes  to  serve  CGI  requests   •  Mul-ple  connec-on  pools  (different  uid/gid  environments  possible)   •  Isola-on  from  webserver  (fastcgi_finish_request)   PHP  run  modes  
  10. 10. 10 #Dynatrace • Installa-on     • Pool  configura-on   /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf PHP-­‐FPM   [www] user = www-data group = www-data listen = 127.0.0.1:9000 # for Unix socket: unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock; root@hzvm01:/etc/nginx/sites-enabled# ps -ef | grep php root 6435 1 0 14:39 ? 00:00:32 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf) spelix 6439 6435 0 14:39 ? 00:00:00 php-fpm: pool batch spelix 6440 6435 0 14:39 ? 00:00:00 php-fpm: pool batch www-data 10576 6435 1 18:45 ? 00:00:48 php-fpm: pool www www-data 10920 6435 1 18:47 ? 00:00:47 php-fpm: pool www www-data 10927 6435 1 18:47 ? 00:00:46 php-fpm: pool www sudo apt-get install php5-fpm
  11. 11. 11 #Dynatrace • Pool  configura-on   /etc/php5/fpm/pool.d/www.conf PHP-­‐FPM   [pool_name] ... pm = [dynamic/static] pm.max_children = 10 ;only used for dynamic: pm.start_servers = 2 pm.min_spare_servers = 1 pm.max_spare_servers = 3 pm.max_children      =  total  available  memory  /  memory  used  by  1  PHP  process  
  12. 12. 12 #Dynatrace Nginx  and  PHP-­‐FPM   Integra-on  
  13. 13. 13 #Dynatrace • /etc/nginx/nginx.conf       # max_clients = worker_processes * worker_connections worker_processes 8; # number of CPUs worker_rlimit_nofile 40000; events { worker_connections 1024; multi_accept on; }
  14. 14. 14 #Dynatrace • Communica-on  via  sockets   •  TCP  vs  Unix   •  Unix  slightly  faster  when  used  on  localhost   •  Use  TCP  for  high  load   location ~* .php$ { fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name; } fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
  15. 15. 15 #Dynatrace Nginx  –  PHP  transac-on  flow  
  16. 16. 16 #Dynatrace •  Sta-c  content  to  be  served  by  Nginx   •  Dynamic  requests  to  be  sent  to  PHP-­‐FPM   Integra-on   server { listen 80; root /var/www/test; index index.php index.html index.htm; server_name test.whateveryourdomain.is; location ~ .(html|js|css|gif|jpg|jpe|jpeg|png|bmp|tif|pdf|ico)$ { try_files $uri @notfound; } location / { try_files $uri $uri/ =404; } location ~* .php$ { fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_pass php; include fastcgi_params; } }
  17. 17. 17 #Dynatrace hdp://www.mysite.com/news/browse/2014   è  to  be  handled  by  index.php   URL  rewrite   ... RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-l RewriteRule ^(.+)$ index.php ...
  18. 18. 18 #Dynatrace hdp://www.mysite.com/news/browse/2014   è  to  be  handled  by  index.php   URL  rewrite   upstream php { server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock; } server { listen 80; root /var/www; index index.php index.html index.htm; server_name www.mysite.com; location / { try_files $uri $uri/ @missing; } location @missing { rewrite (.*) /index.php; } location ~ .php$ { fastcgi_index index.php; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_pass php; } }
  19. 19. 19 #Dynatrace using  Nginx/PHP-­‐FPM  there’s  a  beder  way:   URL  rewrite   upstream php { server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock; } server { listen 80; root /var/www; index index.php index.html index.htm; server_name www.mysite.com; location /images { try_files $uri $uri/ =404; } location /scripts { try_files $uri $uri/ =404; } location / { fastcgi_index index.php; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /var/www/index.php; fastcgi_pass php; } } <?php $params = explode('/', trim($_SERVER["DOCUMENT_URI"],'/')); ...
  20. 20. 20 #Dynatrace • Easy  way  to  deploy  your  applica-on   • All  source  files  packed  into  one  *.phar  file   PHAR  –  PHP  Archives   location ~* .(php|phar)$ { fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root/myapp.phar; }
  21. 21. 21 #Dynatrace PHAR  example   root@hzvm01:/var/www/app/src# ls -lrtR .: total 8 drwxrwxr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 10 16:27 lib -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 27 Oct 10 16:27 index.php ./lib: total 4 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 87 Oct 10 16:27 App.php root@hzvm01:/var/www/app/src# cat index.php <?php $app = new App(); ?> root@hzvm01:/var/www/app/src# cat lib/App.php <?php class App { function __construct() { echo "Starting Applicationn"; } }
  22. 22. 22 #Dynatrace PHAR  example   location /myapp { fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root/myapp.phar; } root@hzvm01:/var/www/app# phar pack -f myapp.phar src lib/App.php index.php root@hzvm01:/var/www/app# l myapp.phar -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6923 Oct 10 19:51 myapp.phar
  23. 23. 23 #Dynatrace PHAR  execu-on  
  24. 24. 24 #Dynatrace Performance  
  25. 25. 25 #Dynatrace • Nginx  running  with  default  sehngs   • Apache   •  AllowOverride  None   •  Mul--­‐process  mode  to  allow  usage  of  mod_php   Benchmarking  Nginx  vs  Apache  
  26. 26. 26 #Dynatrace Sta-c  HTML,  10k  requests   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   100   500   1000   2000   Apache/2.4.9   nginx/1.1.19   concurrency   Total  response  -me  [sec]  
  27. 27. 27 #Dynatrace Nginx  and  Caching  
  28. 28. 28 #Dynatrace • Part  of  the  Nginx  FastCGI  module   Nginx  FastCGI  cache   fastcgi_cache_path /etc/nginx/cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=APPKEY:100m inactive=60m; fastcgi_cache_key "$scheme$request_method$host$request_uri"; location ~* .php$ { fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_cache APPKEY; fastcgi_cache_valid 200 60m; }
  29. 29. 29 #Dynatrace Tes-ng  FastCGI  cache  
  30. 30. 30 #Dynatrace Tes-ng  FastCGI  cache  
  31. 31. 31 #Dynatrace Tes-ng  FastCGI  cache   <?php echo time()."n"; ?>
  32. 32. 32 #Dynatrace • ngx_hdp_memcached_module   Full  page  cache  with  Nginx  and  Memcached   server { location / { set $memcached_key "$uri"; memcached_pass localhost:11211; error_page 404 502 504 = @fallback; } location @fallback { proxy_pass http://backend; } }
  33. 33. 33 #Dynatrace • PHP     Full  page  cache  with  Nginx  and  Memcached   <?php ... function cachePage($content) { $c = new Memcached(); $c->addServer('localhost',11211); $c->set($_SERVER[”REQUEST_URI"], $content); } ... $content = $this->renderPage(); $this->cachePage($content); ... ?>
  34. 34. 34 #Dynatrace PHP,  5k  requests,  concurrency  100   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   Apache+PHP   Nginx+PHP   Nginx+Memcached   <?php echo “Hello World”; ?>
  35. 35. 35 #Dynatrace Server Software: Apache/2.4.7 Server Hostname: test.hzvm01 Server Port: 88 Document Path: /index.php Document Length: 10 bytes Concurrency Level: 100 Time taken for tests: 7.296 seconds Complete requests: 5000 Failed requests: 0 Total transferred: 985000 bytes HTML transferred: 50000 bytes Requests per second: 685.31 [#/sec] (mean) Time per request: 145.920 [ms] (mean) Time per request: 1.459 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests) Transfer rate: 131.84 [Kbytes/sec] received Connection Times (ms) min mean[+/-sd] median max Connect: 0 6 6.5 4 56 Processing: 30 138 57.2 120 938 Waiting: 30 135 56.4 117 937 Total: 55 144 55.8 126 938 PHP,  5k  requests,  concurrency  100  
  36. 36. 36 #Dynatrace Server Software: Nginx + PHP Server Hostname: test.hzvm01 Server Port: 80 Document Path: /index.php Document Length: 10 bytes Concurrency Level: 100 Time taken for tests: 4.514 seconds Complete requests: 5000 Failed requests: 0 Total transferred: 625000 bytes HTML transferred: 50000 bytes Requests per second: 1107.62 [#/sec] (mean) Time per request: 90.284 [ms] (mean) Time per request: 0.903 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests) Transfer rate: 135.21 [Kbytes/sec] received Connection Times (ms) min mean[+/-sd] median max Connect: 0 2 3.2 1 38 Processing: 22 88 13.1 87 148 Waiting: 21 87 13.1 86 148 Total: 42 89 12.5 88 148 PHP,  5k  requests,  concurrency  100  
  37. 37. 37 #Dynatrace Server Software: Nginx + Memcached Server Hostname: test.hzvm01 Server Port: 82 Document Path: /index.php Document Length: 23 bytes Concurrency Level: 100 Time taken for tests: 3.058 seconds Complete requests: 5000 Failed requests: 0 Total transferred: 865000 bytes HTML transferred: 115000 bytes Requests per second: 1634.92 [#/sec] (mean) Time per request: 61.165 [ms] (mean) Time per request: 0.612 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests) Transfer rate: 276.21 [Kbytes/sec] received Connection Times (ms) min mean[+/-sd] median max Connect: 7 24 6.0 24 59 Processing: 8 36 7.8 36 75 Waiting: 6 28 7.4 29 69 Total: 32 60 9.3 60 101 PHP,  5k  requests,  concurrency  100  
  38. 38. 38 #Dynatrace • set  HTTP  response  expires  header   Client  Side  Caching   location ~ .(html|js|css|gif|jpg|jpe|jpeg|png|bmp|tif|pdf|ico)$ { expires 90d; access_log off; error_log off; try_files $uri =404; }
  39. 39. 39 #Dynatrace • keep  handlers  for  requested  sta-c  files  open   Filehandle  Caching   open_file_cache max=1000 inactive=5m; open_file_cache_valid 60s; open_file_cache_min_uses 5; open_file_cache_errors off;
  40. 40. 40 #Dynatrace •  ngx_hdp_upstream_module   Load  balancing  PHP   upstream php_loadbalancer { ip_hash; server unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock weight=5; server 192.168.56.12:7777 weight=2; server 192.168.56.13:7777; } server { listen 80; root /home/www/test; server_name test.hzvm01; location / { try_files $uri =405; } location ~ .php$ { fastcgi_pass php_loadbalancer; fastcgi_index index.php; include fastcgi_params; } }
  41. 41. 41 #Dynatrace Load  balancing  PHP  
  42. 42. 42 #Dynatrace Load  balancing  /  Reverse  Proxy   upstream backend { ip_hash; server 192.168.56.11 weight=5; server 192.168.56.12 weight=2; server 192.168.56.13; } server { listen 80; root /var/www/mysite.com/html; server_name www.mysite.com; location / { try_files $uri =405; proxy_pass http://backend; } }
  43. 43. 43 #Dynatrace Reverse  Proxy  /  Load  balancing  /  Caching   proxy_cache_path /etc/nginx/cache keys_zone=APPKEY:10m; proxy_cache_key "$host$request_uri$cookie_user"; proxy_cache_min_uses 5; proxy_cache_methods GET HEAD; proxy_cache_valid 200 302 10m; proxy_cache_valid 404 1m; upstream backend { ip_hash; server 192.168.56.11 weight=5; server 192.168.56.12 weight=2; server 192.168.56.13; } server { listen 80; root /var/www/mysite.com/html; server_name www.mysite.com; proxy_cache APPKEY; location / { proxy_pass http://backend; } }
  44. 44. 44 #Dynatrace Performance  Monitoring  
  45. 45. 45 #Dynatrace End-­‐To-­‐End  Monitoring  
  46. 46. 46 #Dynatrace User  Experience  Management  
  47. 47. 47 #Dynatrace
  48. 48. 48 #Dynatrace
  49. 49. 49 #Dynatrace • Load  Generator  (Apache  Benchmark,  JMeter)   • Firebug,  Google  Developer  Tools   Dynatrace  Ajax  Edi-on   • Google  PageSpeed   • Dynatrace  Free  Trial   •  Free  trial  license  for  30  days   •  Free  for  developers  on  local  machine   Tools   hdp://bit.ly/ddrial  
  50. 50. 50 #Dynatrace Thank You harald.zeitlhofer@dynatrace.com   @HZeitlhofer     www.dynatrace.com  

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