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Management theories


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Management theories

  1. 1. Theories of Management CI 442
  2. 2. Management Theories Theorists Skinner Rogers Kounin Kohn Gibbs Brophy Wong Jones Mendler and Curwin Glasser Gordon Hewitt Canter Dreikurs Bennett
  3. 3. Classroom Management as Reaction to Discipline Problems • Skinner’s Behavioural Management Theory
  4. 4. Skinner – Behavioural Management Definition: The practice of providing consequences for both positive and negative behaviour. The teacher develops a process of systematically applying rewards (reinforcements) and consequences for behaviour.
  5. 5. Skinner – Behavioural Management This model of classroom management is also known as: • behaviourism • behavioural techniques • behaviour modification • social-learning theory
  6. 6. Classroom Management with a Preventative Approach • • • • • • Carl Rogers Jacob Kounin Alfie Kohn Jeanne Gibbs Jere Brophy Harry Wong
  7. 7. Carl Rogers • Experiential Learning and SelfActualization • Experiences need to be relevant, nonthreatening and participatory • Teachers need to be real, empathetic, understanding, and prize students • All students strive for self-actualization and self-fulfillment
  8. 8. Jacob Kounin • Effective Teaching includes group alerting and accountability, high participation and smooth transitions • Effective teachers are ‘with it’, use the ripple effect, overlapping, and they don’t ‘dangle’, ‘flip flop or get distracted
  9. 9. Alfie Kohn • Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community” • There is a difference between ‘working with’ and ‘doing to’ classes • ‘Doing to’ classes include compliance, punishment and rewards, grading and reliance on marks or test results • ‘Working with” classes include active participation, high interest, discovery, and love of learning
  10. 10. Jeanne Gibbs • “Tribes” theory includes an emphasis on active listening, appreciation, mutual respect, the right to pass, a helping attitude, setting goals, monitoring progress and celebrating accomplishments • Tribes’ focus is on learning (incl. social learning), a caring culture, a community of learners and student-centredness • Tribes training includes various school groups including parents and administrators
  11. 11. Jere Brophy • “Classroom Strategy Study” • Good teaching includes enthusiasm, instructional goals, organization, and teacher as problem-solver • Good teachers present the concepts, include discussions and activities and give tasks to practise working with new knowledge • Assessments are used to provide feedback, to note the zone of proximal development and to develop/revise the curriculum • Students need to see the purposefulness of the curriculum
  12. 12. Harry Wong • ‘The Effective Teacher’ videos and ‘The First Days of School’ book • The first impressions are lasting • Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of groups is determined by the roles to be assumed • Important aspects of a class are teacher readiness, meeting students, a seating plan, ‘bell work’ and immediate feedback
  13. 13. Preventative and Reactive Strategies • • • • • Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin William Glasser Fred Jones Thomas Gordon Jean Hewitt
  14. 14. Mendler and Curwin • “Motivating Students Who Don’t Care” • ‘Discipline with Dignity’ • To motivate students: be a role-model. nurture responsibility not obedience, be fair, give natural and logical consequences, be private, try for win-win situation, control anger, diffuse power struggles and develop a plan
  15. 15. William Glasser • Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory • All humans have a need for love a feeling of selfworth • Steps: build a relationship, focus on behaviour not person, give student responsibility and evaluation, develop a plan, student commits to plan, follow-up and follow-through, move beyond class if necessary • Emphasize effort (redo, retake, revise), create hope, respect power, build relationships and express enthusiasm
  16. 16. Fred Jones “Positive Classroom Discipline” The teacher systematically strengthens desired behaviour while weakening inappropriate behaviour by using proximity control, negative reinforcement, incentives, body language and peer pressure.
  17. 17. Jones’ Four Step Model 1. Classroom Structure: setting up classroom rules, routines and the physical environment 2. Limit Setting: rule reinforcement through the use of body language, and low-key responses 3. Responsibility Training: establishment of group rewards or incentives to create group responsibility and accountability for behaviour 4. Back-up System: hierarchic organization of negative sanctions, a) Private with Student, b) Public within Classroom, c) Public with Two Professionals
  18. 18. Thomas Gordon Teacher Effectiveness Training (T.E.T.) Based on philosophy of Carl Rogers, I.e., children are inherently rational and, if directed and forced by teachers, will be stifled Assumptions: student is intrinsically motivated to be good, should be supported by an accepting relationship and is capable of solving own problems Teachers are taught to observe the behaviour, identify who owns the problem, demonstrate understanding, confront if necessary and use win-win problem-solving Curriculum design involves structured activities, student ownership, communication and analysis of learning
  19. 19. Jean Hewitt • “Playing Fair” • Based on the society’s concept of “fair “ behaviour • Steps: create positive environment, support student efforts for self-control,deal with problems immediately and monitor the class • All consequences should create learning • Have specific rules that consider safety and wellbeing of others • Avoid confrontations, power struggles or rumours
  20. 20. Reactive Strategies • • • • Lee and Marlene Canter Rudolf Dreikurs Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich B.F.Skinner
  21. 21. Canters’ Assertive Discipline Definition: The teacher’s response style sets the tone of the classroom as well as impacting on the student’s self-esteem and success. The Canters identified three basic response styles used by teachers when interacting with students
  22. 22. Canters’ Assertive Discipline Nonassertive Teachers These teachers fail to make their needs or wants known. They appear indecisive which confuses students. They threaten but students know there will be no follow through. Assertive Teachers These teachers clearly and firmly express their needs. They have positive expectations of students. They say what they mean, and mean what they say. They are consistent and fair.
  23. 23. Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences Definition: The teacher considers the motivation and goals of the student behaviour in the development of a management plan. • A more humanistic approach than just focusing on discipline. • The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to assist students in taking responsibility for their actions and behaviours.
  24. 24. Dreikurs’ Goals of Misbehaviour Based on Alfred Alder’s concept that all behaviour had a purpose or goal, Dreikurs identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour: 1. To seek attention 2. To gain power 3. To seek revenge for some perceived injustice 4. To avoid failure
  25. 25. Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences • • • • • Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour Must not involve moral judgments Must distinguish between the deed and the doer Must be applied in a non-threatening manner Must present choice for the student
  26. 26. Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich • “The Bumping Model” of the teacher’s responses to student misbehaviour • Increasingly severe responses by the teacher based on the degree of the student’s BUMP. • Implies that teacher must take more drastic measures as behaviour persists
  27. 27. The Bumping Model • • • • • Bump 1: Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response Bump 2: Square off Response Bump 3: Give choice Bump 4: Implied choice Bump 5: Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore, use humour…) • Bump 6: Informal Agreement • Bump 7,8, 9,10: Informal contracts with other persons involved
  28. 28. Common Elements of “Theories” • What do the theories have in common as prerequisites to good classroom management? • What are the features that differ among the theories?
  29. 29. Ultimately… • The teacher is responsible for establishing a community and for maintaining classroom control • The teacher is the difference between a chaotic or caring classroom • Effective classroom management includes: planning and implementing teaching strategies thoroughly , keeping students actively engaged in meaningful learning, and preventing disruptions through proactive management strategies. • When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour, careful thought should be applied to the situation to ensure that the self-esteem of the student is respected and to ensure that the consequences are realistic and appropriate
  30. 30. Good luck!