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Lecture 1: 2030 Agenda and the SDGs

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Lecture 1: 2030 Agenda and the SDGs
Prof. Mario Tabucanon (UNU-IAS)
2018 ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School
5 March 2018

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Lecture 1: 2030 Agenda and the SDGs

  1. 1. ProSPER.Net Young Researchers’ School “Sustainable Urban Development for the World’s Megacities” 4-11 March 2018, Kanagawa, Japan 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals – Research Implications 3/13/2018 1 Mario T. Tabucanon Visiting Professor and Senior Research Fellow UNU-IAS
  2. 2. Historical Perspective 2002 • World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg • Ubuntu Alliance, Ubuntu Declaration – “Strengthen S&T Education for SD” • UN General Assembly adopted UN DESD 2005- 2014 • UN DESD Thrust on HE: Reorienting existing education/research programmes; Capacity building
  3. 3. 3 Rio +20 Commitment to Sustainable Practices of Higher Education Institutions Higher education institution signatories commit to: 1) Teach sustainable development concepts, ensuring that they form a part of the core curriculum across all disciplines. 2) Encourage research on sustainable development issues, to improve scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge. 3) Green their campuses by: i) reducing the environmental footprint; ii) adopting sustainable procurement practices; iii) providing sustainable mobility options for students and faculty; iv) adopting effective programmes for waste minimization, recycling and reuse, and v) encouraging more sustainable lifestyles. 4) Support sustainability efforts in the communities in which they reside. Higher Education Sustainability Initiative (HESI)
  4. 4. 4 • “A Process of empowerment and transformational change for creating sustainable societies” • Empowerment: Doing the right things. • Change: Bringing the present state (unsustainable) into a desired future state (sustainable).
  5. 5. • We can analyze to understand the past and the present (Learning). (Capacity building) • But we have to design a desired future (Visioning). (SDGs @ global/national/local levels) • We have to transformative figures in this process of change (Transforming) (Methodologies; Decision-making and Implementation tools) 5
  6. 6. We are living on ever decreasing natural capital As a planet, the human race now consumes 30% more biological resources than the earth can produce in one year Source: http://www.globalfootprintnetwork.org/ Earth’s Sustainability We are here now!
  7. 7. We are consuming more and more, faster and faster… what is the outcome?
  8. 8. As we Consume More… More Species Go Extinct The Living Planet Index of biosphere health fell by about 40% from 1970 to 2000, a period of just 30 years. What will happen in the next 30 years? Source: State of the World 2004: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society, Linda Starke et al, Norton, NY, 2004, 245 pp.
  9. 9. Doubling world population and increasing level of consumption would lead to • multi-fold increase in food consumption, increase in energy production, and increase in resource utilization in general  To sustain life, we need more than one planet Earth
  10. 10. 1900 21002002 2050 Rio: If we go on with current consumption & consumption patterns, two planets are needed by 2050 At World ESD Conference, Nagoya, 10 November 2014: “There is no plan B, because there is no planet B” – Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General
  11. 11. The Age of Sustainable Development 3/13/2018 12 • Vision – To have a transformed world • Economic development that is socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable
  12. 12. Framework for sustainability A B C ‘Triple-bottom line’ model ‘Hierarchical ’ model Source: Image adapted from Lowe, I. (1996), Towards Ecological Sustainability 3/13/2018 13
  13. 13. 3/13/2018 14
  14. 14. Core Elements of SD – People, Prosperity, Planet, Peace, Partnership • People – To end poverty and fight inequalities- SDGs 1,2,10; To ensure healthy lives, knowledge and the inclusion of women and children - SDGs 3,4,5 • Prosperity - To grow a strong, inclusive and transformative economy -SDGs 6,7,8,9,11,12 • Planet - To protect our ecosystems for all societies and our children - SDGs 13,14,15 • Peace - To promote safe and peaceful societies and strong institutions - SDG 16 • Partnership - To catalyze global solidarity for sustainable development - SDG 17 3/13/2018 15
  15. 15. Why SDG 11 is Critical? • Half of humanity – 3.5+ billion people – live in cities today • By 2030, almost 60 per cent of the world’s population will live in urban areas • 95 per cent of urban expansion in the next decades will take place in developing world • The world’s cities occupy just 3 per cent of the Earth’s land, but account for 60-80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions 3/13/2018 16
  16. 16. Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities • (11.1) By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums • (11.2) By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons • (11.3) By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
  17. 17. • (11.4) Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage • (11.5) By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations • (11.6) By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management 3/13/2018 18
  18. 18. • (11.7) By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities • (11.a) Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning • (11.b) By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels • (11.c) Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials 3/13/2018 19
  19. 19. What’s with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? 1. Universal – for all countries 2. 17 goals, 169 targets, 230 indicators 3. SDG framework “an indivisible whole” 4. There are interactions between all SDG goals and targets 5. If countries ignore the overlaps they risk missing the potential synergies 6. Multi-stakeholder partnerships are key to successful implementation of the SDGs 3/13/2018 20
  20. 20. DESA WORKING PAPER, LEBLANC, MARCH 2015 UN DESA Working Paper No. 141, March 2015 3/13/2018 21
  21. 21. Kinds of interactions between SDG goals/targets Positive causation • Inseparable – Inextricable linked to each other • Reinforcing – Aiding each other’s achievement • Enabling – Creates conditions furthering each other’s achievements Neutral – No significant interactions Negative causation • Constraining – Limits option on each other • Counteracting – Clashes each other’s satisfaction • Cancelling – Makes it impossible to reach each other’s achievement 3/13/2018 22
  22. 22. Satisfaction of one impairs or precludes the satisfaction of others Sustainable development means to balance a variety of needs and goals. Approach – turn conflicting into non-conflicting situation (e.g. Green Economy, I=PAT)
  23. 23. Examples Positive, inseparable causation • Ending all forms of discrimination against women (SDG 5.1) is inseparable from ensuring women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership (SDG 5.5) Positive, reinforcing causation • Providing access to electricity (SDG 7.1) reinforces water-pumping and irrigation systems (SDG 2.3). Strengthening the capacity to adapt to climate-related hazards (SDG 13.1) reduces loses caused by disasters (SDG 2.4)
  24. 24. Examples (continued) Positive, enabling causation • Providing electricity access in rural homes (SDG 7.1) enable education (SDG4.7 and other SDG 4.0), because it makes it possible to do homework at night. Neutral • Ensuring education for all (SDGs 4.1, 4.2, 4.3) may not interact significantly with infrastructure development (SDG 9.1) or conservation of ocean ecosystems (SDG 14.5).
  25. 25. Examples (continued) Negative, cancelling causation • Full protection of natural reserves (SDGs 15.1, 15.4) excludes public access for recreation. Negative, counteracting causation • Boosting consumption for growth (SDG 8.4) can counteract waste reduction (SDG 12.5) and climate mitigation (13.3)
  26. 26. Examples (continued) Negative, constraining • Improved water efficiency (SDG 6.4) can constrain agricultural irrigation (SDGs 2.3, 2.4). Reducing climate change (SDG13.1) can constrain the options for energy access (SDG 7.1)
  27. 27. Some caveat on SDG interlinkages • Some negative interactions may just be poor governance • Interlinkages may vary from place to place, or location specific • Some interactions take effect in real time, some may have time lags 3/13/2018 28
  28. 28. Prioritizing the SDGs • Different countries have different national contexts and different priorities • SDGs should be prioritized at the national and local levels 3/13/2018 29
  29. 29. Research Potentials on SDGs Interlinkages • Systems Analysis on the Interlinkages of the SDGs and Targets The SDGs and their targets can be viewed as a network in which linkages among goals exist through targets that refer to multiple goals. A research objective could be to develop a practical methodology for analyzing these interactions in a systems fashion. The expected outcomes would be determining the levels of intensities (positive, negative or neutral) of the interconnections across goals and targets as well as recommendations on possible policy interventions and prioritizing resource mobilization. 3/13/2018 30
  30. 30. • Investigation of Interlinkages of SDGs and Targets in Specific Countries/Cities. The methodology developed in Research Area 1, above, can then be applied to specific countries for all or a cluster of goals. The expected research outcomes would be country-specific clusters of priority goals/targets/actions which can be useful for policymaking. 3/13/2018 31
  31. 31. • Development of Country (City)-Specific Indicators of SDGs and Targets. Because the context of SDGs are usually country-specific, the general indicators accompanying the SDGs and targets may be taken as merely indicative. More definitive indicators in relation to the results of Research Agenda 1&2, above, could be developed. 3/13/2018 32
  32. 32. • Research on Governance: Develop a Multi- Stakeholder Partnership Methodology for Implementation of SDGs. • Although Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships (MSP) is a goal in its own right (SDG 17), it may be seen as an essential approach to implementing other SDGs. MSP is context-specific and in this sense it would be useful to develop context-specific MSP methodologies in specific countries. The outcomes can be useful in determining policy interventions to motivate stakeholders to work together. 3/13/2018 33
  33. 33. Potential topics for research on “Sustainable Cities & Communities” • Need for shelter, safety and inclusiveness (human needs, contextualizing different individual and collective wants and needs according to gender, age, income and ability) • Management and use of natural resources (renewables and non-renewables) • Sustainable energy (residential energy use, renewable energies, community energy schemes) and transportation 3/13/2018 34
  34. 34. Research potentials • Sustainable food (urban organic agriculture, food processing, dietary choices and habits, waste generation) • Urban ecology and how wildlife is adapting to humanity’s settlements • Sustainable resilient buildings and spatial planning (building materials, energy saving, planning processes) • Waste generation and management (prevention, reduction, recycling, reuse) 3/13/2018 35
  35. 35. Research potentials • Communities and their dynamics (decision-making, governance, planning, conflict resolution, alternative communities, healthy communities, inclusive communities, ecovillages, transition towns) • Water cycle and restoring ground water through urban design (green roofs, rainwater harvesting, daylighting old river beds, sustainable urban drainage) • Disaster preparedness and resilience, resilience to weather problems and in the future and a culture of prevention and preparedness 3/13/2018 36
  36. 36. Governance and sustainability landscape Sustainable Development Challenges (social, environmental, economic): urban, water, energy... LOCAL/National Government Civil Society Private Sector REGIONAL Regional alliances Civil Society Private Sector GLOBAL International Organizations Civil Society Private Sector Multiple Levels, Multiple Stakeholders Implementation and accountability Cross-sectoral initiatives Network approach
  37. 37. GGG 38 Policy - DECISION MAKING Practice - IMPLEMENTATION
  38. 38. Copyright M.T. Tabucanon, 2007 Policy Development-Implementation Model Agenda setting Policy formulation Implementation Results/Outcomes/Impacts Policy evaluation Indicators Analyze deviation causes Feedback Take corrective actions
  39. 39. Sustainable Development Health Peace and Security Climate Change Water Networked governance approach - “Governance through Goals”
  40. 40. Governance through Indicators • Implementation of SDGs require evidence- based quantitative indicators. • There are silo’ed indicators, meaning they measure progress of a single goal/target • There are integrated indicators, meaning those that measures multiple thematic achievements 3/13/2018 41
  41. 41. Sustainable Development SDG 2 SDG NSDG 1 Policy/Program/ Project 1 SDGs Hierarchical ModelSPMconcent Target 1 Target 2 Target 3 Target 4 ArableLand ForestArea ThreatenedBirds CO 2 Emissions SO 2 Emissions NOxEmissions SafeSanitation WaterAvailability ForestCoverChange Threatened Mammals Wetlandsof International Importance Population PovertyForecast InfantMortalityRate LifeExpectancyat Birth GDPGrowth GrossNationalIncome NationalIncomePer Capita EnergyConsumptionPer Capita Policy/Program/ Project 2 Policy/Program/ Project 3 SO 2 concent NOxconcent BODlevel SafeWater ThreatenedPlants ProtectedArea HumanDevelopment Index Income GDPComparison
  42. 42. Example of Integrative Indicators Theme: Food Waste Priority indicator - % of food loss and waste from food production to consumption and % of food waste recycled. Goals/Targets focused: 11.6, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5 Rationale: 1/3 of global food production is wasted, goes uneaten, and is responsible for 7% GHG emissions 3/13/2018 43
  43. 43. Impacts: Social – Food waste undermines food and nutrition security, health inequality Environmental – Inefficient use of resources and contribution GHG emissions Economic – Impacts the economic sustainability of food systems. Economic loss amounts to US$750b annually and felt at all stages of the food value chain 3/13/2018 44
  44. 44. Traditionally • Focus on learning the scientific discipline • Academic or scientific disciplines are viewed in silos • Then look for a problem to apply
  45. 45. In the Age of Sustainable Development • Focus on the problem towards creating sustainable solutions • Academic and scientific disciplines are viewed in transdisciplinary and holistic fashion • All relevant sciences are invoked
  46. 46. • Future Earth: New global platform for sustainability research launched at Rio+20 • Future Earth is the global research platform providing the knowledge and support to accelerate our transformations to a sustainable world.
  47. 47. Future Earth Vision The vision of Future Earth is for people to thrive in a sustainable and equitable world. This requires contributions from a new type of science that links disciplines, knowledge systems and societal partners to support a more agile global innovation system. 48 Transdisciplinarity Natural Science Social Science Engineering Practice stakeholders
  48. 48. Thank you For more information, please visit: http://prospernet.ias.unu.edu/

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