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GainesDay arboretum-bee-talk-4-7-14

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GainesDay arboretum-bee-talk-4-7-14

  1. 1. The Buzz with Bees: Native and Managed Pollinators Hannah Gaines Day Department of Entomology University of Wisconsin, Madison
  2. 2. Protecting wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat since 1971. Major Programs: • Endangered species • Aquatic invertebrates • Pollinator conservation www.funet.fi Advocacy, Education, Restoration, and Applied Research
  3. 3. Outline • The importance of pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees • Native bee research at UW • Native bee conservation strategies
  4. 4. Pollination • Transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma • Wind, gravity, or animal mediated © Bruce Newhouse
  5. 5. Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies
  6. 6. Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies • Bees are the MOST IMPORTANT pollinators – Actively collect pollen – Floral constancy – Branched hairs
  7. 7. • 85% of all flowering plants • 35% of global crop production R. Winfree How important are bees?
  8. 8. Poor fruit set resulting from poor pollination
  9. 9. One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
  10. 10. What is a bee? • Hymenoptera – Ants, bees, wasps •6 legs, 4 wings • Vegetarian – Provision nests with pollen • Great pollinators! – Pollen sticks to feather- like hairs
  11. 11. Bees versus wasps • Carnivorous • Simple hairs • More aggressive • Examples: yellow jackets, hornets, paper wasps
  12. 12. Bees versus flies • Feed on decaying matter, feces, and blood • Also feed on nectar • 2 wings, short stubby antennae • Prominent eyes • Examples: house flies, hover flies
  13. 13. Native bees versus honey bees • Single, non-native species • Perennial colony with queen • Wax hives • Produce honey
  14. 14. Honey bees are not native, but • Generalist pollinators • “Easy” to manage • Work well with modern agricultural system
  15. 15. How many bees are there? • ~20,000 species worldwide • ~4000 species native to North America • ~500 species native to Wisconsin
  16. 16. Photos: James Cane; Steve Javorek (Ag Canada); Edward S. Ross Honey bee (Apis mellifera) Bumble bee (Bombus edwardsii) Leafcutter bee (Megachile sp.) Polyester bee (Colletes sp)
  17. 17. Photos: Bruce Newhouse; Edward S. Ross; Mace Vaughan; USDA-ARS/Jack Dykinga Metallic sweat bee (Agapostemon sp.) Yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus sp.) Mason bee (Osmia sp.) Sweat bee (Halictus sp.)
  18. 18. Metallic sweat bee (Agapostemon sp.) Mason bee (Osmia sp.) Sunflower bee (Svastra sp.) Long-horned bee (Mellisodes sp.) Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext Carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) Photo: Gene Barickman, IL NRCS
  19. 19. Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann
  20. 20. Social behavior of bees • Solitary (majority of species) • Social (only 10%) – Honey bees (NOT native) – Bumble bees
  21. 21. Solitary bee life cycle Spring Summer Fall Winter (Photos: Dennis Briggs)
  22. 22. Social bee life cycle (bumble bee) Spring Summer Fall Winter
  23. 23. Nesting behavior of bees Ground Stem S. Camarzine Cavity
  24. 24. Ground nesting (~70% of bees)
  25. 25. P.Westrich Ground nesting (~70% of bees) K. Ullmann
  26. 26. © Edward Ross Stem nesting (~30% of bees) www.pestweb.com www.warrenphotographic.co.uk Leaf-cutter bees (Megachile sp.)
  27. 27. Stem nesting bees • Leaf-cutter bees (Megachile addenda)
  28. 28. Mud cap closure Larva Pupa Adult Pollen mass Egg Mud wall Cross-section of silk cocoons Stem nesting bees
  29. 29. Stem nesting bees www.agf.gov.bc.ca T. Stoehr • Mason bees (Osmia sp.)
  30. 30. S. Camarzine Cavity nesting (bumble bees) K. Ullmann
  31. 31. Cavity nesting (bumble bees) • 45 species in North America • Annual colony with 100-300 workers • Specialist pollinators of red clover, blueberry, cranberry, eggplant, tomato Photos:Eric Mader, Elaine Evans
  32. 32. Resource requirements • Flower availability – Early spring through fall • Nesting resources – Undisturbed soil, woody habitat, or nest boxes
  33. 33. Landscapes • Some landscapes already provide adequate resources. A. Bennett
  34. 34. Landscapes • Some do not. A. Bennett
  35. 35. Why is the landscape important? • Central place foragers • Flight distance proportional to size of bee
  36. 36. Crop pollination by bees • One in every three bites…
  37. 37. Crop pollination by bees Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
  38. 38. US Agriculture www.gallery.photo.net
  39. 39. Honey bee decline • Mites, disease, Colony Collapse Disorder Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Varroa mite
  40. 40. Causes of Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus? • New strain of Nosema? • Pests? • Poor diet? • Insecticide exposure? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt Corn
  41. 41. Honey bee rental rates (CA) 1995-2005
  42. 42. Honey bee rental rates (CA) 1995-2005, plus almonds, 2006-2008 2006 2007 2008
  43. 43. How does the honey bee decline effect Wisconsin farmers? • Hive fees increase • Hive quality decreases
  44. 44. Native bees and crop pollination • Active earlier in season and day • Collect both pollen and nectar • Buzz pollination • No rental fees • Keep honey bees moving • Not susceptible to honey bee diseases
  45. 45. Significance to agriculture - Native bees provide insurance against honey bee decline - Efficient crop pollinators R. Winfree
  46. 46. Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
  47. 47. Native bees and crop pollination • More efficient than honey bees • Active earlier and in cooler weather • Not effected by honey bee diseases • Free!
  48. 48. Native bees also in decline © Derrick Ditchburn © Johanna James-Heinz © Jodi DeLong © Peter Schroeder Yellow-banded Franklin’s Rusty-patch Western
  49. 49. Images: The Xerces Society Native bees also in decline - Yellow Banded Bumble Bee (Bombus terricolla) once very common, now gone
  50. 50. What threats do they face? - Disease and pathogen from commercially reared bumble bees - Agricultural intensification - Pesticide exposure - Loss of habitat
  51. 51. Bees and Wisconsin agriculture
  52. 52. Bee researchers at the UW Brian Spiesman Rachel Mallinger David Lowenstein Hannah Gaines Day
  53. 53. Native bees in cranberry – 182 species of bees – More woodland = more bees
  54. 54. Cage Treatment p = 0.007 Yield(bbl/acre±SE) Closed Open
  55. 55. Native bees in apple •~80 species of bees •>50% of all visits to apple flowers •Habitat diversity -> bee diversity
  56. 56. Native bees in apple
  57. 57. Native bees in cucumber •65 species •More natural habitat = more bees
  58. 58. Native bees in grassland More flowers = more bees
  59. 59. Native bees in biofuels Werling et al. PNAS 2013 Greater plant diversity = more bees, more pollination
  60. 60. Pollinators need habitat Photo: Rollin Coville
  61. 61. How can you provide habitat? • Nesting resources • Floral resources
  62. 62. Nesting resources • Artificial nest boxes K. Ullmann K. Ullmann Photos: Matthew Shepherd; NRCS/Lynn Betts
  63. 63. Nesting resources • Bare, undisturbed ground Photo: Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
  64. 64. Nesting resources • Natural habitat © NRCS Lynn Betts© Mace Vaughan
  65. 65. Floral resources - diversity
  66. 66. Foraging resources - timing TAXA APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT Colletes (inaequalis, validis) Andrena Augochlora pura Augochlorella striata Halictus (females) Lasioglossum (females) Osmia Bombus © Data from Steve Javorek, Agriculture Canada • Bee flight periods in Nova Scotia
  67. 67. Floral resources - timing • Spring ephemerals
  68. 68. Floral resources • Systemic pesticide use in commercial nurseries
  69. 69. Foraging resources • How to select good bee plants – Locally native plants are better for native bees – Minimum of 3 blooming plants at all times throughout the season (spring, summer, fall) – PLANT IN CLUMPS FOR BEST RESULT!
  70. 70. Protecting the bees • Restrict insecticide use •Use active ingredients with least impact on bees •Spray at night •Consider alternatives •Companion planting •Pheromone traps and baits •Restrict herbicide use K. Ullmann
  71. 71. Native bee conservation • Plant diverse floral plantings that bloom throughout the season • Create and protect nesting sites (nest boxes, bare ground, natural areas) • Limit chemical use in your garden AND ask at the nursery where you buy plants if plants have been treated with SYSTEMIC pesticides
  72. 72. Take home message • Bees are important – 1 in 3 bites you eat depends on bees! • Relying on a single pollinator species is risky – Decline threatens our food supply • Plant flowers!
  73. 73. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
  74. 74. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org) – Pollinator Conservation Resource Center •Plant lists •Conservation guidelines •Pesticide guidelines
  75. 75. Further resources Insect identification • Bug Guide (www.bugguide.net) • Discover Life (www.discoverlife.org)
  76. 76. Hannah Gaines Day hgaines@gmail.com 774-392-0498

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