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  1. 1. Basic Laboratory Techniques and Methods
  2. 2. Let’s have a short recap of what we had discussedlast meeting!
  3. 3. What are the three (3) general types of research methods?
  4. 4. Give one (1) example of a biological method and explain it.
  5. 5. At the end of the lesson, the students shouldbe able to:
  6. 6. Identifystandard methods and techniques use in performingexperiments. 01 02 03 04 Enumeratebasic standard methodsand techniquesuse in performing experiments. Describe proper use of specific, standard laboratoryprocedure. Applyproper handling and setting of laboratory equipment.
  7. 7. Basic Laboratory Techniques and Methods
  8. 8. Chemic al Method s
  9. 9. Chemical Methods Spectrophotometry Extraction Titration Qualitative Test for Secondary Metabolites
  10. 10. Spectrophotome try
  11. 11. Spectrophotome try Spectrophotometry is a method to measure how much a chemical substance absorbs light by measuring the intensity of light as a beam of light passes through sample solution.
  12. 12. Uses  Measure the concentration of a solution  Identify organic compounds by determining the absorption in maximum  Used for color determination within the spectral range
  13. 13. Applications  Forensicsciences  Molecular biology  In disease diagnosis/ pathological states  Blood  To identify and quantify biological molecules
  14. 14. Applications  Measurement of concentration  Detection of impurities  Elucidation of the structure of organic compounds  Chemical kinetics
  15. 15. Chemical Methods Spectrophotometry Extraction Titration Qualitative Test for Secondary Metabolites
  16. 16. Extraction Extractions are a way to separate a desired substance when it is mixed with others. The mixture is brought into contact with a solvent in which the substance of interest is soluble, but the other substancespresent are insoluble.
  17. 17. Types of Extraction Maceration. This is a very simple extraction method with the disadvantage of long extraction time and low extraction efficiency. It could be used for the extraction of thermolabile components.
  18. 18. Types of Extraction Percolation. Percolation is more efficient than maceration because it is a continuous process in which the saturated solvent is constantly being replacedby fresh solvent.
  19. 19. Types of Extraction Decoction. The extract from decoction contains a large amount of water-soluble impurities. Decoction cannot be used for the extraction of thermolabile or volatile components.
  20. 20. Types of Extraction Reflux Extraction. Reflux extraction is more efficient than percolation or maceration and requires less extraction time and solvent. It cannot be used for the extractionof thermolabile natural products.
  21. 21. Types of Extraction Soxhlet Extraction. The Soxhlet extraction method integrates the advantages of the reflux extraction and percolation, which utilizes the principle of reflux and siphoning to continuously extract the herb withfresh solvent.
  22. 22. Types of Extraction Pressurized Liquid Extraction. PLE has also been described as accelerated solvent extraction, enhanced solvent extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, accelerated fluid extraction, and high pressure solvent extraction by different research groups.
  23. 23. Types of Extraction Supercritical Fluid Extraction. SFE uses supercritical fluid(SF) as the extraction solvent.
  24. 24. Types of Extraction Ultrasound Assisted Extraction. UAE is also called ultrasonic extraction or sonication, uses ultrasonic waveenergy in the extraction.
  25. 25. Types of Extraction Microwave Assisted Extraction. Microwaves generate heat by interacting with polar compounds such as water and some organic components in the plant matrix following the ionic conduction and dipole rotationmechanisms.
  26. 26. Types of Extraction Enzyme Assisted Extraction. The extraction efficiency will be enhanced by EAE due to the hydrolytic action of the enzymes on the components of the cell wall and membrane and the macromolecules inside the cell which facilitate the release of the natural product.
  27. 27. Types of Extraction Pulse Electric Field Extraction. PEF is significantly increases the extraction yield and decreased the extraction time because it can increase mass transfer during extraction by destroying membrane structures.
  28. 28. Chemical Methods Spectrophotometry Extraction Titration Qualitative Test for Secondary Metabolites
  29. 29. Titration
  30. 30. Titration Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentrationof an identifiedanalyte
  31. 31. Types of Titration Acid-Base Titration. It is a quantitative analysis method to determine an acid’s or bases’ concentration by precisely neutralizing them with a standard solution of either acid or base of known concentration.
  32. 32. Types of Titration Redox Titration. In this type of titration, the chemical reaction takes place with a transfer of electronsin the reacting ions of aqueous solutions.
  33. 33. Chemical Methods Spectrophotometry Extraction Titration Qualitative Test for Secondary Metabolites
  34. 34. Qualitative Test for Metabolites Secondary Metabolites are organic compounds produced by bacteria, fungi, or plants which are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproductionof the organism.
  35. 35. Applications  Aids in the medicinal field  Discovers new plants or species  Helps in diagnostics and formulation of new medicines/ treating patients
  36. 36. Physic al Method s
  37. 37. Physical Methods Weighing Grinding Drying Centrifugation Distillation
  38. 38. Weighing The process by which something is weighed. Find out how heavy (someone or something) is, typically usingscales.
  39. 39. Weighing
  40. 40. Applications  Helps you to measure the objects in a very precise manner scales are very essential equipment or device.  To satisfy the requirements of the people there are numbers of products beingproduced.
  41. 41. Applications  To provide precise outcome a lot of additional kind of scales like bench scales, Floor scales, truck scale, bagging scales, weighing scales and counting scales are intended  To determine mass of a vehicle
  42. 42. Physical Methods Weighing Grinding Drying Centrifugation Distillation
  43. 43. Grinding Grinding is a material removal and surface generation process used to shape and finish componentsmade of metals andother materials.
  44. 44. Types of Grind Process Cylindrical grinding is generally used for generating external cylindrical surface. The machine used for cylindrical grinding is very similar to a center lathe m/c.
  45. 45. Types of Grind Process Surface grinding machines are generally used for generating flat surface. These machines are similar to milling machines in construction as well as motion.
  46. 46. Types of Grind Process Centerless grinding is a machining process that uses abrasive cutting to remove material from a work piece in different way.
  47. 47. Grinding
  48. 48. Applications  Grinding turbine blades  Grinding honeycomb metals for aerospace application  Removal of fatigue cracks fromunderwater steel  Shaping tool bits that need to be made or repaired
  49. 49. Applications  Used to make precision rods, tubes, bearing races, bushings, and many other parts.  It can be easier to remove metal from its surface when hardened.
  50. 50. Importance  Grinding machines have advanced in design, construction, rigidity and application far more in the last decade than any other standard machine tool in the manufacturing industry.
  51. 51. Importance  Used to sharpen the cutting edges of cutting tools and sharp objects such as knives, although the underlying process of material removal is the same, but with a different purpose – to produce a sharp edge rather than to reduce size.
  52. 52. Importance  The surface finish obtained is obviously much better than can be obtained through a chisel or a file
  53. 53. Physical Methods Weighing Grinding Drying Centrifugation Distillation
  54. 54. Drying Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid. This process is often used as a final production step before selling or packaging products.
  55. 55. Types of Drying  Sun Drying  Solar Drying  Hot-Air Dryers  Heat-Surfaced Dryer
  56. 56. Types of Drying  Freeze Drying  Osmotic Dehydration  Smoking
  57. 57. Physical Methods Weighing Grinding Drying Centrifugation Distillation
  58. 58. Centrifugation Centrifugation is a technique used for the separation of particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium androtor speed.
  59. 59. Centrifugation
  60. 60. Types of Centrifugation Analytical centrifugation is a separation method where the particles in a sample are separated on the basis of their density and the centrifugal force they experience.
  61. 61. Types of Centrifugation Density gradient centrifugation is the separation of molecules where the separation is based on the density of the molecules as they pass through a density gradient under a centrifugal force.
  62. 62. Types of Centrifugation Differential centrifugation is a type of centrifugation process in which components are separately settled down a centrifuge tube by applying a series of increasingcentrifugal force.
  63. 63. Types of Centrifugation Isopycnic centrifugation is a type of centrifugation where the particles in a sample are separated on the basis of their densities as centrifugal force is applied to the sample.
  64. 64. Types of Centrifugation Rate-zonal density gradient centrifugation is a type of centrifugation that separates particles on the basis of their shape as size and works on the same principle of density gradient centrifugation but works in a different way.
  65. 65. Types of Centrifugation Differential velocity centrifugation is a type of centrifugation process in which components are separately settled down a centrifuge tube by applying a series of increasing velocities.
  66. 66. Types of Centrifugation Equilibrium density gradient centrifugation is a modified and specialized form of density gradient centrifugation.
  67. 67. Types of Centrifugation Sucrose gradient centrifugation is a type of density gradient centrifugation where the density gradient is formed of sucrose by changing the concentration of sucrose.