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2019/08/12
1
PLASTIC WASTE
PRODUCTION
AND
MANAGEMENT IN
THE RURAL AREAS
OF ESWATINI: A
CASE OF
ZOMBODZE
EMUVA AND
ZIKHOTHE...
2019/08/12
2
Examples of Plastic Waste in the Rural Areas of
Eswatini
In water bodies (e.g. rivers) Along roads
Plastic wa...
2019/08/12
3
A map of Zombodze Emuva showing households generating LDPE A map of Zikhotheni showing households generating ...
2019/08/12
4
Adopted Plastic Waste Management Practices in the Rural
Areas of Eswatini
Open burning
• Plastic waste is bur...
2019/08/12
5
Reuse of plastics to store
ingredients
Reuse of plastic bags to store
meet in a deep freezer
Backyard waste p...
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Plastic Waste Production and Management in the Rural Areas of Eswatini: A Case of Zombodze Emuva and Zikhotheni Communities

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Plastic Waste Production and Management in the Rural Areas of Eswatini: A Case of Zombodze Emuva and Zikhotheni Communities
Case Study Session
Nxumalo Sizwe, UNESWA
9th African Regional RCE Meeting
5-7 August, 2019, Luyengo, Eswatini

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Plastic Waste Production and Management in the Rural Areas of Eswatini: A Case of Zombodze Emuva and Zikhotheni Communities

  1. 1. 2019/08/12 1 PLASTIC WASTE PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS OF ESWATINI: A CASE OF ZOMBODZE EMUVA AND ZIKHOTHENI COMMUNITIES By: NXUMALO SIZWE What Are Plastics? • The word plastic comes from the Greek word “plasticos”  Plasticos means to be able to be shaped or molded by heat. • Plastic is an organic polymer, available in some resin form which can be liquid or paste like for embedding, coating, and adhesive bonding, or they can be molded, laminated, or form shapes, including sheet, film, or larger-mass bulk shapes. • A number of defining characteristics make plastic a convenient material for the manufacture of everyday products. • Plastic do not biodegrade easily. • Plastics are a problem to the environment, animal and human life. Production of Plastics • There has been a steady increase in the use of plastic products. • Mass production of plastic began in earnest in the 1950s. • The scale of its production had increased immensely by 1988; to about 30 million tonnes per annum, reaching 265 million tonnes by 2010. • Today, solid waste has increased to 9.1 billion tonnes, of which 6.9 billion tonnes is plastic waste. • The rise of the production of plastics has resulted to plastic pollution. • More than 50% of the world population, especially in the rural areas lack knowledge about the effects of plastic waste (UNEP, 2018). Plastic Waste in the Rural Areas • Plastic pollution has emerged as a major problem in rural areas and the issue of managing plastic waste has become a challenge over time. • 1.9 billion people lack waste collection services in rural areas. Driving Forces • Poorly developed waste management in low and middle income areas. • Lack of reliable regional waste statistics. • Lack of waste collection services. • Public and traditional events. • Lack of education on plastic waste management. Problem of Plastic Pollution in Rural Households of Eswatini • Plastics pose a threat to Eswatini’s environment (Nkonyane, 2018). Driving Forces • No strict laws that ban plastics. • Failure to introduce plastic levy. • Shops freely dispense plastic bags to the consumers. • Lack of knowledge/education. • Poor waste management practices (traditional). • Lack of reliable statistics of waste generated. • However, dynamics of plastic waste disposal and management in these rural areas still poorly researched in Eswatini. Thus the study. Findings of the Study Disposal sites for plastic waste in the rural areas/communities? •Backyard of homesteads •Along roads •Bushes •Rivers •Dongas and trenches •Crop land •Sport grounds •Backyard waste pits
  2. 2. 2019/08/12 2 Examples of Plastic Waste in the Rural Areas of Eswatini In water bodies (e.g. rivers) Along roads Plastic waste disposal in velds and bushes Plastic waste disposed even in a sport grounds Types of Plastic Waste Generated by the Rural Households of Eswatini • The community of Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva generates a number of plastic waste material, these include: a) Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) b) High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), c) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), d) Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) e) Polypropylene (PP), f) Polystyrene (PS) g) Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) h) “Other” plastic types which are layered or mixed with other plastic types, such as bio-plastics. Green (safest choice), Orange (use with caution), Red (avoid). Plastic Types and Their Uses Types of plastic Waste Generated by the Rural Households of Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva Plastic Type Zikhotheni Freq % Zombodze Emuva Freq % PET 42 77.8 46 83.6 HDPE 48 88.9 50 90.7 PVC 30 55.6 40 72.7 LDPE 50 92.6 53 96.4 PP 22 40.7 37 67.3 PS 10 18.5 20 36.4 EPS 47 87 46 83.6 Other 16 29.6 26 47.3
  3. 3. 2019/08/12 3 A map of Zombodze Emuva showing households generating LDPE A map of Zikhotheni showing households generating LDPE Estimated Average Amount of Plastic Waste Generated in the Rural Households of Eswatini • The amount of plastic waste generated by the rural communities vary by type. Monthly • The most generated types are LDPE,HDPE,EPS, PET and as well as PVC. • Measurements per plastic type are between 0.01kg to 0.09kg. • Zikhotheni (total) = 0.46kg • Zombodze Emuva (total) = 0.52kg • Monthly average = 0.48kg. Daily • EPS, LDPE,HDPE, and PET, are the most generated types. • Waste generated between 0.3 grams to 2.99 grams per type • Zikhotheni (total) = 14.8g • Zombodze Emuva (total) = 17g per day. • Daily average = 15.9g 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 PET HDPE PVC LDPE PP PS EPS OTHER MonthlyAverage(kg) Types of Plastic Waste Zikhotheni Zombodze Estimated Monthly Average Amount of Plastic Waste 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 PET HDPE PVC LDPE PP PS EPS OTHER DailyAverageAmount(grams) Types of Plastic Waste Zikhotheni Zombodze Emuva Estimated Daily Average Amount of Plastic Waste Generated Spring balances that were used to weigh the waste
  4. 4. 2019/08/12 4 Adopted Plastic Waste Management Practices in the Rural Areas of Eswatini Open burning • Plastic waste is burnt using open air burning method • Burn plastic when starting a fire • Burnt intentionally when cleaning the yard Reuse • Plastic waste is reused for various purposes • Examples include reusing plastic bottles to store water and other liquids. Plastic bags for storing meet in deep freezers. Recycle • Plastics are recycled differently. • Recycling is done after a long time (very limited) Burying of Plastic Waste • Buried when waste pit is full • Buried together with other types of solid waste Management Practices (cont.) Dispose in backyard waste pit • Households have waste pits in their backyards • Plastic waste is disposed occasionally Selling of Plastic Waste • Some respondents sell their plastic waste • Plastic waste such as water and soft drink bottles is sold to women at market places Dispose in backyard • Thrown in the backyard of homestead • Normally disposed on backyard due to the lack of waste pit. • Normally burnt by wild fires Open burning of plastic waste 96 19 100 0 50 24 0 93 5 100 13 58 31 11 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Burn Burry Reuse Recycle Dispose in Pit Dispose in backyard Sell %Households MANAGEMENT STRATEGY Zikhotheni Zombode Emuva Adopted plastic waste management practices in Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva 28 7 39 0 15 11 0 33 2 35 5 11 11 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Burn Burry Reuse Recycle Throw in Pit Throw in backyard Sell %HOUSEHOLDS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY Zikhotheni Zombode Emuva Most prioritized management strategy by different households
  5. 5. 2019/08/12 5 Reuse of plastics to store ingredients Reuse of plastic bags to store meet in a deep freezer Backyard waste pit Plastic waste at the backyard of homesteads Recommended Plastic Waste Management Practices Conclusion •Rural households of Eswatini generates both the safest (LDPE, HDPE, PP) and the dangerous plastic types (PVC, PS, EPS). •Substantial amount of plastic waste is generated. •No specific or authorized way of managing plastic waste. •Traditional methods of managing waste are in practice. •Reuse is very common, and recycling practice starting.

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