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CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
INTO LAND USE PLANNING –
DISASTER VULNERABILITY AND
RESILIENCE
NURTURING LOCAL LEADERSHIP TOWARD...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
 INTRODUCTION
 LAND USE PLANNING UNDER POST-HFA AND
SENDAI FRAMEWORK ON DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION (SF...
(GHG)
Industrial
Drought
Famine
Flood
Human Activities
Climate
Features
Major
Threats
Deforestation
CH4
N2O Sea
Level Rise...
CLIMATE CHANGECLIMATE CHANGE vsvs LAND USE PLANNINGLAND USE PLANNING vsvs
DISASTER MANAGEMENTDISASTER MANAGEMENT
 managin...
 Post Hyogo Framework for Action
(HFA) - 2015
 Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk
Reduction 2030 (SFDRR)
 Development Ag...
• 2005 to 2015 [700,000 people lost their lives, 1.4 million
injured, 23 million homeless, 1.5 billion affected. Economic
...
1.Reduce global disaster mortality
2.Reduce number of affected people
3.Reduce direct disaster economic loss
4.Reduce disa...
1. Understanding disaster risk
2. Strengthening disaster risk governance
3. Investing in risk reduction
4. Enhancing disas...
LAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM
IN MALAYSIA
LAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIALAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA
NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLANNING
COUNCIL (NPPC)
REGIONA...
DEVELOPMENT PLAN SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA
NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN (NPP)NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN (NPP)
STATE STRUCTURE PLANSTATE STR...
12
VISION 2020
LEVEL 1 : NATIONAL PLANNING
NATIONAL
PHYSICAL
PLAN
LEVEL 2 : REGIONAL / STATE PLANNING
LEVEL 3 : LOCAL PLAN...
13
NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLANNATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN
The Establishment Of An Efficient, Equitable
And Sustainable National Spat...
NATIONAL URBANISATION POLICY ( NUP )
 A written policy which outlined the thrusts, strategies
and steps to guide, manage ...
STATE STRUCTURE PLANSTATE STRUCTURE PLAN
• Functions
• Translate policies of the National Physical Plan;
• Provide framewo...
LOCAL PLANLOCAL PLAN
• Functions
 Translate the policies of
State Structure Plan
 As a physical development
guide for th...
SPECIAL AREA PLANSPECIAL AREA PLAN
 A detailed development plan
prepared within a short period
of time for implementation...
DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL REPORTDEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL REPORT
 DPR to be submitted for any proposed development -
for planning p...
INCORPORATING
DRR & CCA INTO
LANDUSE PLANNING
SYSTEM
DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY AND
RESILIENCE
Adaptation – “as a process of adjustment that take place in
natural and ...
DRR & CCA in Malaysia
 1997 – Directive No. 20 on "Policy & Mechanism on National Disaster
& Relief Management“  guidanc...
CCA & DRR IN THE MELAKA DECLARATION
 Recognising the changing nature of disaster
risk in the country due to climate varia...
RECOMMENDED APPROACH FOR
MALAYSIA: LOCAL LEVEL SPATIALLY
CONTEXTUALISED AND COLLABORATIVE
Monitoring
and Review
Defined ar...
• Urban Environmental Plan (hazard map,
vulnerability map, environmental sensitive areas
map): a tool to address environme...
Natural
Hazards
Primary
Phenomena/Effects
Secondary
Phenomena/Effects
Flood Flooding Water Pollution, landslide,
erosion
T...
 Guide the development of an urban area in order to
minimize impacts of disasters due to primary and
secondary effects of...
 Guide the use of limited land in compliance with
disaster risks through planning control
 Similar with UEP, LUP does no...
 Identify potential hazards; by employing
hydrological maps, seismic maps, local rainfall and
flood level records
 Ident...
Type of
Hazards
Principal
Vulnerable
Elements
Role of UEP
(over the land)
Role of LUP
(mostly land)
Floods Everything
loca...
 Advocacy planning; all stakeholders are
encouraged to comply with the plan
 Guidance and control of urban
development; ...
PROPOSED HAZARD RISK STUDY INPROPOSED HAZARD RISK STUDY IN
DEVELOPMENT PLANSDEVELOPMENT PLANS
National
Physical
Plan
State...
Flood-proof
buildings are
allowed to
be built here
No buildings
are allowed in
this area
Flood-proof
buildings for
non-
pe...
THE LAND USE PLANNING ASSESSMENTTHE LAND USE PLANNING ASSESSMENT
FOR RISK AREAS (LUPAr) PROGRAMFOR RISK AREAS (LUPAr) PROG...
• The public’s input is important in ensuring
plans prepared truly address local issues and
meet the needs of the local pe...
WHAT IS A RESILIENT CITY
CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESILIENT CITY
CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESILIENT CITY
MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR DISASTER RESIKLIENCE
MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
MALAYSIA INITIATIVES IN MAKING CITIES RESILIENT
FDTCP, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA INITIATIVES IN MAKING
CITIES RESILIENT
PLANNING GUIDELINES, MANUALS & STUDIESPLANNING GUIDELINES, MANUALS & STUDIES
.
 Study on Sustainable
Development Indicato...
 The FDTCP will continue to play a vital role in
incorporating and mainstreaming DRR and CCA.
 Cooperation and inter-age...
TERIMA KASIH!
www.townplan.gov.my
Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia
Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia
Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia
Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia
Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia
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Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia

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The 2016 ProSPER.Net Leadership Programme was held in Labuan Island and Beaufort, Sabah, Malaysia. The Programme included workshops, plenary sessions, and fieldwork around the topics of local sustainable development challenges in the region. The main goals of the Programme were to identify local leadership opportunities for sustainable development and to link local and national sustainable development projects to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Paris Climate Treaty, and the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction.

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Vulnerability and Adaptation of Disaster Victims, Dzul Khaimi bin Khailani, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Malaysia

  1. 1. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION INTO LAND USE PLANNING – DISASTER VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE NURTURING LOCAL LEADERSHIP TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 7-14 AUGUST 2016 by DR. DZUL KHAIMI BIN KHAILANI Senior Assistant Principal Director Research & Development Division Federal Department Town & Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia MINISTRY OF URBAN WELL BEING, HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERMENT
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE  INTRODUCTION  LAND USE PLANNING UNDER POST-HFA AND SENDAI FRAMEWORK ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (SFDRR)  LAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA  DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE  INCORPORATION OF DRR & CCA INTO LAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM
  3. 3. (GHG) Industrial Drought Famine Flood Human Activities Climate Features Major Threats Deforestation CH4 N2O Sea Level Rise Adaptation from UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Climate Change: Processes and Threats, 2005. DISASTER Melting of Ice Cloud Global Warming Upheavel Of Ocean Circulation Precipitation Interference Carbon Cycle Landuse Change Urbanisation Burning of Fossil Fuel Transport Agriculture Heat Destruction of Biodiversity Change in Life Style Threat to Economy Typhoon Outbreak of Desease Loss of Lives CO2 CLIMATE CHANGECLIMATE CHANGE vsvs LAND USE PLANNINGLAND USE PLANNING vsvs DISASTER MANAGEMENTDISASTER MANAGEMENT
  4. 4. CLIMATE CHANGECLIMATE CHANGE vsvs LAND USE PLANNINGLAND USE PLANNING vsvs DISASTER MANAGEMENTDISASTER MANAGEMENT  managing flood risk while promoting regeneration.  increased flooding and landslip have implications for what particular land can be used for in the future.  areas which are vulnerable to floods, may become unsuitable for residential but may suitable for other uses.  coastal floods and erosion - impact on the locations for future business, industrial developments, increase demand for flood defences location of new key infrastructure.  the impacts on land and soils - implications for biodiversity, cultural heritage sites.
  5. 5.  Post Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) - 2015  Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction 2030 (SFDRR)  Development Agenda - Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)  COP 21 - 45% reduction MALAYSIA COMMITMENTS ATMALAYSIA COMMITMENTS AT GLOBAL LEVELGLOBAL LEVEL
  6. 6. • 2005 to 2015 [700,000 people lost their lives, 1.4 million injured, 23 million homeless, 1.5 billion affected. Economic loss: 1.3 trillion USD] • Acknowledgement to HFA and its achievements • More small scale disasters and slow onset disasters • People centred preventive approach • Focus on urban planning and urban development in achieving resilience • Need to link to SDGs, climate change framework • SFDRR - Role of Science and Technology in EWS, preparedness, response, recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction CONTEXT : POST HFACONTEXT : POST HFA
  7. 7. 1.Reduce global disaster mortality 2.Reduce number of affected people 3.Reduce direct disaster economic loss 4.Reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructures 5.Increase number of countries with DRR strategies 6.Enhance international cooperation 7.Increase access to multi hazard EWS, risk information and assessment SFDRR: SEVEN GLOBALSFDRR: SEVEN GLOBAL TARGETSTARGETS
  8. 8. 1. Understanding disaster risk 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance 3. Investing in risk reduction 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for collective response, and to “build back better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction SFDRR: FOUR PRIORITY FORSFDRR: FOUR PRIORITY FOR ACTIONSACTIONS
  9. 9. LAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA
  10. 10. LAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIALAND USE PLANNING SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLANNING COUNCIL (NPPC) REGIONAL PLANNING COMMITTEE (RPC) STATE PLANNING COMMITTEE (SPC) ONE-STOP CENTER (OSC) MEETING National Level State Level Local Level Chaired by Prime Minister Chaired by Chief Minister Chaired by Chief Council Regional Level Chairman pointed by Prime Minister
  11. 11. DEVELOPMENT PLAN SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN (NPP)NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN (NPP) STATE STRUCTURE PLANSTATE STRUCTURE PLAN LOCAL PLANLOCAL PLAN SPECIAL AREA PLANSPECIAL AREA PLAN NationalNational LevelLevel StateState LevelLevel LocalLocal LevelLevel
  12. 12. 12 VISION 2020 LEVEL 1 : NATIONAL PLANNING NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN LEVEL 2 : REGIONAL / STATE PLANNING LEVEL 3 : LOCAL PLANNING 5 - YEAR MALAYSIA PLAN SPECIAL AREA PLAN SECTORAL POLICIES/ PLANS LOCAL PLAN REGIONAL / STRUCTURE PLAN STATE/ REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN SECTORAL POLICIES/ PLANS Town & Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172) •Sec. 6B – Preparation of NPP •Sec. 6B(4) – Review of NPP every 5 years Plan Area •NPP confined to Peninsular Malaysia Plan Period •10 year timescale up to 2020 Functions of NPP
  13. 13. 13 NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLANNATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN The Establishment Of An Efficient, Equitable And Sustainable National Spatial Framework To Guide The Overall Development Of The Country Towards Achieving Developed And High- income Nation Status By 2020.  Safeguard and managed sustainably all surface and ground water resources.  Apply sustainable forest management.  Water resources management based on IWRM, IRBM and ICZM.  CFS as the backbone of the ESA network;  ESA will be integrated in the planning and management of land use and natural resources.  Future settlements and infrastructure in coastal zones will be located away vulnerable to rising sea levels/storm surges  Natural barriers, esp. mangroves, forests and peat lands shall be protected and expanded and further conversion of will no longer be allowed.
  14. 14. NATIONAL URBANISATION POLICY ( NUP )  A written policy which outlined the thrusts, strategies and steps to guide, manage and monitor more efficient and systematic town planning and developments,  The aim of NUP is to create visionable cities with liveable environment through sustainable urban development. Approved by: •Cabinet Meeting on 2 August 2006 •NPPC on 8 August 2006
  15. 15. STATE STRUCTURE PLANSTATE STRUCTURE PLAN • Functions • Translate policies of the National Physical Plan; • Provide framework for Local Plan; • Identify main land uses at the state level; and • Identify main state projects
  16. 16. LOCAL PLANLOCAL PLAN • Functions  Translate the policies of State Structure Plan  As a physical development guide for the respective district through the proposed land use plan  Identify main projects of the district  Preparation of Implementation Guidelines to guide implementation  Aided with Subject Plans for sectoral development implementation
  17. 17. SPECIAL AREA PLANSPECIAL AREA PLAN  A detailed development plan prepared within a short period of time for implementation and management  The main output : Development Action Plan in the form of layout plan and complemented by management plan, development phasing, cost, implementing agency and implementation approach  5 main categories :  Redevelopment of areas within urban centres  Heritage Conservation Areas  Environmental Sensitive Areas  Resettlement of Communities  Special Area For Specific Needs
  18. 18. DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL REPORTDEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL REPORT  DPR to be submitted for any proposed development - for planning permission to LPA (under Sec. 21A (1) Act 172)  Content :  Development concept & justifications  Site plan, land ownership, Land use analysis  Physical condition – topography, geology, drainage  Traffic & transportation, Economy & infrastructure  Public & Social amenities  Preservation & conservation of trees & buildings  Impact Assessment – SIA, TIA, EIA  This enables the planning authority to make development control decisions to protect the environment.
  19. 19. INCORPORATING DRR & CCA INTO LANDUSE PLANNING SYSTEM
  20. 20. DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE Adaptation – “as a process of adjustment that take place in natural and human systems in response to the actual or expected impacts of climate change, aimed at moderating harm or exploiting beneficial opportunities” Vulnerability – “as a characteristics of individual or a group of people who in a given natural, social, and economic space are exposed to danger or harm originating from a hazard”. Resilience – “is the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazard to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning or structure”.
  21. 21. DRR & CCA in Malaysia  1997 – Directive No. 20 on "Policy & Mechanism on National Disaster & Relief Management“  guidance for management according to the level and complexity of a disaster.  2005 – Hyogo Framework for Action, UNISDR 2005  National Security Council – National Focal Point  2008 – Third Asian Ministerial Conference on DRR in Kuala Lumpur, 2- 4 Dec 2008, MKN/UNISDR  called for the promotion of CCA wherever appropriate.  2009 – National Policy on Climate Change approved by the Cabinet of Malaysia  2010 – Inaugural Meeting of the Green Technology and Climate Change Council, chaired by Prime Minister of Malaysia  2011 – Hari Kesedaran Bencana 2011, 18-19 Feb 2011  Melaka Declaration on Disaster Risk Reduction in Malaysia 2011  2012-14 – Malaysia Platform and Action Plan on DRR (MyDRR)  consultation  2015 – Sendai Framework for DRR  National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) – National Focal Point
  22. 22. CCA & DRR IN THE MELAKA DECLARATION  Recognising the changing nature of disaster risk in the country due to climate variability and climate change  To promote the use of technology in support of early warning, multi-hazards risk assessment, and climate modelling and downscaling.  To strengthen local capacity to integrate climate and disaster risk into local development planning
  23. 23. RECOMMENDED APPROACH FOR MALAYSIA: LOCAL LEVEL SPATIALLY CONTEXTUALISED AND COLLABORATIVE Monitoring and Review Defined area (Coastal, river basin, cities, towns, etc.) Climate variability and change Identification of susceptible, exposed and vulnerable zones Federal Agencies State Agencies Local Authorities Stakeholders Monitoring and Review Location Specific Disaster Resilience Plans
  24. 24. • Urban Environmental Plan (hazard map, vulnerability map, environmental sensitive areas map): a tool to address environmental issues in a systematic manner within an urban domain to achieve desirable environmental condition. • Land Use Plan (National Physical Plan, State Structure Plan, Local Plan, Special Area Plan): a tool to address appropriate allocation and designation of the use of land to achieve efficient use of limited land. • Both UEP and LUP are tools for proactive actions COMMON PLANNING TOOLS CAN BE USEDCOMMON PLANNING TOOLS CAN BE USED FOR DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITYFOR DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCEAND RESILIENCE
  25. 25. Natural Hazards Primary Phenomena/Effects Secondary Phenomena/Effects Flood Flooding Water Pollution, landslide, erosion Tsunami Huge wave and flooding Water Pollution, landslide, erosion Earthquake Violent ground motion, fault, rupture Soil liquefaction, fire, flood, landslide, tsunami, water pollution Volcano Lava flow, pyroclastic flow, ash fall, gases Fire, air pollution, tsunami, lava flows, water pollution, ground subsidence Cyclone Strong winds, heavy rains Flood and sea surge, land slide, water pollution Landslide Ground failure Flooding via river damming, water pollution, debris flow PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS OFPRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS OF NATURAL DISASTERSNATURAL DISASTERS
  26. 26.  Guide the development of an urban area in order to minimize impacts of disasters due to primary and secondary effects of hazards, with respect to environmental viewpoints, by integrating available sources such as regulation, ordinance, information, and guidelines into City zoning ordinances, Building codes, Environmental Assessment Documents and development standard and specifications.  UEP does not prevent disasters rather it helps to reduce impacts and minimizes losses through adjustment to disaster risks. URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR DISASTERURBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY ANDADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCERESILIENCE
  27. 27.  Guide the use of limited land in compliance with disaster risks through planning control  Similar with UEP, LUP does not prevent disasters rather than human efforts to adjust with disaster hazards and risks. LAND USE PLAN FOR DISASTER ADAPTATION,LAND USE PLAN FOR DISASTER ADAPTATION, VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCEVULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE
  28. 28.  Identify potential hazards; by employing hydrological maps, seismic maps, local rainfall and flood level records  Identify elements at risk; combining the magnitude, frequency, significance and acceptability of hazards  Identify vulnerabilities; exploring to what extent the area is vulnerable to disasters  Identify potential mitigation measures; select the most appropriate measures. IDENTIFICATION OF ADAPTATIONIDENTIFICATION OF ADAPTATION MEASURESMEASURES
  29. 29. Type of Hazards Principal Vulnerable Elements Role of UEP (over the land) Role of LUP (mostly land) Floods Everything located in flood plains or tsunami areas. Crops, livestock, machinery, equipment, infrastructure, weak building  Develop flood risk maps  Guide development toward flood- proof communities  Prevent the use of flood vulnerable area for permanent activities  Enforce appropriate flood plain management Earth- quake Weak buildings and infrastructures  Develop hazard maps  Enforce building codes  Reinforce weak buildings  Limit the use of land for earthquake- resistant building only Strong Winds Lightweight buildings and roofs  Reinforce weak buildings and roofs  NA EXAMPLES OF ROLES OF UEP AND LUP INEXAMPLES OF ROLES OF UEP AND LUP IN DISASTER ADAPTATION STRATEGIESDISASTER ADAPTATION STRATEGIES
  30. 30.  Advocacy planning; all stakeholders are encouraged to comply with the plan  Guidance and control of urban development; urban development is devised by hazards map and vulnerability map and zoning  Relocation of settlements; relocation is strongly demanded for highly disaster vulnerable area  New types of town; introduces ‘disaster- resilience’ city. DEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE AND CONTROLDEVELOPMENT GUIDANCE AND CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATIONSTRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATION
  31. 31. PROPOSED HAZARD RISK STUDY INPROPOSED HAZARD RISK STUDY IN DEVELOPMENT PLANSDEVELOPMENT PLANS National Physical Plan State Structure Plan Local Plan Special Area Plan Planning Permission (Devt Proposal Report) General Hazard Risk Plan List the locations & Incidences of Hazard Areas Strategic Hazard Risk Plan Hazard Risk Assessment Identify Main River Basins that need Flood Mitigation Study Hazard Risk Areas Zoning Map Hazard Risk Areas Zoning Map by Rank Present Planning Proses/Practice Proposal to incorporate related hazard risk aspects
  32. 32. Flood-proof buildings are allowed to be built here No buildings are allowed in this area Flood-proof buildings for non- permanent activities are allowed here
  33. 33. THE LAND USE PLANNING ASSESSMENTTHE LAND USE PLANNING ASSESSMENT FOR RISK AREAS (LUPAr) PROGRAMFOR RISK AREAS (LUPAr) PROGRAM Aimed to translate the thrust of Hyogo Declaration 2005 & SDG into land use planning mechanism through R&D activities & formulation of policies & general land use planning guidelines. provide research inputs in the formulation of land use planning policies & guidelines for hazard risk areas. main components include: • capacity building • Research and pilot studies • Awareness Program and Community Involvement • Expert Committee (LUPAr)
  34. 34. • The public’s input is important in ensuring plans prepared truly address local issues and meet the needs of the local people • Allows for public involvement at an early stage • Focus Group Discussion (FGD) • Community Based Disaster Risk Management COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS Public ParticipationFGD PUBLICITY
  35. 35. WHAT IS A RESILIENT CITY
  36. 36. CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESILIENT CITY
  37. 37. CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESILIENT CITY
  38. 38. MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR DISASTER RESIKLIENCE
  39. 39. MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
  40. 40. MALAYSIA INITIATIVES IN MAKING CITIES RESILIENT
  41. 41. FDTCP, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA INITIATIVES IN MAKING CITIES RESILIENT
  42. 42. PLANNING GUIDELINES, MANUALS & STUDIESPLANNING GUIDELINES, MANUALS & STUDIES .  Study on Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI)  Planning Guidelines on Development of Roof Top Gardens  Planning Guidelines on Public Facilities  Manual on Sustainability Assessment  A Guide for Conducting Focus Group Discussions, Charettes and Village Appraisals  Manual on Social Impact Assessment
  43. 43.  The FDTCP will continue to play a vital role in incorporating and mainstreaming DRR and CCA.  Cooperation and inter-agencies free flow of data and information is needed.  Continuous effort is necessary to assess changes and ensure that adaptations will be done commensurate with new issues and risks that may arise over time. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION
  44. 44. TERIMA KASIH! www.townplan.gov.my

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