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Quantitative Research in Energy
Availability, Access and Affordability
TERI University, February 2016
Why Studying Energy Access?
• Energy and poverty- capabilities approach of Prof. Amartya
Sen (1980s)
• Energy, poverty and...
Why there’s a need to assess ‘Energy-Poverty’?
• Over 1.3 billion people are without access to electricity
• 18% of global...
‘Energy-Poverty’: Need for Its Robust
Assessments
• Energy-poverty is defined as, access to modern energy
services (i.e., ...
Quantifying Energy Poverty
• Economics based approach-
– ‘Energy poverty line’/ ‘fuel poverty line’
– Calculations are oft...
Quantifying Energy Poverty…continued
• Engineering-based approaches
– Calculations based on basic energy needs for cooking...
Quantifying Energy Poverty…….continued
• Poverty and access to energy
– Researchers made attempts to assess how access to ...
Data Requirements for Measurement (/Quantification)
• Backbone of any objective measurement…is data
• Obtaining data on ac...
Data Sources
• Different household survey – available Internationally
• National Sample Survey – different Consumer Expend...
National Sample Survey Questionnaire- Schedule 1.0
Some Measures: Energy Access
• Sonali Pachauri (2004), Energy Poverty in Indian Households, World Development
– Estimating...
Pachauri et al. 2004, Energy Poverty in Indian Households, World Development
• The paper looks into various other aspects of measurement
of energy-poverty through-
1. Correcting for household size ec...
Indian Households Energy Consumptions (Calculated
from NSSO data)
Pachauri et al. 2004, Energy Poverty in Indian Household...
The energy access–consumption matrix (combining
various methods discussed above)
What it led to interpret?
• Shifting shares of people across the access–consumption matrix over time
• Changes in per capi...
Thank you
Papiya Mazumdar, Ph.D
Assistant Professor
Dept.of Policy Studies, TERI U
Email: papiyamaz@gmail.com
Quantitative research in energy, availability, access and affordability, Papiya Mazumdar, TERI University, India
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Quantitative research in energy, availability, access and affordability, Papiya Mazumdar, TERI University, India

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This lecture is part of the 2016 ProSPER.Net Young Researchers’ School on sustainable energy for transforming lives: availability, accessibility, affordability

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Quantitative research in energy, availability, access and affordability, Papiya Mazumdar, TERI University, India

  1. 1. Quantitative Research in Energy Availability, Access and Affordability TERI University, February 2016
  2. 2. Why Studying Energy Access? • Energy and poverty- capabilities approach of Prof. Amartya Sen (1980s) • Energy, poverty and development – share many interfaces • Multi-dimensionality of poverty indispensably include ‘access’ issues of energy • Energy access both act as outcome and determinants of many indicators aggravated by poverty • Being ‘energy –poor’ might actually mean loosing out on many opportunities on human wellbeing
  3. 3. Why there’s a need to assess ‘Energy-Poverty’? • Over 1.3 billion people are without access to electricity • 18% of global population lack access to electricity, despite modest improvements • 2.6 billion people are without clean cooking facilities • 38% of global population lack clean cooking facilities • More than 95% of these people are either in sub-Saharan African or developing Asia and, • 84% are in rural areas
  4. 4. ‘Energy-Poverty’: Need for Its Robust Assessments • Energy-poverty is defined as, access to modern energy services (i.e., electricity and clean cooking fuels for cooking and heating) at household level (Ref. International Energy Access, 2010) • Provision of modern energy services is recognized as a critical foundation for sustainable development…(?) • Assessing ‘energy poverty’ helps in understanding multi-dimensionality of poverty in more accurate way
  5. 5. Quantifying Energy Poverty • Economics based approach- – ‘Energy poverty line’/ ‘fuel poverty line’ – Calculations are often made as to the average level of energy consumption of persons, having a level of income or expenditure, compared to the officially specified levels by the poverty line or minimum money amount needed to meet basic needs – Foster, Tre, and Wodon (2000)- Guatemala Household Survey data – Researchers have defined energy poverty differentially (e.g., household expenditure, energy budget share, type of fuel use, etc.)
  6. 6. Quantifying Energy Poverty…continued • Engineering-based approaches – Calculations based on basic energy needs for cooking, lighting and heating (often as per capita), however these suffer from subjective differences (climate, region, age/sex, period of time etc.) – Earlier, GOI estimated such parameter to assess size of energy demand in rural India (based on normative assumption on basic human needs)
  7. 7. Quantifying Energy Poverty…….continued • Poverty and access to energy – Researchers made attempts to assess how access to more efficient energy sources is related to an improvement in peoples level of well-being – Consumption based measure of energy poverty – Distinguishes a poor household from a better off one, which has the wider range of choice of fuels to use (more efficient, more convenient, less polluting), and equipment and appliances to buy
  8. 8. Data Requirements for Measurement (/Quantification) • Backbone of any objective measurement…is data • Obtaining data on access to energy services can be quite difficult • Requirement remains data dimensions on- – Physical access to different energy types – Households’ access to market that sell different energy appliances options – Purchasing power of the households – Market prices of fuel and equipments • Hence, data needs to be obtained for assessing – coverage, household’s ability to pay, safety and quality of products
  9. 9. Data Sources • Different household survey – available Internationally • National Sample Survey – different Consumer Expenditure rounds, in India • Sources that provide information on households socio- economic background, energy use and expenditure on energy etc.
  10. 10. National Sample Survey Questionnaire- Schedule 1.0
  11. 11. Some Measures: Energy Access • Sonali Pachauri (2004), Energy Poverty in Indian Households, World Development – Estimating basic energy needs for the average household – By calculating the end-use energy requirements for specific energy services – The unit of power (energy per unit time) in watt (watt = Joules per second) – For instance- if an electric light bulb with an installed power of 40W is used on average for 5 h per day, then consumption calculated (200 W hour= (5 h X 40W) – Average power-consumption 200 W h/24 h= 8 W h – Similarly, for daily meal for a five-member household using fuel-wood, estimation was made 34 MJ – 34MJ/(24 h*3,600 s/h) = 393W, for two meals (393W*2=786W)
  12. 12. Pachauri et al. 2004, Energy Poverty in Indian Households, World Development
  13. 13. • The paper looks into various other aspects of measurement of energy-poverty through- 1. Correcting for household size economies of scale • Correcting for efficiencies of some equipment are strongly dependent on the household size • Considering, the fact that 90% of energy consumption in Indian households goes in cooking 2. Grouping households by the amount of energy they consume 3. Grouping households with respect to their access to different energy carriers, since these varies greatly in efficiencies and qualities
  14. 14. Indian Households Energy Consumptions (Calculated from NSSO data) Pachauri et al. 2004, Energy Poverty in Indian Households, World Development
  15. 15. The energy access–consumption matrix (combining various methods discussed above)
  16. 16. What it led to interpret? • Shifting shares of people across the access–consumption matrix over time • Changes in per capita expenditure (PCE) across the matrix and across time • Changes in illiteracy and other indicators of well-being (impact of modern energy access on human wellbeing) The paper with robust use of Quantitative Research Techniques, thus advocated for- • Improving well-being of the population with required significant additional efforts and large investments in infrastructure • Needs for ensuring sustainable and efficient way and tackling thereon the challenges expected
  17. 17. Thank you Papiya Mazumdar, Ph.D Assistant Professor Dept.of Policy Studies, TERI U Email: papiyamaz@gmail.com

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