Gaines day stevenspoint-bee-talk-5-21-14-final

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Gaines day stevenspoint-bee-talk-5-21-14-final

  1. 1. The Buzz on Bees Hannah Gaines Day Department of Entomology University of Wisconsin, Madison H. Gaines Day H. Gaines DayR. Mallinger
  2. 2. Protecting wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat since 1971. Major Programs: •Pollinator conservation •Endangered species • Aquatic invertebrates www.funet.fi Advocacy, Education, Restoration, and Applied Research
  3. 3. Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees • Native bee conservation strategies • Further resources
  4. 4. Pollination • Transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma • Wind, gravity, or animal mediated © Bruce Newhouse
  5. 5. Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies
  6. 6. Pollinators • Birds, bats, bees, moths, butterflies • Bees are the MOST IMPORTANT pollinators – Actively collect pollen – Floral constancy – Branched hairs
  7. 7. • 85% of all flowering plants • 35% of global crop production R. Winfree How important are bees?
  8. 8. Poor fruit set resulting from poor pollinationPoor pollination
  9. 9. One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
  10. 10. One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
  11. 11. One in every three bites you eat is dependent on insect pollination.
  12. 12. With bees
  13. 13. Without bees
  14. 14. Bees and Wisconsin agriculture
  15. 15. Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees
  16. 16. What is a bee? • Hymenoptera – Ants, bees, wasps •6 legs, 4 wings • Vegetarian – Provision nests with pollen • Great pollinators! – Pollen sticks to feather- like hairs
  17. 17. Bees versus wasps • Carnivorous • Simple hairs • More aggressive • Examples: yellow jackets, hornets, paper wasps
  18. 18. Bees versus flies • Feed on decaying matter, feces, and blood • Also feed on nectar • 2 wings, short stubby antennae • Prominent eyes • Examples: house flies, hover flies
  19. 19. Native bees versus honey bees • Single, non-native species • Perennial colony with queen • Wax hives • Produce honey
  20. 20. Honey bees are not native, but • Generalist pollinators • “Easy” to manage • Work well with modern agricultural system
  21. 21. Social behavior of bees • Solitary (majority of species) • Social (only 10%) – Honey bees (NOT native) – Bumble bees
  22. 22. Solitary bee life cycle Spring Summer Fall Winter (Photos: Dennis Briggs)
  23. 23. Social bee life cycle (bumble bee) Spring Summer Fall Winter
  24. 24. Nesting behavior of bees Ground Stem S. Camarzine Cavity
  25. 25. Ground nesting (~70% of bees)
  26. 26. P.Westrich Ground nesting (~70% of bees) K. Ullmann
  27. 27. © Edward Ross Stem nesting (~30% of bees) K. Ullmann
  28. 28. Silk cocoons with dormant bees inside Mud cap closure Larva Pupa Adult Pollen mass Egg Mud wall Cross-section of silk cocoons Stem nesting
  29. 29. Stem nesting bees www.pestweb.com www.warrenphotographic.co.uk • Leaf-cutter bees (Megachile sp.)
  30. 30. Stem nesting bees • Leaf-cutter bees (Megachile addenda)
  31. 31. Stem nesting bees www.agf.gov.bc.ca T. Stoehr • Mason bees (Osmia sp.)
  32. 32. Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J. Rozen, AMNH
  33. 33. Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J. Rozen, AMNH
  34. 34. Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J.Rozen,AMNH
  35. 35. Stem nesting bees • Mason bees (Osmia avosetta) J. Rozen, AMNH
  36. 36. S. Camarzine Cavity nesting (bumble bees) K. Ullmann
  37. 37. Cavity nesting (bumble bees) • 45 species in North America • Annual colony with 100-300 workers • Specialist pollinators of red clover, blueberry, cranberry, eggplant, tomato Photos:Eric Mader, Elaine Evans
  38. 38. How many bees are there? • ~20,000 species worldwide • ~4000 species native to North America • ~500 species native to Wisconsin
  39. 39. Photos: James Cane; Steve Javorek (Ag Canada); Edward S. Ross Honey bee (Apis mellifera) Bumble bee (Bombus edwardsii) Leafcutter bee (Megachile sp.) Polyester bee (Colletes sp)
  40. 40. Photos: Bruce Newhouse; Edward S. Ross; Mace Vaughan; USDA-ARS/Jack Dykinga Metallic sweat bee (Agapostemon sp.) Yellow-faced bee (Hylaeus sp.) Mason bee (Osmia sp.) Sweat bee (Halictus sp.)
  41. 41. Metallic sweat bee (Agapostemon sp.) Mason bee (Osmia sp.) Sunflower bee (Svastra sp.) Long-horned bee (Mellisodes sp.) Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext Carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) Photo: Gene Barickman, IL NRCS
  42. 42. Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann
  43. 43. Bee diversity in Wisconsin • Cranberry ~180 species (H. Gaines Day, unpubl.) • Pickling cucumber ~60 species (Lowenstein et al. 2012) • Apple ~70 species (R. Mallinger, unpubl.)
  44. 44. Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees
  45. 45. Resource requirements • Flower availability – Early spring through fall • Nesting resources – Undisturbed soil, woody habitat, or nest boxes
  46. 46. Landscapes • Some landscapes already provide adequate resources. A. Bennett
  47. 47. Landscapes • Some do not. A. Bennett
  48. 48. Why is the landscape important? • Central place foragers • Flight distance proportional to size of bee Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann
  49. 49. Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees
  50. 50. Crop pollination by bees • One in every three bites…
  51. 51. Crop pollination by bees Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer
  52. 52. H. Rosner Scientific American 2013
  53. 53. US Agriculture – vast monocultures www.gallery.photo.net
  54. 54. Modern agricultural landscapes are food deserts for bees.
  55. 55. Honey bee decline • Mites, disease, Colony Collapse Disorder Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Varroa mite
  56. 56. Acceptable range
  57. 57. Honey bee rental rates (almond) BEFORE CCD
  58. 58. Honey bee rental rates (almond) AFTER CCD
  59. 59. Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Viruses? • Pests? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Insecticide exposure? – Neonicotinoids? • Poor diet?
  60. 60. Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Viruses? • Pests? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Insecticide exposure? – Neonicotinoids? • Poor diet?
  61. 61. Systemic pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids) • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer
  62. 62. Systemic pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids) • Benefits – Very effective – Less toxic to birds and mammals – Effective longer • Drawbacks – Present in nectar and pollen – Remain in environment longer – Toxic to bees
  63. 63. What makes systemic pesticides different?
  64. 64. Traditional pesticides
  65. 65. Traditional pesticides
  66. 66. Traditional pesticides
  67. 67. Traditional pesticides X
  68. 68. Traditional pesticides
  69. 69. Traditional pesticides
  70. 70. Systemic pesticides
  71. 71. Systemic pesticides
  72. 72. Systemic pesticides
  73. 73. Systemic pesticides X
  74. 74. Systemic pesticides
  75. 75. Systemic pesticides
  76. 76. Systemic pesticides
  77. 77. Systemic pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoids) • Commonly used in commercial nurseries – ASK BEFORE BUYING PLANTS WHETHER THEY HAVE BEEN TREATED
  78. 78. Systemic pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoids) • Active ingredients to avoid: – Imidachloprid – Clothianidin – Thiamethoxam
  79. 79. Colony Collapse Disorder • Disease/pathogen? • Viruses? • Pests? • Stress? • Not cell phones or Bt crops (Duan et al. 2008) • Insecticide exposure? • Poor diet?
  80. 80. Honey bee decline and diet =
  81. 81. Honey bee decline and diet • Bees diet is made of pollen and nectar • Diverse diet = healthier bees, stronger immune system
  82. 82. Honey bee decline and diet =
  83. 83. Native bees and crop pollination - Native bees provide insurance against honey bee decline - Efficient crop pollinators R. Winfree
  84. 84. Native bees and crop pollination • Active earlier in season and day • Collect both pollen and nectar • Buzz pollination • No rental fees • Keep honey bees moving
  85. 85. Photo: Bob Hammond, CSU Coop Ext
  86. 86. Photo: Rachael Winfree Winfree, R. et al.. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:793-802. Watermelon in New Jersey
  87. 87. Photo: Mace Vaughan Kremen, C. et al. 2004. The area requirements of an ecosystem service: crop pollination by native bee communities in California. Ecology Letters 7:1109-1119. Watermelon in California
  88. 88. Fruit set increases with bee diversity Klein et al. 2003
  89. 89. Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees
  90. 90. Native bees also in decline © Derrick Ditchburn © Johanna James-Heinz © Jodi DeLong © Peter Schroeder Yellow-banded Franklin’s Rusty-patch Western
  91. 91. Images: The Xerces Society Native bees also in decline - Yellow Banded Bumble Bee (Bombus terricolla) once very common, now gone
  92. 92. Native bee decline Pesticide exposure Loss of habitat Disease and pathogens
  93. 93. Outline • Pollination and Pollinators • Biology and natural history of bees • Resource requirements of native bees • Crop pollination by bees • Threats to native bees • Native bee conservation strategies
  94. 94. Pollinators need habitat Photo: Rollin Coville • Nesting • Foraging
  95. 95. What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve bee habitat already present in your area. © NRCS Lynn Betts
  96. 96. What can you do to help? • Identify and preserve bee habitat already present in your area. • Provide flowers and nesting resources. K. Ullmann Photo: Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
  97. 97. Floral resources - diversity
  98. 98. Floral resources - timing TAXA APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT Colletes (inaequalis, validis) Andrena Augochlora pura Augochlorella striata Halictus (females) Lasioglossum (females) Osmia Bombus © Data from Steve Javorek, Agriculture Canada • Bee flight periods in Nova Scotia
  99. 99. Floral resources • How to select good bee plants – Locally native plants are better for native bees – Minimum of 3 blooming plants at all times throughout the season (spring, summer, fall) – PLANT IN CLUMPS FOR BEST RESULT!
  100. 100. Protecting the bees • Restrict insecticide use •Use active ingredients with least impact on bees •Spray at night •Consider alternatives •Restrict herbicide use K. Ullmann
  101. 101. Small actions by many people can make a big difference.
  102. 102. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org)
  103. 103. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org) – Pollinator Conservation Resource Center •Plant lists •Conservation guidelines •Pesticide guidelines
  104. 104. Further resources The Xerces Society (www.xerces.org) – Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies •Natural history •Creating habitat •Bee identification •Plant lists
  105. 105. Further resources Honey bee health •Bee Informed Partnership (www.beeinformed.org) •Project Apis m (www.projectapism.org)
  106. 106. Further resources Insect identification • Bug Guide (www.bugguide.net) • Discover Life (www.discoverlife.org)
  107. 107. Get involved! The Great Sunflower Project (www.greatsunflower.org)
  108. 108. Get involved! Bee Spotter (http://beespotter.mste.uiuc.edu/)
  109. 109. Gratton Lab at UW-Madison gratton.entomology.wisc.edu My contact information: Email: hgaines@gmail.com Cell: 774-392-0498

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