Advertising and Promotion
This is one of the main uses of photography, by advertising a product,
advertising the product in the light the company wants the consumer to see it,
so the product must look its best and at its most appealing and desirable.
These images are photographed in a very controlled so the producer can
control what the consumer sees and how they view the product. Text to give
the advertisement some direction and to describe what the company is trying
to sell you.
Promotional photography is very similar, but rather than advertising, they are
trying to raise profile, to make their product more well known. A the producer
may create a campaign that is ‘shocking’ and ‘different’, even if the attention
on the product is not all positive it doesn’t matter because awareness is still
being raised. In many cases promotional advertising will be raising awareness
about the effects of products that are bad, like in the picture on the right, it is
promoting the fact that smoking is harmful to others around you not just
yourself. These campaigns use clever and shocking tactics to stick in peoples
minds so that they remember it.
Advertising can also involve models and this is usually used in fashion
advertising. Even though there is no text and no direction, it is still clear that
this product is selling clothes. Fashion and clothing does rely on postproduction editing, but also relies mainly on models and make-up and lighting
being manipulated to create the effect they want to get across to the viewers.
This is a promotional photo,
this campaign is to tell
people that smoke to stop
because it doesn’t just harm
them, but others around
The model has also been
placed their for the
purposes of the campaign,
it is taken in a studio and
posed, so it is not natural
The main image is
shocking and could be
deemed distressing, to
see a young child in
distress. This is what
will capture the viewers
attention and make
them remember this.
The editing in this is
mainly to do with the
smoke cloud acting
like a bag, showing it
is suffocating the child
There is also lighting
that has been
manipulated, you can
there is one flash or
spotlight that contrasts
and fades into the
There is also a short sentence at the
bottom of the photo using quite
shocking, sharp language. ‘Smoking
isn’t just suicide. It’s murder.’
Fashion photography’s purpose is to sell and advertise clothes.
Photographers take pictures of attractive, slim models in clothing, these
models look good in the outfits so when the buyer sees this they will
project what they see on the model on to their own self, e.g. ‘if the
model looks that good in those clothes then so will I’. The set up for the
models is very controlled and not observational as everything has been
put in a certain place, the lighting is artificial and is put in the way it is
on purpose to create the right effect while still showing the clothes in
the best way they can. The lens the photographer will use will be wide
and not long, because they want to get a whole scene in, not a close
up, because they need to capture the outfit that they are advertising.
There are different styles of fashion photography, high fashion and
catalogue. High fashion is photographs are selling designer clothes,
that are are advertised in magazines such as vogue, these shoots
usually feature talented young models or famous older ones. They
will have more extravagant backgrounds or classic and simple. The
catalogue is a lot less ‘professional’ and doesn’t have the edge that
high fashion has.
There are a lot of problem with the fashion photography. The models that
the photographer chooses are usually very thin, setting unattainable
standards for young girls that look up to these models and want to achieve
the desirable look because the models are ‘beautiful’.
These kind of photos will be seen in fashion magazines and books.
This is a fashion photo, used
for a high fashion magazine,
clothes, would probably be
in a magazine like vogue.
The man and
the horse have
been put there
in a certain
place in a
certain pose for
a reason, so this
Even though this shoot appears to
be outside, the lighting is still
controlled and manipulated, using
lamps and white screens
The main subject is the woman,
she is posing to show the clothes
in the best light, to make them
The models are
and are typical of
the strong facial
features and slim
bodies. These are
the kind of people
readers look up to
and want to look
In this type of photography there is a fair
amount of post production work such as
digitally editing the photo, making the
photo look ‘flawless’
This is a photo of a man in
the Vietnam War being
shot in the head.
This photo hasn’t had any editing
done to it because it is taken on black
and white film, so the only production
process would be the development in
a dark room.
The photo is an
is not controlled,
was taken in a
The lighting in this is
ambient it wasn’t
controlled, just natural
lighting from the sun.
The subject matter of this photo is very
shocking but real and it documents and
tells people how brutal and evil the war
was, to help people understand.
The lens the
would be a
wide lens, and
a big exposure
to make sure
everything is in
Portraiture is one of the most common types of photography whether it is posed
or candid. This is all to do with capturing not just the face, but the subjects within
the face like the emotions the colours the details. Portraits can be done in black
and white or colour. Usually looking more classic in black and white.
The photographer will usually instruct the model in different poses, so their faces
are either facing front on or on a side profile. They will also tell them what emotion
they want them to express. In these posed portraits they also may include props.
The background setting for portraits is almost always plain, to keep the focus on
the face. The background uses an infinity curve to keep the background smooth,
again so there is no distraction from the face. The lighting will also be artificial and
set up to give a certain effect and control the mood exactly.
Candid portraits are a bit different, they are more natural and observational as the
photographer takes photos without the people knowing, so all the emotions are
real and nothing is fake. With this it is not taken in a studio, so lighting cannot be
controlled and the photographer will have to work with ambient light. Composition
is also very important for these photos because the background won’t be plain.
After the photos are taken they will be edited. They will be edited digitally in
photoshop or something similar. The photographer will edit the photo to make the
image looks as striking as possible, to make it look interesting and catch the
This photos subject matter
is a portrait shot of Andy
This photo because of
when it was taken was
probably taken on film
that was black and white,
so it originally was black
and white, no editing has
The photographer has instructed the model
into a specific pose, with the paintbrush,
this is to frame his face and to also make
the photo different to a normal portrait.
The lighting in this photo is
artificial and is set up to
light the face in a certain
Because the photo was
taken on film it isn't
digital so no editing can
occur, but the film has to
be developed in a dark
The paintbrush in this photo gives
it more identity and context,
because the model is an artist.
High street studio
High street studio photography is where families hire a photographer to take
pictures of them, in a studio or outside so they can buy photos for their home. It
also includes wedding photography. These photos will usually be posed portraits
of groups of families.
These photographs are usually taken in a studio with a plain background with an
infinity curve. The lighting is always artificial in a studio with no natural lighting, so
the photographer can control exactly what lighting and mood they want to portray.
The photographer will instruct the family into different poses, to convince a sense
of happiness and normality. The photographer may also include props to add
some fun and interesting subject matters. The photos can also be taken outside,
so the families can interact with the set and surroundings. Wedding photos will
usually be taken on site, the lighting then will not be controlled as much, but the
photographer will use a flash to enhance brightness.
High street studios will use a lot of post-production on their photos, editing the
pictures to make the contrast and brightness higher so the photos look clearer,
getting rid of blemishes so the outcome will be desirable by the family so they will
want to buy the photos.
Where you would usually see these is in a families home, hanging on a wall.
These photos may also be used to advertise the photography business, so in
small ads in local magazines.
A list of popular high street studio photography business are: Venture,
Blacksheep, Boggio studios and Clifton studios.
This photo is of a family
in a studio.
has posed this
family, so it is not
observational, it is
The setting is in studio,
the background is plain
to keep the attention
on the family and not
to distract the eye
The type of pose the
photographer has put the
family in is a generic
‘happy family’ pose, to
photos will be edited
to make them at their
contrast, getting rid of
The lighting is completely artificial,
there are high power lamps and
flashes that make the family look
clear and happy.
This is the photographing of buildings and there are different styles architecture
can be photographed. There are arty styles and property styles, which have
different outcomes. For example a photo that an artist takes will look a lot different
to what a construction developer will take.
Photographers that specialise in architecture photography use special lenses,
techniques and equipment like tilt-shift lens and the rule of thirds.
Post production in these kind of photos will vary a large amount depending on
what the photo is going to be used for. If it is an artistic photo the photographer
will edit it to make the building look interesting and stand out and this may not be
a true portrayal of the building. If the photo of the building is being used for
property development then minimal or no editing will be used, because the picture
of the building has to be a true portrayal of what the building looks like in real life,
or as close to it as it can.
Lighting buildings can be difficult because of their size and a lot of photographers
rely on the natural ambient light. But in the dark spot lights can light up parts of
the building, but this is only very limited and only gives off a certain atmosphere
and feel, so natural lighting usually works better.
This is a photo of a piece of
architecture or building
The photographer has
taken a very different
perspective of this,
instead of it looking
like a building it is
so this would not be
suited to a property
In this photo it has had a heavy amount of postproduction, it has been heavily edited into black and
white, with very heavy contrast. The building in the
photo looks very shiny almost like a mirror, so this
would have been edited.
The lighting in this photo
is ambient, natural lighting
and editing to decrease
the brightness all over and
just concentrating on the
These kind of photos go alongside information, usually shown in specific
books that are specialised to that subject, e.g. mammals. These help the
reader picture and make sense of what they are reading, if they are reading
about animals they have never heard of before then they need a picture to
help them understand. Step by step photos of instructions is also another
example how the pictures help readers to understand information.
The style of photography varies from what the subject matter is. For a guide
on mammals the photographer would use a zoom lens to get a good detailed
picture without getting to close and putting their self in danger. The
photographs will not be controlled, they will be observational if it is wild
animals, then they can’t be controlled so the photographer needs to get the
shots they can get. Lighting with this is also going to be ambient and not
controlled, especially if a zoom lens is being used, then the light won’t be able
to reach. If the animal is close-up and in the dark then a flash could be used
Post-production may include some minor editing, to make the pictures look
more stunning and vibrant. Also in some cases, some information books will
want the animals cut out and put onto a white background, so this will need to
be done in post production.
This is a photo for a
photographic guide of owls
The lens used for these
pictures would be a a zoom
lens because of how owls
are hard to get near in the
The lighting in these photos is
all ambient, no artificial
lighting has been used
because an artificial light
would scare the birds and the
lights wouldn’t reach like the
In post production these photos would
have been edited digitally, to enhance
the colours and contrast to make the
photos more clear. But not so much that
the animals look different to what they
originally look like,
Medical photography is used to record diseases, operations and recovery
in a truthful and honest way. The photographs can be taken with rulers to
show measurements, so this can be used in medical journals and papers.
Digital cameras with a large apertures and a ring flash are what is usually
used, this is to get the most clear and accurate, this technique is used
during surgery and to record visible medical problems. There are also
more specialised techniques to fit in more complex situations, like time
lapse thermal imaging, endoscopy and micro and macorgraphy, using
these when a normal camera cant capture the full accuracy and detail like
The conditions that the photographs are taken in are controlled and have
to be manipulated in a way that follows medical standards. Lighting for
photographs depend on the situation. If it is posed in studio then lighting
will be artificial lamps, if its in surgery the photographer will have to use
the ambient light with the ring flash to get the right lighting.
The people who do this job are medical photographers that are specially
Editing and post production is not allowed in these photos as they will taint
the outcome of what the ‘disease’ looks like 100% truthfully.
In this photo, it is a picture
to show the symptoms of
the disease. Used for
referral or medical text
The lens for this
photo is a wide
everything can fit
into the photo. It
also has a large
exposure so all
the detail is
included in the
The set up of this photo has
been taken in a studio, the
background is plain and black so
the contrast of the skin stands
out and it is easier to see the
symptoms, so they are clear.
The post production of this
photo will be nothing more
than putting the photo into
books and posters, the
photo can’t be tainted in
any way or the image won’t
be a true representation of
Fin e art photography can include a lot of different things and the subject matter
of this kind of photography varies a lot. There are different types like landscapes,
portraits, figures, macro, plants and animals and obscure photography etc. They
are usually shown in black and white and rarely colour.
Fine art is produced to be sold in books and prints, and shown in exhibitions and
is made for no other purpose other than to express an artists perceptions and
Conditions that these photos are taken in can vary because of the wide range of
subject matters, things like landscapes cannot be controlled and these kind of
photos are taken in the moment. But other kinds of photos like portraits can be
controlled using lighting, the conditions can be controlled like wind and shadowing
and the subject matter, because it can be posed. Lenses usually used can also
vary, some lenses could be wide or long, depending on subject matter.
Landscapes and figure photography will use a wide lens to include everything,
where as macro shots will be closer up and include more detail.
Post production can also vary, but it is usually used, even a little bit on all photos
to enhance the natural features of the photography. Also heavy editing can occur
where the photographer makes the whole photo surreal and not possible in real
Use this slide to annotate an archetype image
matter of this
photo is of a tree
with the leaves
made from a
This is a type of
is surreal fine art,
so this wouldn’t
be possible in
The set up for this looks like the photo has been
pieced together, so the background and the cloud
could have been taken outside with no control, but
the tree could have been a bonsai tree which
would be controlled by lighting in a studio.
on this photo
would be a very
large amount, as
have been cut
out and put on to
others to create
this surreal final
image. It has
also been editied
into black ad
This type of photography is more of a longer running project that the
photographer is taking on, documenting an event collecting a series and range of
pictures, instead of the latest popular news, the photographers will take it upon
their self to find a not well know about crisis and document it.
The photographers main aim is to collect photos and tell a story about the life of
others and maybe their daily struggle to exist. There will be no tight newspaper
deadlines, so the photographer is very much in control in that sense. So the
photographers can chose what they want to display and what mood they want to
portray in their images.
The pictures very much rely on observational photography, the conditions can not
be controlled, so the pictures are in the moment. Lighting is ambient, maybe a
flash could be used in the right conditions. But the majority of the time photos are
always taken as they are seen in the moment.
Post production is a key element to making photos look right when the conditions
can’t be controlled. The photos can be changed by the contrast and brightness,
the colours and saturation, put into black and white. Whatever mood the
photographer is trying to portray, it can be enhanced by post production and
The photos will end up in usually books and magazines, being used to illustrate
the wars etc, or the photos maybe just end up in a magazine because they are
The subject matter
of this photo is a
young boy who lives
in a corrupt country
and is a solider
fighting in a war.
This photo is
in the moment
which means its
real life and its
makes the photo
more powerful, the
lighting is ambient
Post production of this photo
would have been making it
into black and white,
changing the contrast,
making the photo brighter
and enhancing the detail in
This photo will be a part of a string
of photos telling a story, and
together they will be even more
I believe that post production like photo-manipulation, editing can be used for fine art to any extent, photos
that don’t need to show the ‘truth’, photos that are open to the viewers interpretation, and to create
impossible situations. Editing can also be used to create things in pictures that are too expensive to make
in real life, e.g. an architect may create a building that doesn’t exist in real life on photoshop to see what
their building idea looks like. Post-production can also be used in a subtle manner, to increase brightness,
contrast, saturation and sharpness.
But there are also times I think post-production shouldn’t be used, the main time is in medical photography,
where any detail or aspect of the photo is altered this makes the photo inaccurate and unreliable as this
photo if edited is not a true representation of what it claims to be, and in cases of diagnosis, this could
lead to doctors giving people the wrong diagnosis and treatment, which could make a person ill or their
real illness is left untreated, so they could die.
Post-production that is used in fashion is very controversial and there has been a lot of exposure in the media
to the secrets of how the models look so ‘perfect’. Effects that this photo manipulation has had is the
unrealistic expectations and pressure put on women to look like the women in magazines, which has lead
to self-hatred and people that are not body confident, in most serious cases it has triggered mental health
illnesses like eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. So like the medical photos, with the potential
of people dying because photos have been manipulated, people have actually been effected negatively
and have died caused by photos being edited to a exaggerated degree.
So over-all I think there should be clear lines where post-production can be used and can’t be used and to what
extent the post-production can be used and what kind of editing can be used, in some cases some photos
saturation and contrast could be edited but the actual photo could not be changed and manipulated, e.g.
a clone tool being used. As soon as the post-production starts to effect people negatively in regards to
their mental or physical health, then it should not be used.