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Leadership and Urban Sustainability, Irina Safitri Zen, UTM


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The 2016 ProSPER.Net Leadership Programme was held in Labuan Island and Beaufort, Sabah, Malaysia. The Programme included workshops, plenary sessions, and fieldwork around the topics of local sustainable development challenges in the region. The main goals of the Programme were to identify local leadership opportunities for sustainable development and to link local and national sustainable development projects to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Paris Climate Treaty, and the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction.

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Leadership and Urban Sustainability, Irina Safitri Zen, UTM

  1. 1. Dr. Irina Safitri Zen Head of Sustainability Research Unit, Institute Sultan Iskandar (ISI) Senior Lecturer, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Built Environment UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia (UTM) Leadership & Urban Sustainability
  2. 2. Presentation Outline  Climate Change and the Effect to the urban environment  The Solution :Approach, Framework & Initiatives  Climate Governance & SDG Agenda 2030  Sustainability Leadership  Quintuple Helix Framework
  3. 3. Global Warming & Climate Change
  4. 4. 70 percent of World Human Population located in Urban Area by 2030
  5. 5. Urbanization and Urban Heat Since 19779, land temperatures have increased about twice (2x) faster than ocean temperatures. Urban Heat Island (UHI) causes change in micro climate of urban areas and leads to rising trend in rainfall extremes events and decrease quality of life in urban area.
  6. 6. Why should developing countries care about climate change?  Studies show that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change.  Changes in temperature, water supply and quality will impact on agricultural production, human settlement and health, biodiversity and animal migratory patterns (IPCC, 2001a,b).
  7. 7. The Solution : Approach, Framework & Initiative
  9. 9. 3 DOMAIN OF APPROACH IN TACKLING THE CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGES  The interrelated concepts address as to response to its impact to the human systems areVULNERABILITY, ADAPTATION & MITIGATION (Smit et al. 1999, 2000 and 2001,Adger 2001 and Huq et al. 2003). 1. Vulnerability defines in the literature of climate change as - the combined measure of threats to a particular system either adversely or beneficially. - the degree to which a system is susceptible to or unable to cope with the adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes (Mc Carthy et al., 2007).
  10. 10. 2. Adaptation ‘Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities‘ - IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) In this context, adaptation occurs in physical, ecological, and human systems where its involves wider spectrum such as changes in social and environmental processes, perceptions of climate risk, practices and functions to reduce risk and exploration of new opportunities to cope with the changed environment.
  11. 11. 3. Mitigation  Refers to any strategy or action taken to remove the GHGs released into the atmosphere, or to reduce their amount.  Defined as 'technological change and substitution that reduce resource inputs and emissions per unit of output with respect to climate change.Mitigation means implementing policies to reduce GHG emissions and enhance sinks‘ - IPCC
  12. 12. Sustainable Development Goals Agenda 2030 “action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number, aspirational, global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities” 17 Goals 230 Indicators 169 Targets in 15 years
  13. 13. Several Related Goals in SDGs Goals 11. Sustainable cities and communities Goals 13. Climate Action.Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts Goals 17. Partnership for the Goals. Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
  14. 14. How is Global Climate Change Affect the local government? i. A high and increasing portion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is generated in cities – mitigate, ii. The effects of global climate change have a direct impact on cities, which need to adapt to the changing situation, iii. Linkages and synergies between climate policy and sustainable development become most obvious at the local level, and motivate cities to generate the social and technological. .
  15. 15. Effect Climate Change to Sub-National States There is an increasing emphasis on the role of SUB- NATIONAL STATES play in the global multi-level climate governance systems. They are in a well positioned to develop policy and programmatic solution that best meet specific geographic, climatic, socio economic condition of the cities (Gupta 2007).
  16. 16. URBAN CLIMATE GOVERNANCE ; sub-national state
  17. 17. Climate Governance Recognize as self-governing, governing through enabling, governing by provision and governing by regulation, climate governance requires different approach and skills for the government response proactively to the climate challenge.
  18. 18. Multi-Level Climate Governance  The emergence of new types of governance where authority is increasingly shared and shifting between several policy levels and new actor constellations are formed, including both state and non-state actors.  Global warming exemplifies the need for such new types of multi-level governance by changing the relations between higher and lower levels of government as well as redefining them for the sake of greater coherence in policy-making.
  19. 19. Multilevel governance  “An action by local governmental authority in areas related to climate change in legal and institutional frameworks at higher scales” (Corfee-Morlot et al. 2009).  A two-way relationships; top - bottom approach between local and national action on climate change can provide interface for policy making which functions as an enabler each other and also defined as policy actors and stakeholders operating across horizontal and vertical levels of social organization and jurisdictional authority around a particular issue (Selin and VanDeveer, 2009).  Emerge in NorthAmerica and several OECD countries such as Finland, Sweden, Sao Paolo-Brazil, NewYork City and Barcelona, as a response to climate change challenges.
  20. 20. What type of Leader to address the uncertainty and risky environment as a result from climate changes ?
  21. 21. Understanding the interconnections of systems – System Thinking. GloCal -Think globally and Act locally Env-Soc Dynamic Interaction Protect nature and people Transform business as usual - BAU. Sustainability Science - Lead by example in your actions Sustainability Leadership
  22. 22. Sustainability Leadership 5 Principles Understanding the interconnections of systems. It is vital to recognize how each group of related factors (people, objects, processes, etc…) are connected and contingency impact. Think globally and toward the future Consider what current and future impacts you are making with each decision on other countries, society, oceans, animals, communities, waste, resources, etc… Protect nature and people. Distinguish how actions taken affect people and the environment.Try to make decisions that will reduce the negative impacts on 2nd and 3rd levels of people, processes, the environment, and economies. Transform business as usual Do something different within your span of control. Change a habit which reduces waste such as reading via an e-book or printing double sided. Lead by example in your actions. Be responsible for yourself, your job, your actions, and your organization. Hold the organization accountable to lead by example in its actions. Hold yourself accountable to reduce waste and increase efficiency. Others will follow.
  23. 23. Defined as  create opportunities for people to come together and generate their own answers – to explore, learn, and devise a realistic course of action to address sustainability challenges.  Not giving direction but develop and implement actions in collaboration with others, modifying them as needed to adapt to unforeseen changes in the environment over time.  This approach to leadership does not assume an ability to control activity with any degree of certainty and predictability.  Embrace the inevitability of continually changing dynamics in everyday life, while developing reasonable actions with others within an integrated framework that provides coherent direction, clear accountability, and enough flexibility to allow for mid-course corrections. Sustainability Leadership
  24. 24. Sustainability Leadership For every action a sustainable leader takes, whether personal or on behalf of an organization, they might ask: 1. How the action affects the ecosystem, subsystems and super systems upon which my family, my organization, my community, the people of the world and myself depend for sustaining life? 2. How the action affects my social well-being and that of others in my family, my organization, my community and the world? 3. How the action affects the economic stability/growth potential for my family, my organization, my community, the world and myself?
  25. 25. HOW / WHAT IS THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION IN climate change & sustainable development?
  26. 26. Improve Interconnection in Sustainability. • The Triple (3) Helix innovation model focuses on university- industry-government relations. • The Quadruple (4) Helix embeds the Triple Helix by adding as a fourth helix the ‘media-based and culture-based public’ and ‘civil society’
  27. 27. Climate Change the Source for Eco-Innovation and Knowledge Based Society The Quintuple (5) Helix innovation model is even broader and more comprehensive by contextualizing the Quadruple (4) Helix and by additionally adding the helix (and perspective) of the ‘natural environments of society’.
  28. 28. Knowledge Based Society “Quintuple Helix outlines what Sustainable Development might mean and imply for ‘eco-innovation’ and ‘eco-entrepreneurship’ in the current situation and for our future” (Carayannis & Campbell 2010)
  29. 29. The FIVE subsystems (helices) (1) The education system Refer to‘academia’,‘universities’,‘higher education systems’, and schools. In this helix, the necessary‘human capital’ eg. students, teachers, scientists/ researchers, academic entrepreneurs, etc. of a state (nation- state) is being formed by diffusion and research of knowledge. (2) The economic system Consists of‘industry/industries’,‘firms’, services and banks which concentrates and focuses the‘economic capital’ eg. entrepreneurship, machines, products, technology, money, etc. of a state (nation-state). (3) The natural environment: is decisive for a sustainable development and provides people with a ‘natural capital’ (for example: resources, plants, variety of animals, etc.).
  30. 30. (4) The media-based and culture-based public Integrates and combines two forms of‘capital’; i. culture-based public (eg. tradition, values, etc.), a ‘social capital’. ii. media-based public (eg. television, internet, newspapers, etc.) contains also ‘capital of information’ (eg. news, communication, social networks). (5)The political system Formulates the‘will’, where to the state (nation-state) is heading toward in the present and future, thereby also defining, organizing as well as administering the general conditions of the state (nation-state). Therefore, this helix has a‘political and legal capital’ (for example: ideas, laws, plans, politicians, etc.).
  31. 31. Quintuple Helix innovation model  Use as a framework for trans-disciplinary (and interdisciplinary) analysis of sustainable development and social ecology.  A model which grasps ad specializes on the sum of the social interactions and the academic exchanges in a state (nation- state) in order to  promote and visualize a cooperation system of knowledge, know-how, innovation for more sustainable development  How do knowledge, innovation and the environment (natural environment) relate each other? (Carayannis and Campbell 2010)
  32. 32. Why Higher Education Institution (HEI) need to take the leading role in developing the Knowledge Based Society ? IHE as “the scientific community now needs to strengthen further international collaboration, and take a leading role in providing the knowledge needed for societal transformations to a sustainable world. The challenge remains to lift the role of science, both natural and social, to develop a thorough understanding of the complex global challenges, to identify, validate and monitor new approaches and technologies and to introduce new green economic models”. Institutional Sustainability Leadership
  33. 33. COPENHAGEN: CARBON MEASUREMENT & PLANNING Copenhagen scooped up the Carbon Measurement & Planning award for its ambitious 2025 Climate Plan—an attempt to make the city completely carbon neutral by 2025. If it succeeds in cutting emissions to 400,000 tons, Copenhagen will be the first carbon neutral capital city in the world.
  34. 34. Initiative: Increase Green Area and Plant More Trees
  35. 35.  Produce more fuel-efficient vehicles  Reduce vehicle use  Improve energy-efficiency in buildings  Develop carbon capture and storage processes  Increase solar power  Decrease deforestation/plant forests  Improve soil carbon management strategies What next—what can we do?
  36. 36.  Collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation.The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction.  This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services : i. new investments in ecosystem restoration, ii. institutional changes in the private and public sector, and iii. innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy.  By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making.
  37. 37. Malaysia: Towards Developed Nation Status Source: PEMANDU New Economic Model Sustainable Development
  38. 38. Voluntary Low Carbon Comitment Malaysia Commitment Speech by YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, Prime Minister “… Malaysia is proposed a voluntary reduction up to 40% in terms of carbon emission intensity of GDP by the year 2020 compared to 2005 levels.” 17th December 2009 Global Citizens + Responsibilities For the Earth, for our future generation Green Sustainability as New Consumer - Sustainable Culture, New Market, New Growth Money Saving Energy conservation and renewable energy
  39. 39. Figure 1 : Smart City Multiplier Effect Under City Development in 11th Malaysia Plan (MIGHT 2014)
  40. 40. Malaysia Climate Change Profile Major sources of CO2 emission : - 35% energy industries. - 21% transport - 16 % manufacturing industries and construction - 14% forest and greenhouse gas, GHG conversion - 6 % mineral production. Urbanization annual rate of change 2.66%, the Malaysia urban population achieve 74.7% of total population. The contribution of CO2 emission to an increase of outdoor air pollution - leading cause of cancer (IARC 2013), its create an urgency for an improvement of urban environment. The statistic justifies the needs on climate change mitigation and adaptation in the city.
  41. 41. Urban Climate Governance in Melaka
  42. 42. Championing the Integrated Urban Development  Melaka has shown LEADERSHIP with successful implementation of integrated urban development Pursuing an integrated approach towards urban development is not new for Melaka.  The state has successfully begun the transformation of the Melaka River from a backyard drainage channel to a popular and highly successful cultural amenity.  An integrated effort and nearly a decade to construct wastewater infrastructure, adopt historic preservation and placemaking measures, and pursue economic development strategies to create a an urban waterfront with a riverwalk and river cruise experience that has become a popular tourist attraction.
  43. 43. Terima Kasih. Thank You. If you want to go fast,go alone. If you want to go far,go together. (African proverb).