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HolisticStrategiesforEffectiveStudents
Mindfulness,MindWandering,Multitasking&Sleep
ThematerialsinthisbookwerepreparedbyDrG...
Introduction
IsisBookForYou?
Havealookattheseprofiles.Whichoneareyou?
Youjustcan’tfocusand
studyingissuchachore!
Youarest...
Introduction
IsisBookForYou?
Usinglatestresearchfindingsfromneuroscience,psychology,mindfulnessandcognitivesciencesthisbo...
MindWandering
AreYouLostInYouroughts?
Youmightalreadybeallsofamiliarwithyourmindseeminglynotstayingonataskthatyouareengag...
DidYouKnow?
Impairsperformanceontestsofworkingmemoryandintelligence2
Brain&Performance
Emotions&Well-Being
evenwhenyourmin...
DidYouKnow?Rumination
Rumination,aspecialkindofmind-wandering
youmaystarttothinkthatyourUniversitylifeishorrible
withassig...
WhatNow?
Luckilyrecognisingwhenyourmindhaswanderedoffandthenbringingitbackintothepresentmomentandtaskathandisaskillthatyou...
Mindfulness
AreYouPractisingIt?
“Mindfulnessisawarenessthatarisesthrough
intheserviceofself-understandingandwisdom.”
onpur...
7AttitudesOfMindfulness
Non-judging Patience Beginner’sMind
Youmightbejudgingyourselfandothers
automatically!
Suspendjudgm...
7AttitudesOfMindfulness
Trust
Acceptance
LettingGo
Trustyourselfandyourfeelings.Honouryourfeelings
whenthingsdon’tfeelrigh...
DidYouKnow?
Increasesworkingmemorycapacity15
&greymatterinbrain
regionsassociatedwithlearning&memory16,17
helpsyoucopewith...
Choosea“downtime”location,
likethesubway,intheshower,or
makingameal.
MINDFULYOGABODYSCANMEDITATION
Shiftyourfocustoyourbre...
Createtime&space.
Choosearegulartimeeach
dayformindfulnessmeditation
practice,ideallyaquietplace
freefromdistraction
Setat...
ICan’tSitStill I’mScaredToBeAlone
Youwanttospendsomequiettimewithyourmind,butyouhaveexcuses.
Takeamomenttoexaminethem.They...
Multitasking
AreYouGuilty?
Multitaskingiswhenwedomorethan1thingatthesametime.Itmaymakeusfeelgood,likeweaccomplishedsomethi...
DidYouKnow?
Thebraincannotsuccessfullytellyoutodo2thingsatthesame
time35
takemoretimetocompleteyourtasks
slowerreadingwhil...
WhatNow?
Whenyou’rereading,justread.
Just Multitasking.
Whenyou’reeating,justeat.
Tip:Carefulplanningandschedulingcanhelpy...
Sleep
Areyougettingenough?
Symptoms
Inthemindfulnesschapter,welearnthowsleepisaformoflettinggo,oneofthekeyattitudesinmindf...
DidYouKnow?
Decreasesattentiveness49
affectsyourconcentrationinclassorwhendoingassignments.
Brain&Performance
themoredevice...
WhatNow?
Environment
Thoughts
Behaviours
Bedroom-toodark?toowarm?
Sounds-noisy?roommatesnoring?
Practicemindfulness!
Don’t...
References
Killingsworth,M.A.,&Gilbert,D.T.(2010).Awanderingmindisanunhappymind.Science,330(6006),932-932.
Mooneyham,B.W.,...
References
Meditationhelpsdecreasestress,suppressinfooverload.(2011,April22).RetrievedOctober21,2015,fromhttp://news.biosc...
References
Bowman,L.L.,Levine,L.E.,Waite,B.M.,&Gendron,M.(2010).Canstudentsreallymultitask?Anexperimentalstudyofinstantmes...
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Holistic Strategies for Effective Students: Mindfulness, Mind Wandering, Multitasking & Sleep

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Psychoeducation materials developed as part of a brief intervention program for University students.

Credits:
Dr Gregor Lange: Psychoeducation materials and inspiration
Kimberly Lim: Creative design of e-book (www.behance.net/fungkimlim)

Access to research findings:
http://bit.ly/1SJDMKR

Published in: Education
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Holistic Strategies for Effective Students: Mindfulness, Mind Wandering, Multitasking & Sleep

  1. 1. HolisticStrategiesforEffectiveStudents Mindfulness,MindWandering,Multitasking&Sleep ThematerialsinthisbookwerepreparedbyDrGregorLange,NationalUniversityofSingapore,anddesignedbyKimberlyLim,animator&graphicdesigner:www.behance.net/fungkimlim
  2. 2. Introduction IsisBookForYou? Havealookattheseprofiles.Whichoneareyou? Youjustcan’tfocusand studyingissuchachore! Youarestrugglingjustpayingattention, informationoverloadiskillingyou,andit seemslikeyouareconstantlymultitasking inyourbestattemptjusttostayontopofit.  It’sfrustrating. Latenightstudiesandcrammingaslast resortsalsofailtoovercomethese challengestoconcentrate. Ifonlyitwaseasiertopayattention….! Lastthingatnightyou’regoingoverallthe thingslefttodoandinthemorningyou wakeupalreadystressed… Ifonlytherewasawaytobelessstressed andworriedallthetime….! Itfeelslikeyouarealwaysstressedaboutyour courses,assignmentsandprojects…. Worriesgetinthewayofyourstudiesandyou don’tenjoyyouracademicjourney. Youendupprocrastinatingandavoiding… onlylatertopanicasthedeadlinesloom… Youaredoingwell…. ButcouldyoudoBETTER? Whatifyoucouldbe evenmoreeffective? Whatifyoucouldbehappier whileyouareworkingsohard? Youaredoingwellinyourstudies.Butare youusingyourenergyandeffortsefficiently? Areyoulivinguptoyour trueintellectualpotential?
  3. 3. Introduction IsisBookForYou? Usinglatestresearchfindingsfromneuroscience,psychology,mindfulnessandcognitivesciencesthisbookhasthepotentialto changeyouandthewayyoustudyanythinginaradicalway. Thisbookdistilshugeamountsofresearchandwisdom intoeasytodigestbitesthatdon’toverloadyou. Thisisnotanotherlengthybook.Ratheryouaregiven executivesummariesofthetopicstogetherwitha ‘how-to’guideinactuallystartingtomakechangesas astudentandinyourliferightaway.Thebookwill impartpracticalstrategiestotransform thewayyou approachandthinkaboutstudying. Inotherwords Sogoahead.Don’twait.Youhavealottodiscoverand ifyoufollowthemethodsoutlined,youmightjustbe transformed. Betterfocusandabilitytoconcentrate Lessstress&worry Greaterlevelsofhappiness –whetherinyourpersonaloracademiclife Improvedsleep …manymorethingsforyoutodiscover asyouexplorethechapters! SOWHAT’SINIT FORYOU? Easyonthewordload Extremelydenseinknowledge&researchshared Allcondensedtogiveyoupracticalwaysto transformyou&yourstudyingforthebetter.
  4. 4. MindWandering AreYouLostInYouroughts? Youmightalreadybeallsofamiliarwithyourmindseeminglynotstayingonataskthatyouareengagedinorthinkingaboutsomethingelseotherthan whatisgoingonrightnow.Thisubiquitousphenomenaiscalled‘mindwandering’,othertermsusedtodescribeitare“zoningout”,“spacingout”or havingtask-unrelatedthoughts. Doesyourmindwanderalot? Answerthesequestionstoseeifthesearesomeofthefavourite‘destinations’ofyourmind: Doyoucatchyourselfthinkingabout whattohaveforlunchwhileinlectures? Haveyoueverencounteredasituation whereyouwerelisteningtosomeone,but youcan’trecallwhatthepersonlastsaid whenthereisapauseintheconversation? Doyouoftenfindyourselflostinyourthoughtswhile you’resupposedtobeconcentratingonsomething? Canyoucountyourexhalationsupto10before thinkingaboutsomethingelsesuchasdeadlines, plansorsomeotherrandominformation? Haveyoueverfoundyourselfjolted backintorealityandrealisethatyou forgotwhichlineyouwerereading?
  5. 5. DidYouKnow? Impairsperformanceontestsofworkingmemoryandintelligence2 Brain&Performance Emotions&Well-Being evenwhenyourmindgoesofftothinkaboutsomething seeminglymore‘positive’1 Greaterlevelsofunhappiness Impairsperformanceofreadingcomprehension2,3,4 andslower readingtime5 Disruptsyourabilitytowithholdautomatizedresponses2 Facts Some potentialbenefitsin some situationssuggested (e.genhancingcreativeinsight)butfrequentandinvoluntary mindwanderingcanbeamajorchallenge Yourmindwandersupto46.9%ofthetime1 . Mindwanderinghasevenbeendescribedasthedefaultmodeof operating.(Thisisnotgood!) TheParadox:Parents,teachers,employersetc. expectyoutopayattention,butnobodyactuallytaughtyouhowto! (shoutingatyouto‘paymoreattention’doesnotcount!) payingattentionduringclassesorwhilestudying.
  6. 6. DidYouKnow?Rumination Rumination,aspecialkindofmind-wandering youmaystarttothinkthatyourUniversitylifeishorrible withassignments,deadlinesandstressandhowyouarea badpersonbecauseyouarenotdealingwithallthatproperly. Facts Emotions&Well-Being Clinicaldepression Negativeloopinthoughtsandourmood6 Enhancesnegativethinking6 drivesyourfamilyandfriendsawayfromyou Erodessocialsupport6 Brain&Performance ruminationcandistract&dissuadeyoufromcomplet- inganassignment,despiteyourbestefforts youmay ndithardertoresolve&answertheissues& questionsinyourstudies Disruptsyourconcentration6 Impairsproblemsolving6 Interfereswithinstrumentalbehaviour6
  7. 7. WhatNow? Luckilyrecognisingwhenyourmindhaswanderedoffandthenbringingitbackintothepresentmomentandtaskathandisaskillthatyoucanpickuporimproveuponanytime. Step2:Setanintention Step3:LimitDistractions Step1:Knowyourtriggers Step4:Notice&Refocus Step5:Practicemindfulness Areyouawareofwhatareyourspecifictriggersor weaknessesthatmakeyourmindwander? Takeamomenttoreflectandwritedownyourtriggersthat increasemindwandering?Anypatternsthatstandout? Youmightonlybecomeawareofyourpatterns/profileafter somepractice. Onceyourecogniseanewpattern,youtake noteofitandwatchoutforit. Deliberatelysetanintentiontostayonthetaskathand Wheneveryounoticingthatyourattentionhaswandered offdeliberatelybringitbacktothetaskathand. Itisimportantyoudo thisgently butfirmly (inotherwordstellingyourselfyou’reanidiotformind wanderingwillnotmakeyoubetteratitquicker!- bekindwithyourself. Thisisperhapsanewskillforyou andittakespatienceandpracticetobecomebetteratit. e.g.“IalwaysthinkaboutwhatIwanttosaynext ratherthanfullylisteningtotheotherperson”or “thereisalotofworryinthebackofmymind thatoftenpullsmymindaway” e.g.“Iamgoingtofocusonthislecture”,  “Myintentionistoreadthischapter.” Reduceorideallyeliminatedistractionsanddeliberately gatheryourmentalenergyonjustonetask,givingityour fullattention e.g.whenreadingjustread,notmultitasking atthesametime. Triggers anxiety fear “IWillLiveInTheMoment.” “BeingMindful,BeInThePresent!” distress pounding nervous p a n ic agitated
  8. 8. Mindfulness AreYouPractisingIt? “Mindfulnessisawarenessthatarisesthrough intheserviceofself-understandingandwisdom.” onpurpose, payingattention, inthepresentmoment, non-judgementally, -Dr.JonKabat-Zinn,Founder,Mindfulness-BasedStressReduction(MBSR)8 Whenyou'remindful, youobserveyourthoughtsand feelingsfromadistance, withoutjudgingthemgoodorbad. Mindfulness isastateofactive, openattentiononthepresent,a moment-to-momentawareness. Insteadoflettingyourlife passyouby,mindfulnessmeans livinginthemomentand awakeningtoexperience7 .
  9. 9. 7AttitudesOfMindfulness Non-judging Patience Beginner’sMind Youmightbejudgingyourselfandothers automatically! Suspendjudgmentonyourownjudging! Ifyouarecompletinganassignmentandyoufind yourselfgettingstuckallthetime,howwouldyou feel?Frustrated?Anxious? Feelingscanoverwhelmyourexperienceinthe moment. Whybepatientwiththesefeelings?! Patiencehelpswithmindwandering(orruminative) thoughtsthatoverwhelmourperceptionofthepresent. Approacheverythingwithopenchild-likecuriosity! Trythisoutthenexttimeyouareinteractingwith someoneveryfamiliartoyou.Yourfriends,familyor significantother.Ormaybeevenaproblemyouare facing. Nomomentorexperienceisthesameifyou approachwithabeginner’smind Intheprocessofbeingmindfulandaware,itwillbeusefultoadoptsomeattitudestohelpyoualongyourjourney. Haveyou ndeverfoundyourselfdriftingoffas thelecturerspeaksandthenrushingtowritedown notesina urry,thinkinghowinattentiveyouare? atisyouautomaticallyjudgingyourself. Ifnot,canyouimaginetheinnitecycleof judgementifthishappens?! Especiallythethingsyouaremostfamiliarwith! Youcanbeawareandpresentwithyourfeelings patiently. Justwitness&observeyourexperiences.
  10. 10. 7AttitudesOfMindfulness Trust Acceptance LettingGo Trustyourselfandyourfeelings.Honouryourfeelings whenthingsdon’tfeelright. Beyourownperson,andunderstandwhatit meanstobeyourself. Stopdenyingfacts,justacceptthemastheyare, inthepresent. Acceptancedoesnotmeanliking,satisfaction, passiveattitude,toleratingasituation. Despiteourintelligence,sometimes,wecannotlet goeventhoughweknowwewillbefree. Non-striving Thereisnogoal! Evenifyouarenotfeelinggood,don’tstriveto feelbetter,justbeawareofwhatyouarefeeling, andstayinthepresent!Trylessandbemore! ereisnoneedtodiscountthemasinvalid becauseofwhatotherpeoplesay. Youmayhavegottenabadgradeforanassignment. Butyoucanbewillingtoseethatasitis,rightnow, inthemoment.
  11. 11. DidYouKnow? Increasesworkingmemorycapacity15 &greymatterinbrain regionsassociatedwithlearning&memory16,17 helpsyoucopewithreadings,assignments,projectsetc. betterprotectedagainstillnesses lessreactive11 Increases grey matterin brain regionsassociated with stressmanagement,emotionregulationandempathy16,17 Modulatetheexperienceofpain23 Body Boostsyourimmunesystem12 Suppressinformationoverload18,19,20 Makebetter,morerationaldecisions21 . Reducemindwandering22 Brain&Performance Emotions&Well-Being Body Enhanceyour well-being11 Experiencemore positiveemotions12 Improveyour relationships13 withothers. Protectiveagainst psychologicaldistress11,14 Betterregulate youremotions Lessstressed19 Greatersenseof empathy14 .
  12. 12. Choosea“downtime”location, likethesubway,intheshower,or makingameal. MINDFULYOGABODYSCANMEDITATION Shiftyourfocustoyourbreathing, andpickasingleaspecttofocuson. Spendatleast5minutesinthisstate ofawareness. Setasideatimeandplaceinyour daywhereyoucansitcomfortably andyouwon’tbedistractedor disturbed. Findacomfortablebutattentive seatedposition,closeyoureyes,and bringyourattentiontoyourtoes. Workingupfromyourtoes,bring awarenesstoeachbodypartinturn: yourfeet,ankles,calves,knees,etc. uptoyourhead. Setasideatleast10minutesina quiet,openandairyspaceforyour yogapractice. Insteadoftreatingyourpracticelike asessionatthegym,treatitlikea meditationwhereyoubringyour fullawarenesstobothyourphysical andemotionalsensationsasyou movethroughtheposes. Observehowthephysicalsensationsfromeachposegiverisetoemotionalsensationslike releasedtensionleadingtorelaxation,orevenfeelingslikepainleadingtofrustration. MINDFULEATING Choose a convenientmealtime whenyouwon’tbeexpectedto socialize. Eatslowly.Focusoneachsensation ofyourfirstbiteinturn:smell,sight, touch,sound,taste. Immerseyourselfintherichnessof thepracticeofeatingandtrytoeat yourwholemealslowly. 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 MINDFULBREATHING WhatNow? Simple10-MinuteMindfulPractices24
  13. 13. Createtime&space. Choosearegulartimeeach dayformindfulnessmeditation practice,ideallyaquietplace freefromdistraction Setatimer. Just10minuteswilldo. Findacomfortable sittingposition. Sitcross-leggedonthefloor, onthegrass,orinachairyour feetflatontheground. Checkyourposture. Situpstraight,handsina comfortablecomfortableposition.Keepneck long,chintiltedslightlydown- ward,tonguerestingonroofof mouth.Relaxshoulders.Close eyesorgazedownward5-10feet infrontofyou. Takedeepbreaths. Deepbreathinghelpssettle thebodyandestablishes yourpresenceinthespace. Directattention toyourbreath. Focusonapartofthebody where the breath feels prominent:nostrils;backof throat;orthediaphragm. Trynottoswitchfocus. Maintainattention toyourbreath. Asyouinhaleandexhale, focusonthebreath. Ifattentionwanders,returntothe breath.Letgoofthoughts, feelingsordistractions Repeatsteps6-7. Forthedurationofmeditation session.Themindwillwander. Simplyacknowledgethisand returntoyoubreath. Bekindtoyourself. Don’tbeupsetiffocus occasionallydriftsor ifyoufallasleep.Ifverytired, meditatewitheyesopenand rearrangeposturetomoreerect (butstillrelaxed)position. Prepareforasoftlanding. Whenthetimergoesoff,keep eyescloseduntilyou’reready toopenthem.Bethankful. Acknowledgeyourpractice withgratitude. WhatNow? MindfulMeditationMadeSimple25
  14. 14. ICan’tSitStill I’mScaredToBeAlone Youwanttospendsomequiettimewithyourmind,butyouhaveexcuses. Takeamomenttoexaminethem.Theymightnotbesuchabigdeal. SoundsBoring! Sure,butitalsohappensto beabigrelieftohavesome time when you’re not obligatedtobesomebody ordosomething. It’s justfine to fidget. Meditationisa process thatdevelopsovertime. Noonestartsoutsittinglike arockstatue. IDon’tHaveTime Timecrunchesarestressing usalloutthesedays.But takingapausefrom the rush-rush-rushmayjust helpyouuseyourtime better. You’renotaloneinthat. Ourculturehasdevalued taking timeforsolitude. Ithasn’talwaysbeenthat way.Andit’snotasscaryas youthink. MyMindIsTooFast So,letitgofast.Ifyousit thereawhile,itwillslow down...andspeedupagain. Youdon’tneedtotrytofind anidealrateforyourmind. WhatNow? OvercomingBarriersToMeditation26
  15. 15. Multitasking AreYouGuilty? Multitaskingiswhenwedomorethan1thingatthesametime.Itmaymakeusfeelgood,likeweaccomplishedsomethingandthatgetsaddictive. Asstudents,theextentmultitaskingpenetratesyourlifeisextensive.86%ofaclassreportedsendingtextsinclass27 ,andcloseto66%reportedusingelectronic mediawhileinclass,studying,ordoinghomework28 .Studentsaverageonly6minuteswhileononetaskbeforeswitchingtoanothertask,frequently toataskrelatedtotechnologysuchastexting29 . Checkingyourphoneinlectures, tutorials,orconversationswithfriends 1 Readingorwatchingvideos/TV (whetheronamobiledeviceora physicalbook)whileeating. 4 Makingplansorwhileengagedin lecture,meeting,orconversation. 5 Youhardlyeverdojustonething atatime. 6 Fixatingonyourmobiledevice whilewalking 2 Switchingbetweenmultipletabsonyour browserorbetweenmultipledocuments. Forexample,browsing Facebookor blogshoppingwhilereadinglecturenotes ordoinganassignment. 3
  16. 16. DidYouKnow? Thebraincannotsuccessfullytellyoutodo2thingsatthesame time35 takemoretimetocompleteyourtasks slowerreadingwhileyoureplytextsatthesametime36 walkingaroundwhilelearningviapodcastislesseffective37 Brain&Performance Astudyfoundthatthemorestudents’multitasked,themore stresstheyfelt32 ! Decreasesfeelingsofcalmness33 Facts Emotions&Well-Being Multitaskingisnotreal!Itisanillusion. Whatyouaredoingisactuallytask-switching Despiteallthecostsofmultitasking,itisaddictive31 !Sobe mindfulandbecareful! asifstudentsdonothaveenoughstress. Moreanxious34 Impairsyourlearning Impairyourabilitytoapplynewknowledgeifyoumultitask whilelearningit38 Ifyoutextinclass,youwillhavesignificantlylowertestresults39 Reducesyourcreativity40
  17. 17. WhatNow? Whenyou’rereading,justread. Just Multitasking. Whenyou’reeating,justeat. Tip:Carefulplanningandschedulingcanhelpyouavoidsituationswhereyoufeelyouneedtomultitask (plantimeforyourtaskstobecompletedsoyoucanaffordtoputasideworryingaboutothertasksandfocusonthatonetaskalone) Whenyou’rewalking,justwalk.
  18. 18. Sleep Areyougettingenough? Symptoms Inthemindfulnesschapter,welearnthowsleepisaformoflettinggo,oneofthekeyattitudesinmindfulness.Youngadultsaged18-25likeyourselfshouldget 7-9hoursofsleepeveryday41 .YetelitehighschoolandundergraduatestudentsinAsiasleepless(7hours)thantheirWesterncounterparts(morethan8hours)42 . YoumaynotevenbesurprisedtoknowthatNUSandNTUstudentssleeponly6.2hoursonaverage43 .Themainreasonsgivenforsleepdeprivationarework, socialisation,andcommute43 . Ifyoufindyourselfanswering‘Yes’tomanyofthequestionsabove,youmight wanttore-assessyoursleepingscheduleandseeifyouaregettingenoughsleep. Here’salistofsymptomsthatareeasilyidentifiableifyou’renotgettingenoughsleep.Trytoanswer‘Yes’ or‘No’tothesequestionstofindoutifyou’regettingenoughsleep: Sleepinfarlongerhours duringtheholidays? Sleepywhen you attendlectures? Sleepywhilesittingand readingquietly? Strongurgetonap intheafternoons? Irritable & tired throughouttheday? Feellikeyourbrainwasn’t processinganything’? Sleepyevenwhendoingsomething stimulating,suchastalkingtofriends? Needcaffeinetostay awakeduringtheday? Sleep through your alarmclockregularly? ZZZ
  19. 19. DidYouKnow? Decreasesattentiveness49 affectsyourconcentrationinclassorwhendoingassignments. Brain&Performance themoredevicesyou switchbetweenthelonger youtaketofallasleep44 Feelmorestressed47 ifyoudon’t getenoughsleep Electronicdevicesaffect yoursleep! Takelongertofallasleep Sleepless youmaynotgetalong wellwithyourgroupmates orevenyourclosefriends Increaseshostile behaviour&impairs interpersonalsensitivity47 increasedemotional response48 (excessive sadnessoranger),even innormalsituations Moreemotional Interfereswithbasicbodilyfunctions Increasesrisksforvariousdiseases52 Memoryimpairments Problemswithabstractthinking51 Impairsverbalfluency&creativity51 Compromisesexecutivecontrol50,51 Youdon’tnoticeit!50 Emotions&Well-Being Body Facts
  20. 20. WhatNow? Environment Thoughts Behaviours Bedroom-toodark?toowarm? Sounds-noisy?roommatesnoring? Practicemindfulness! Don’tworryaboutnotgettingenoughsleep! ----robsyouofpreciousmomentsofsleep! Avoidthings/activitiesthatwillkeepyou awakerightbeforebed----caffeine,exercise UseyourbedONLYforsleep----nostudying, watchingTV,etc. Followaroutine ----helpsyourbodyknowwhenitshouldfallasleep Light-stopusingelectronicdevicesbeforeyousleep!
  21. 21. References Killingsworth,M.A.,&Gilbert,D.T.(2010).Awanderingmindisanunhappymind.Science,330(6006),932-932. Mooneyham,B.W.,&Schooler,J.W.(2013).Thecostsandbenefitsofmind-wandering:Areview.CanadianJournalofExperimentalPsychology/RevueCanadienneDe PsychologieExpérimentale,67(1),11-18. Smallwood,J.,McSpadden,M.,&Schooler,J.W.(2008).Whenattentionmatters:Thecuriousincidentofthewanderingmind.Memory&Cognition,36(6),1144-1150. Feng,S.,D’Mello,S.,&Graesser,A.C.(2013).Mindwanderingwhilereadingeasyanddifficulttexts.Psychonomicbulletin&review,20(3),586-592. Foulsham,Foulsham,T.,Farley,J.,&Kingstone,A.(2013).Mindwanderinginsentencereading:Decouplingthelinkbetweenmindandeye.CanadianJournalofExperimental Psychology/Revuecanadiennedepsychologieexpérimentale,67(1),51-59. Nolen-Hoeksema,S.(1998).Ruminativecopingwithdepression. PsychologyToday.(n.d.).RetrievedOctober21,2015,fromhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/mindfulness. JonKabat-ZinnVideoSeriesonMindful.org-Mindful.(2015,January23).RetrievedOctober21,2015,fromhttp://www.mindful.org/jon-kabat-zinn-video-se- ries-on-mindful-org/. Kabat-Zinn,J.(1996).MindfulnessMeditation:WhatItIs,WhatItIsn’t,AndIt’sRoleInHealthCareandMedicineIn:Haruki,Y.,Ishii,Y.,andSuzuki,M.Comparativeand PsychologicalStudyonMeditation.Eburon,Netherlands,161-169. Santorelli,S.(2014).Mindfulness-basedstressreduction(MBSR):Standardsofpractice. Keng,S.L.,Smoski,M.J.,&Robins,C.J.(2011).Effectsofmindfulnessonpsychologicalhealth:Areviewofempiricalstudies.Clinicalpsychologyreview,31(6), 1041-1056. Davidson,R.J.,Kabat-Zinn,J.,Schumacher,J.,Rosenkranz,M.,Muller,D.,Santorelli,S.F.,...&Sheridan,J.F.(2003).Alterationsinbrainandimmunefunction producedbymindfulnessmeditation.Psychosomaticmedicine,65(4),564-570.producedbymindfulnessmeditation.Psychosomaticmedicine,65(4),564-570. Carson,J.W.,Carson,K.M.,Gil,K.M.,&Baucom,D.H.(2004).Mindfulness-basedrelationshipenhancement.BehaviorTherapy,35(3),471-494. Shapiro,S.L.,Schwartz,G.E.,&Bonner,G.(1998).Effectsofmindfulness-basedstressreductiononmedicalandpremedicalstudents.Journalofbehavioral medicine,21(6),581-599. Mrazek,M.D.,Franklin,M.S.,Phillips,D.T.,Baird,B.,&Schooler,J.W.(2013).MindfulnessTrainingImprovesWorkingMemoryCapacityandGREPerformanceWhile ReducingMindWandering.PsychologicalScience,24(5),776-781. Hölzel,B.K.,CarmodHölzel,B.K.,Carmody,J.,Vangel,M.,Congleton,C.,Yerramsetti,S.M.,Gard,T.,&Lazar,S.W.(2011).Mindfulnesspracticeleadstoincreasesinregionalbraingray matterdensity.PsychiatryResearch:Neuroimaging,191(1),36-43. Marsh,J.(2011,February9).ALittleMeditationGoesaLongWay.RetrievedOctober21,2015,fromhttp://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/a_little_ meditation_goes_a_long_way/. Kerr,C.E.,Jones,S.R.,Wan,Q.,Pritchett,D.L.,Wasserman,R.H.,Wexler,A.,...&Moore,C.I.(2011).Effectsofmindfulnessmeditationtrainingonanticipatoryalpha modulationinprimarysomatosensorycortex.Brainresearchbulletin,85(3),96-103. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
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