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Consumer Happiness & Well-Being

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Special session at the Marketing Trends Conference, Venice (Italy), 21-23 January, 2016.

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Consumer Happiness & Well-Being

  1. 1. CONSUMER HAPPINESS & WELL-BEING C. Gaston-Breton, ESCP Europe (Madrid) B. Heilbrunn, ESCP Europe (Paris)
  2. 2. CONTEXT: AN OVERUSED BUT UNDERINVESTIGATED TOPIC
  3. 3. MANAGERIAL CONTEXT Designing “happy products and services”, Delivering “happy experiences” 3
  4. 4. MANAGERIAL CONTEXT A Human vs. Customer centric approach to Marketing 4
  5. 5. MANAGERIAL CONTEXT 5 Source: ZenithOptimedia, 2015, The Pursuit of Happiness Study for Millenials (18-34 years old), based on 6,000 respondents across all continents Millenials are looking for meaningful life and relationships with the brands
  6. 6. MANAGERIAL CONTEXT 6 Source: ZenithOptimedia, 2015, The Pursuit of Happiness Study for Millenials (18-34 years old), based on 6,000 respondents across all continents
  7. 7. MANAGERIAL CONTEXT 7 Source: ZenithOptimedia, 2015, The Pursuit of Happiness Study for Millenials (18-34 years old), based on 6,000 respondents across all continents
  8. 8. RESEARCH CONTEXT Roundtable sessions at CB conferences Special session of the 2014 Association for Consumer Research (ACR) Conference, titled "What Makes People Happy? Antecedents and Consequences of Happiness.". 8
  9. 9. RESEARCH CONTEXT Research Dialogue in 2015 at Journal of Consumer Psychology (JCP) 9
  10. 10. RESEARCH CONTEXT Recent research papers in Journal of Consumer Research (JCR) 10 2016 2015
  11. 11. RESEARCH AGENDA i. Impact of Emotions (joy) / Attitudes (optimism) / Practices (mindfulness) on Consumption (consequences and drivers) ii. Measure of consumer happiness(es),happy products, services and experiences (measures) iii.Moderating influence of consumer characteristics (socio- demographics, psychographics, ..) on the relationship between happiness & consumption (moderators) 11
  12. 12. RESEARCH QUESTION 1. DRIVERS OF CONSUMER HAPPINESS
  13. 13. PITCH What makes you more happy: an experiential or a material purchase? 13
  14. 14. EXPERIENTIAL PURCHASES The distinction between Material and Experiential Purchases was first introduced by Van Boven and Gilovich (2003) “Spending money with the primary intention of acquiring a life experience _ an event or series of event that you personally encounter or live through” “Spending money with the primary intention of acquiring a material possession _ a tangible object you obtain and you keep in your possesion” Clothes (62%), TV & Computers (26%) “Having a TV” Cultural products (43%), Travel (32%), Restaurants (17%) “Having fun watching a TV program” EXPERIENTIAL PURCHASES MATERIAL PURCHASES EXPERIENTIAL PRODUCTS/BENEFITS MATERIAL PRODUCTS/BENEFITS 14
  15. 15. EXPERIENTIAL PURCHASES 15 Source: L.V Boven & T. Gilovich (2003) To Do or to Have? That is the question,, Journal of personality an social psychology, 85 (6) 1193-1202.
  16. 16. VALENCE OF THE OUTCOME Greater happiness for positive experiential purchases but also greater unhappiness for negative experiential purchases. 16 Source: L. Nicolao, J. Irwin, J. Goodman (2003) To Do or to Have? That is the question,, Journal of personality an social psychology, 85 (6) 1193-1202.
  17. 17. NATURE OF THE EXPERIENCE 17 Source: Bhattarcharjee and Mogilner (2014) Happiness from ordinary and extraordinary experiences, Journal of Consumer Behavior, 41, 1-17.
  18. 18. NATURE OF THE EXPERIENCE 18Source: Bhattarcharjee and Mogilner (2014) Happiness from ordinary and extraordinary experiences, Journal of Consumer Behavior, 41, 1-17.
  19. 19. UNDERLYING PROCESSES “The ambiguous nature of some purchases highlights the fact that it is not whether a purchase is material or experiential per se that determines the satisfaction people derive from it. Instead, it is the set of psychological processes that tend to be invoked by experiences and material goods that determine how much satisfaction they provide.” (Gilovich, Kumar and Jampol, 2015) (1)Experiential purchases enhance social relations more readily and effectively than material goods (2)Experiential purchases form a bigger part of a person’s identity (3)Experiential purchases are evaluated more on their own terms and evoke fewer social comparisons than material purchases 19
  20. 20. RESEARCH QUESTION 2. MEASURE OF CONSUMER HAPPINESS
  21. 21. PITCH Does having kids make people happier? 21
  22. 22. HEDONIC & EUDAIMONIC DIMENSIONS Hedonic well-being is measured by the occurrence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect => Focuses on the outcome of good living and temporal emotional pleasure. Eudamonic well-being, a doctrine of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, is explained by self-actualization, self- acceptance, or commitment to socially meaningful goals => Focuses on the way one lives and achieves purpose in life. 22 Source: R. Ryan and E. Deci (2001), A review of research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic well-being, Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166.
  23. 23. PRESENT & FUTURE FOCUS 23 Mogilner, Aaker, Kamvar (2012), How happiness affects choice, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 429-443.
  24. 24. SATISFACTION/HAPPINESS WITH… 24 UK Happiness Index “How satisfied/happy are you with your current lives?” Primer Minister David Cameron has launch an on-line survey to 200 000 household/ year. First findings indicate that the level of life satisfaction is on average a 7,4/10 but the level of anxiety is high for more than 25% of the population (especially for women).
  25. 25. SATISFACTION/HAPPINESS WITH… 25 Buthan GNH vs. GNP “How satisfied/happy are you with your …….?” “When you think about this purchase, “how happy does it make you?”
  26. 26. PURPOSE/CONTROL IN… “To which extent do you feel that you have a purpose or meaning in your lives? “How much does this purchase contribute to your happiness in life?” OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being (2013) 26
  27. 27. POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EMOTIONS “For each emotion in the list, indicate the extent to which it is related to a purchase? “(intensity and direction) JOY (HAPPY, PLEASED, JOYFUL) GLADNESS EXCITEMENT SADNESS (DEPRESSED, SAD, UNHAPPY) PAIN ANGER PRIDE GUILT.. SADNESS EXCITEMENT.. MAIN POSITIVE EMOTIONS MAIN NEGATIVE EMOTIONS HEDONIC SELF CONSCIOUS 27
  28. 28. 28 POSITIVE & NEGATIVE EMOTIONS Harmon-Jones et al. (2011), The expression of determination, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 100(1), 172-181.
  29. 29. HAPPINESS CONSTRUCTION Narratives, Diaries, Videos… 29 Costley et al. (2007), Happiness, Consumption and Being, Consumer Culture Theory, Vol. 11, 209-240.
  30. 30. HAPPINESS CONSTRUCTION EXPLORATORY STUDY with Spanish students (20 students / 80 pictures and text related to last purchases that made them happy and why) 30
  31. 31. HAPPINESS CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLE WITH Spanish students (20 students / 80 pictures and text) 32 With and for oneself With and for the others Calm Exitement Feel Esthetic Stimulation Play Humor Creativity Conscious Health Authenticity Participate Projects Sharing
  32. 32. PROJECT 3. MODERATORS OF CONSUMER HAPPINESS
  33. 33. SOCIAL CONTEXT 34 World Happiness Report, 2015
  34. 34. SOCIAL CONTEXT 35
  35. 35. ECONOMIC CONTEXT 36
  36. 36. ECONOMIC CONTEXT 37
  37. 37. ECONOMIC CONTEXT 38 Source: Hsee, Yang, Li and Shen (2009), Wealth, Warmth and Well-Being, Journal of Marketing Research, June.
  38. 38. DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT 39 World Happiness Report, 2015
  39. 39. CULTURAL CONTEXT 40 World Happiness Report, 2015
  40. 40. CULTURAL CONTEXT 41 World Happiness Report, 2015
  41. 41. CULTURAL CONTEXT 42 World Happiness Report, 2015
  42. 42. THANK YOU ! http://happymgmt.eu/

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