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Introduction to Sustainability towards SDGs, Mario Tabucanon, UNU-IAS


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This presentation was part of the ProSPER.Net Leadership Programme 2017 'Building Transformational Leadership Towards the SDGs'

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Introduction to Sustainability towards SDGs, Mario Tabucanon, UNU-IAS

  1. 1. Mario T. Tabucanon UNU-IAS ProSPER.Net Leadership Programme Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 29 June to 5 July 2017
  2. 2. Outline I. Leadership for Sustainability - A Primer II. Leadership and Decision Making III. Building Transformational Leadership through Education for Sustainable Development
  3. 3. Part I Leadership for Sustainability
  4. 4. 4 “Empowerment and transformational change for creating sustainable societies” • Leadership is a process: – Bringing the present state into a desired future state. – Change for sustainability does not just happen; it must be led. – Leadership is doing the right things. Each one can be a leader in his/her own right.
  5. 5. Elements of change – Learning, Visioning, Transforming • We can analyze and understand the past and the present (Learning). • But we have to design a desired future (Visioning). • Leaders are transformative figures in this process of change (Transforming) 5
  6. 6. • Attain the Goals of Sustainable Development • Achievements of Development Agenda: - From MDGs to 2030 Agenda and SDGs - From UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development to Global Action Programme on ESD – “Shaping the Future We Want” - “The Future We Want”, Rio+20
  7. 7. 7 • UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, Sweden)1972 • Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”1987 • UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Summit) • Agenda 21 (Chapter 36) 1992 • World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+10, Johannesburg) • UN General Assembly adopted Resolution on the DESD 2002 • UN Decade of ESD launched (2005–2014)2005 • Mid-Decade Year — World Conference on ESD (Bonn, Germany)2009 • UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)2012 • Final Year of the DESD — UNESCO World Conference on ESD (Aichi-Nagoya)2014 • MDGs Target Year  UNFCCC COP21 • Global Action Programme on ESD (follow-up to the DESD) • 2030 Development Agenda & Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adoption 2015 International Processes on Sustainable Development (SD) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
  8. 8. We are living on ever decreasing natural capital As a planet, the human race now consumes 30% more biological resources than the earth can produce in one year Source: Earth’s Sustainability We are here now!
  9. 9. We are consuming more and more, faster and faster… what is the outcome?
  10. 10. As we Consume More… More Species Go Extinct The Living Planet Index of biosphere health fell by about 40% from 1970 to 2000, a period of just 30 years. What will happen in the next 30 years? Source: State of the World 2004: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society, Linda Starke et al, Norton, NY, 2004, 245 pp.
  11. 11. • In 50-70 years: – Doubling world population and increasing level of consumption would lead to • multi-fold increase in food consumption, increase in energy production, increase in resource utilization, environmental degradation, and inequalities
  12. 12. 12 Sustainable Development - “Meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 The Age of Sustainable Development
  13. 13. Vision: “Transforming our world - the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” containing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Sustainable development: Economic development that is socially inclusive, and environmentally sustainable 8/2/2017 13 Resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly on 25 September 2015:
  14. 14. Framework for sustainability A B C ‘Triple-bottom line’ model ‘Hierarchical ’ model Source: Image adapted from Lowe, I. (1996), Towards Ecological Sustainability
  15. 15. What’s new with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? 1. Universal – for all countries (MDGs – Mainly for developing countries) 2. 17 goals, 169 targets, 230 indicators, integrating 3 dimensions of SD (MDGs – 8 ‘siloed’ goals for development) 3. Negotiated by Member States with stronger country ownership (MDGs – From UN Secretariat) 4. Means of Implementation (MoI) inter-governmentally negotiated, global architecture and monitoring system shaped (MDGs – MoI monitoring & follow up not defined in advance)
  16. 16. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • Goal 1: End poverty • Goal 2: End hunger • Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives • Goal 4: Ensure quality education • Goal 5: Achieve gender equality • Goal 6: Ensure water and sanitation • Goal 7: Ensure energy for all • Goal 8: Promote employment • Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure
  17. 17. SDGs (continued) • Goal 10: Reduce inequality • Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable • Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production • Goal 13: Combat climate change and its impacts • Goal 14: Conserve oceans, seas and marine resources • Goal 15: Protect ecosystems • Goal 16: Promote justice for all • Goal 17: Strengthen global partnership
  18. 18. 8/2/2017 18
  19. 19. Core Elements of SD – People, Prosperity, Planet, Peace, Partnership • People – To end poverty and fight inequalities- SDGs 1,2,10; To ensure healthy lives, knowledge and the inclusion of women and children - SDGs 3,4,5 • Prosperity - To grow a strong, inclusive and transformative economy -SDGs 6,7,8,9,11,12 • Planet - To protect our ecosystems for all societies and our children - SDGs 13,14,15 • Peace - To promote safe and peaceful societies and strong institutions - SDG 16 • Partnership - To catalyze global solidarity for sustainable development - SDG 17 8/2/2017 19
  20. 20. DESA WORKING PAPER, LEBLANC, MARCH 2015 UN DESA Working Paper No. 141, March 2015 8/2/2017 20
  21. 21. SD Governance Global (Vision/Agenda) • International Institutions’ SD Processes • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • Multilateral Agreements National (Policies/Strategies) • National Government and its agencies • National SD Strategic Plan and subsidiary plans • National multi-stakeholder engagement Local (Implementation) • Local government and its agencies • Local action plans • Local multi-stakeholder engagement 8/2/2017 21
  22. 22. Governance and sustainability landscape - Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Approach Sustainable Development Challenges (social, environmental, economic): urban, water, energy... LOCAL/National Government Civil Society Private Sector REGIONAL Regional alliances Civil Society Private Sector GLOBAL International Organizations Civil Society Private Sector Multiple Levels, Multiple Stakeholders Implementation and accountability Cross-sectoral initiatives Network approach
  23. 23. Sustainable Development Health Peace and Security Climate Change Water Networked governance approach
  24. 24. Hierarchy of Leadership for SD • Personal • Group • Organizational • Societal
  25. 25. Personal/ Individual Domain Relational Domain Contextual Domain
  26. 26. • Human capital (expertise, competencies in decision making) • Social capital (social networks and relationships) • Personal values – Leadership as an obligation to serve for the common good. 26
  27. 27. Foundation of Leadership Human Dimension
  28. 28. Human Dimension • Mind (Mental Dimension) – read, educate, write, learn new skills. • Body (Physical Dimension) – exercise, eat healthy, sleep well, relax. • Soul (Spiritual Dimension) – meditate, pray. • Heart (Emotional Dimension) – build relationship, give service, smile and laugh.
  29. 29. • Communicating • Building and working with teams • Inspiring and motivating • Building relationships and alliances • Building trust 29
  30. 30. • Organizational design and culture • Environmental, Economic, Social, and political landscapes • Global perspective and cross-cultural differences • The leader must have sound understanding of the functions of the organization and to view it holistically as a system. (Systems Approach) 30
  31. 31. • Visioning • Global Vision on SD • Aligning Global-National-Local Vision • Communicating • Communicate vision/strategy/values/etc. so that people understand how their work contributes to a larger whole. • ‘Get the message out’ • Challenging • Challenge status quo, unsustainable practices, barriers, constraints
  32. 32. • Inspiring – Inspire stakeholders to work to achieve goals • Developing capacities of people – Education and training; competencies development; ESD • Motivating people to want to follow – Relate personal, organizational and community goals • Having a Plan – To do, check, act, assess, adjust 32
  33. 33. Part II – Leadership and Decision Making
  34. 34. 34 Policy - DECISION MAKING Practice - IMPLEMENTATION
  35. 35. • Leadership for sustainability means having good decision making skills (policy making) and good management skills (for implementation). 35
  36. 36. • Understand the overall problem. • Establish criteria (sustainability criteria) and identify decision options. • Decompose overall problem into sub- problems and analyze. • Synthesize by recomposing the sub-problems into the overall problem. • Make the rational choice. 36
  37. 37. • Do not proceed unless the problem or issue is well understood and clearly defined. (A relevant proverb – “A problem well-understood and stated is half solved”) • There is no such thing as a single-criterion development problem. There are multiple criteria – Economic, Environmental, and Social considerations. • Examine the conflicting nature of the criteria, and address the conflict (e.g. decoupling of economic growth and environmental degradation, etc.) 37
  38. 38. • Generate a sufficient number of options or alternative solutions or courses of actions • Make sure that the potential ‘best option’ is among the options considered. Avoid a situation where the ‘best option’ is outside of the feasible set being considered. • If the problem is complex, break it into sub- (sub-sub) parts creating decision hierarchy.
  39. 39. Sustainable Development SocialDimension EconomicDimension Environmental Dimension Policy/Program/ Project 1 Hierarchy Model: Sustainable DevelopmentSPMconcent Air Water Land Biodiversity ArableLand ForestArea ThreatenedBirds CO2Emissions SO2Emissions NOxEmissions SafeSanitation WaterAvailability ForestCoverChange Threatened Mammals Wetlandsof International Importance Population PovertyForecast InfantMortalityRate LifeExpectancyat Birth GDPGrowth GrossNationalIncome NationalIncomePer Capita EnergyConsumptionPer Capita Policy/Program/ Project 2 Policy/Program/ Project 3 SO2concent NOxconcent BODlevel SafeWater ThreatenedPlants ProtectedArea HumanDevelopment Index Income GDPComparison
  40. 40. • Evaluate the options according to the criteria/sub-criteria in hierarchical fashion • Intensities of connections are used to synthesize relative importance • The overall intensity will determine the rational choice
  41. 41. Copyright M.T. Tabucanon, 2007 Policy Development-Implementation Model Agenda setting Policy formulation Implementation Results/Outcomes/Impacts Policy evaluation Indicators Analyze deviation causes Feedback Take corrective actions
  42. 42. Agenda Setting • In agenda setting - Could be contained in global agenda, national development plans, and translated into local policy and actions • Issue definition influenced by our values, world viewpoints, and what we consider to be a government responsibility 42
  43. 43. Policy Formulation • Policy formulation where formal plans are developed and authorities decide about adoption – Occurs through multi-stakeholder consultations – May occur in various levels of government – May be reformative or incremental – Proposals not always enacted 43
  44. 44. Forms of Multi-stakeholder Engagements • Policy dialogue • Policy research • Consultative technical opinion and advice on policy options • Policy documentation • Policy formulation • Etc.
  45. 45. Levels of Multi-stakeholder Engagements • International (through international sustainability processes) • Regional (multi-country) • National • Sub-national • Local • Organizational
  46. 46. Implementation • Process by which policies are carried out is Implementation 46
  47. 47. Policy Monitoring & Evaluation • Policy evaluation - the analysis of a policy’s results – Measurement of program outcomes – Sustainability analysis on impacts • Evaluation provides feedback on policies 47
  48. 48. Caveat: On Fragmentation and Coordination • Separation of powers can result in a fragmented approach to solving policy problems – Different interest groups may try to influence different parts of government • Sometimes more than one agency responds to a problem and there needs to be coordination across the board 48
  49. 49. Part III Building Transformational Leadership through Education for Sustainable Development
  50. 50. Sustainable Consumption and Production 50 Critical Issues  Need for clear understanding of what sustainable development is about, and  To create a world where everyone has the opportunity to benefit from quality education and learn the values, behavior, and lifestyles required for a sustainable future and for positive societal transformation (Vision on ESD, Johannesburg 2002)
  51. 51. UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, DESD (2005-2014) Some relevant key findings, 10 years on (Ref. “Shaping the Future We Want”, UN DESD Final Report, UNESCO): • Education systems are addressing sustainability issues • Sustainable Development agenda and Education agenda are converging • ESD is being integrated into formal education
  52. 52. Challenges for the Future • Need to upscale and accelerate the gains of the UN DESD • Major work remains to ensure full policy coherence between the education sector and the sustainable development sector • ESD is not (yet) integrated coherently across relevant sectorial or sub-sectorial policies
  53. 53. Education/ Disciplinary Sciences Sustainable Development Sustainability Science
  54. 54. Key Messages • ‘Sustainability science’ is understanding the interactions among the economic, environmental and social dimensions of SD. • Bridge the gap between the education and research agenda with development agenda • Sustainable Development entails transformation of scientific disciplines to focus on problem solving • Ensuring science-policy-implementation interface
  55. 55. Traditionally • Focus on learning the scientific discipline • Academic or scientific disciplines are viewed in silos • Then look for a problem to apply
  56. 56. In the Age of Sustainable Development • Focus on the problem towards creating sustainable solutions • Academic and scientific disciplines are viewed in interdisciplinary and holistic fashion • All relevant sciences are invoked
  57. 57. 57 Rio +20 Commitment to Sustainable Practices of Higher Education Institutions Higher education institution signatories commit to: 1) Teach sustainable development concepts, ensuring that they form a part of the core curriculum across all disciplines. 2) Encourage research on sustainable development issues, to improve scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge. 3) Green their campuses by: i) reducing the environmental footprint; ii) adopting sustainable procurement practices; iii) providing sustainable mobility options for students and faculty; iv) adopting effective programmes for waste minimization, recycling and reuse, and v) encouraging more sustainable lifestyles. 4) Support sustainability efforts in the communities in which they reside. Higher Education Sustainability Initiative (HESI)
  58. 58. 58 Transdisciplinarity Natural Science Social Science Engineering Practice stakeholders Tress et al. 2005 Landscape Ecology 20: 479-493 Challenges for Research and Education Transdisciplinarity and Future Earth
  59. 59. 59 • Interdisciplinary and holistic • Values-driven • Focused on critical thinking and problem solving • Multi-methodological • Participatory in decision-making • Locally relevant Key Characteristics of ESD
  60. 60. 60 Domains of ESD ESD is about learning rather than teaching and therefore requires: • Reforming the structure and nature of basic education • Reorienting existing education and research programmes • Developing public awareness about what sustainability means • Building capacity within education systems and across all other ESD partners
  61. 61. Global Action Programme (GAP) on ESD - (Post-2014 education framework) To mobilize education and learning to accelerate progress towards sustainable development. a. Reorienting education and learning so that everyone has the opportunity to acquire the values, skills and knowledge that empower them to contribute to sustainable development. b. Enhancing the role of education and learning in all relevant agendas, programmes and activities that promote sustainable development.
  62. 62. GAP Priority action areas Advancing policy Transforming learning and training environments Building capacity of educators and trainers Empowering and mobilizing youth Accelerating sustainable solutions at local level 1 2 3 4 5
  63. 63. Education for Sustainable Development UNU-IAS, Japan  UNU-IAS ESD Programme contribution to transform Higher Education  ProSPER.Net: Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network  Network of Higher Education Institutions in Asia and the Pacific Region committed to integrate Sustainable Development (SD) into postgraduate courses and curricula  Established in 2008  Currently 37 members
  64. 64. Member institutions of ProSPER.Net • Queensland University of Technology, Australia • RMIT University, Australia • Chinese Academy of Sciences – Institute of Applied Ecology, China • Tongji University, China • TERI University, India • Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia • Universitas Andalas, Indonesia • Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia • Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia • Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia • Chubu University, Japan • Hokkaido University, Japan • Hosei University, Japan • Iwate University, Japan • Keio University, Japan • Miyagi University of Education, Japan • Nagoya University, Japan • Okayama University, Japan • Rikkyo University, Japan • Shinshu University, Japan • Tohoku University, Japan • University of Tokyo, Japan • Yokohama National University, Japan • Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia • Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia • Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines • University of the Philippines, Philippines • Yonsei University, Republic of Korea • Nanyang Technological University- Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Singapore • University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka • Chulalongkorn University, Thailand • King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Thailand • Prince of Songkla University, Thailand • Vietnam National University- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam • Asian Institute of Technology (Regional) • East-West Center (Regional) • University of South Pacific (Regional) In total: 37 members (As of July 2016)
  65. 65. Leadership Programme ProSPER.Net Mission Transform Higher Education Integration of sustainability in the curricula Capacity Development Policy Young Researchers’ School Young Scientist Award ProSPER.Net Members Joint Projects: Business, Engineering & Built Environment, Biodiversity, Health, SUSTAIN and others Joint Projects: E-learning Programme for Policymakers, Faculty Training on SD, Innovative Pedagogies in Poverty Reduction Higher Education Policies for ESD and SD; Sustainability in HE Forum
  66. 66. 67