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Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir PhD
RCE Sundarbans
Secretariat: Unnayan Onneshan
16/2 Indira Road, Farmgate
Dhaka-1215, Banglades...
The Sundarbans
 World’s largest single tract of mangroves
comprising a total area of 10000 square
kilometres placed in be...
Biodiversity in the Sundarbans Degrading
Biodiversity
 334 species of vegetation
 41 species of mammals
(Including Famou...
Customary Practices Ensure Sustainability
Customary Practices in
Golpata (Nypa palm)
Collection
 Harvesting is restricted...
Customary Practices in
Wood Collection
 Use axe instead of
mechanical saw
 Enter into forest by putting
right leg first ...
Customary Practices in Honey
Collection
 They do not urinate or
defecate inside the forest
 Do not use fire in the
beehi...
Customary Practices in
Fishing
 They do not go for fishing on
Friday
 Avoid fishing during spawning
periods
 They do no...
Traditional Rules Followed by Different Communities
 Spatial Restrictions: Temporary
closing of fishing for several month...
Traditional Rules Followed by Different Communities
 Water color: Six types water mass
from the Bay of Bengal: turbid, cl...
Traditional Rules Followed by Different Communities
 Traditional celestial
navigation: Use of practical skills
like ident...
Conservation and Sustainable Usage of Biodiversity
Resources
Community Initiatives
Community Vulnerability Mapping
Community Based Biodiversity Monitoring
Objectives:
 To know the current status of
biodiversity in Sundarbans
area
 To i...
Knowledge Sharing
Collective Understanding to Collective Actions
Community Mangrove Forestry
Mangrove – Aquaculture
Community based Mangrove Agro Aqua Silvi (CMAAS)
Culture
 The CMAAS culture refers to the
practice of integrated cultivat...
Model of a CMAAS Culture Farm
Schematic Diagram of General Farming Procedure of the
Mangroves in CMAAS Culture
Production Cycle of Aquatic Species in CMAAS Farm
Economic Returns of CMAAS Culture
CMAAS
Economic
Returns(Benefits>Cost)
Mangrove Cultivation
(flora):
Total income (per
bi...
Ecological Comparison between CMAAS and
CS culture
Criteria CS culture CMAAS Culture
Salinity Increases salinity in soil (...
Ecological
Milieu
Biotic
Components
Abiotic
Components
Stock of Natural Resources
•Symbiotic relationship
•Production of R...
Thank You!
UNNAYAN ONNESHAN
16/2, Indira Road, Farmgate
Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh
Tell: + (880-2) 8158274, 9110636
Fax: + (880-2) 8159...
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Innovations and Actions on Adaptation to Climate Change and Conservation of Biodiversity through Traditional Knowledge and Customary Sustainable Use

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Innovations and Actions on Adaptation to Climate Change and Conservation of Biodiversity through Traditional Knowledge and Customary Sustainable Use
Case Study Session
Prof. Dr. Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir, RCE Sundarbans
12th Asia-Pacific Regional RCE Meeting
4-6 June, 2019, Hangzhou, China

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Innovations and Actions on Adaptation to Climate Change and Conservation of Biodiversity through Traditional Knowledge and Customary Sustainable Use

  1. 1. Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir PhD RCE Sundarbans Secretariat: Unnayan Onneshan 16/2 Indira Road, Farmgate Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh, Tel: (+88 02) 58150684, 9110636 Fax: (+88 02) 58155804 E-mail: rtitumir@unnayan.org Website: www.unnayan.org Innovations and Actions on Adaptation to Climate Change and Conservation of Biodiversity through Traditional Knowledge and Customary Sustainable Use Presented to 12th Asia Pacific RCE Regional Meeting Hangzhou, China, 4-6 June 2019
  2. 2. The Sundarbans  World’s largest single tract of mangroves comprising a total area of 10000 square kilometres placed in between Bangladesh and India  Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans belongs to the area of 6071 square kilometres (62% of the total Sundarbans area)  Declared as Reserve Forest (RF) in 1875, where some form of resource extraction is allowed but no one is permitted to settle, cultivate and graze inside the forest (Need Permit to enter or collect resources)  UNESCO has declared three wildlife sanctuaries as 798th World heritage site in 1997  Ramsar convention in 1992 declared Sundarbans as the 560th Ramsar site.
  3. 3. Biodiversity in the Sundarbans Degrading Biodiversity  334 species of vegetation  41 species of mammals (Including Famous Royal Bengal Tiger)  58 species of reptile  339 species of bird  10 species of amphibians  210 species of fish Traditional Resource User Groups 3.5 million people directly or indirectly depend for livelihood • Bawali (Wood Cutter and Nypa Palm collector) • Mouwali (Honey Collector) • Jele (Fisher man) • Chunari (Snail and Oyster Collector) • Prawn fry collector/ Crab farmer
  4. 4. Customary Practices Ensure Sustainability Customary Practices in Golpata (Nypa palm) Collection  Harvesting is restricted in growing season (June to September)  Only harvest 9 inch leaves  All dead and dry leaves are cleaned out in the time of harvesting  The central leaf (maij pata) and the leaf next to it (thesh pata) must be retained
  5. 5. Customary Practices in Wood Collection  Use axe instead of mechanical saw  Enter into forest by putting right leg first and do not enter at Friday  Only cut 1 tree from a stock of 5 or 6 tress  They do not cut young and straight trees
  6. 6. Customary Practices in Honey Collection  They do not urinate or defecate inside the forest  Do not use fire in the beehive instead use smoke using dry leaves  Only the experienced moual collects honey to avoid damage to beehive  Beehives are squeezed by hands
  7. 7. Customary Practices in Fishing  They do not go for fishing on Friday  Avoid fishing during spawning periods  They do not use pernicious techniques of fishing which destroy larvae, carp and eggs of the fishes  They use “rocketjaal”,“berjaal” to catch fish that do not cause harm to marine and coastal ecosystem
  8. 8. Traditional Rules Followed by Different Communities  Spatial Restrictions: Temporary closing of fishing for several months  Temporal restrictions: Restriction for fishing on some particular days, weeks or months  Gear restrictions: Prohibition of some detrimental techniques or technologies  Effort restrictions: Fishing is limited to a particular family or community  Species restrictions: Catching of some specific species of fish is prohibited to increase supply later  Catch restrictions: Restriction on fishing to mitigate wastage
  9. 9. Traditional Rules Followed by Different Communities  Water color: Six types water mass from the Bay of Bengal: turbid, clear, light green, green, bluish and brackish  Weather, wind direction and current: Wind from the north and east to west considered good for fishers whereas the southerly wind that blows from mid-March to mid-July brings bish (poison)  Lunar periodicity: Tidal height during full moon is stronger than that of new moon  Sediment and topography: Big fish that can withstand higher velocity underwater currents can be found along the deeper portion of the khari (bed of the valley). Sandy, gravel rich, muddy and slightly silty mud are classified.
  10. 10. Traditional Rules Followed by Different Communities  Traditional celestial navigation: Use of practical skills like identifying location based on position of stars  Birds and animals: In some areas pigeons, black headed gulfs and some other hunter birds are regarded as indicators of getting big fish. Fishermen of south-west of the Bay of Bengal use otters as fish catcher.  Fishing sites: Fishermen detect some specific fishing sites for catching fish, e.g. caste-based Hindu fishermen have an age old territorial management system called faar through which fishing entitlements over certain fishing spots are granted to community members
  11. 11. Conservation and Sustainable Usage of Biodiversity Resources
  12. 12. Community Initiatives Community Vulnerability Mapping
  13. 13. Community Based Biodiversity Monitoring Objectives:  To know the current status of biodiversity in Sundarbans area  To increase awareness of local community regarding biodiversity conservation  To inform community on various benefits of biodiversity  To develop participatory strategies to halt biodiversity loss
  14. 14. Knowledge Sharing
  15. 15. Collective Understanding to Collective Actions
  16. 16. Community Mangrove Forestry Mangrove – Aquaculture
  17. 17. Community based Mangrove Agro Aqua Silvi (CMAAS) Culture  The CMAAS culture refers to the practice of integrated cultivation of some mangrove faunal species - crabs, oyster or fishes and floral species – golpata(Nypa_fruticans), keora (Sonerati_aapetala), goran (Ceriops_decandra) etc. at the same time on any swampy land of brackish water  CMAAS culture is in fact an alternative practice to the Commercial Shrimp (CS) culture which has negligible or no adverse impact on the Sundarbans ecosystem and has been invented by the local people
  18. 18. Model of a CMAAS Culture Farm
  19. 19. Schematic Diagram of General Farming Procedure of the Mangroves in CMAAS Culture
  20. 20. Production Cycle of Aquatic Species in CMAAS Farm
  21. 21. Economic Returns of CMAAS Culture CMAAS Economic Returns(Benefits>Cost) Mangrove Cultivation (flora): Total income (per bigha/per year): BDT 56,250 Total cost (per bigha/per year): BDT 1,800 Net benefit: BDT 54,450 Cost Benefit Ratio: 1:32 Mangrove Aqua Farming (fauna): Total income (per bigha/per year): BDT 183, 000 Total cost (per bigha/per year): BDT 14,750 Net benefit: BDT 173,250 Cost-Benefit Ratio: 1:12
  22. 22. Ecological Comparison between CMAAS and CS culture Criteria CS culture CMAAS Culture Salinity Increases salinity in soil (in farmland and in adjacent lands) No use of saline water; no salinity intrusion Use of lands Used ponds exhaust usefulness within three to six years of construction. So, destruction of mangroves occurs to make room for more ponds. Homestead adjacent fallow lands are used, and no conversion of forest lands into cultivation lands. Use of chemical fertiliser, pesticides, insecticides Chemical fertiliser, insecticides etc. are used, causing pollution. No usage of chemical fertiliser or insecticides,natural feeding, and therefore, no pollution. Impact on agricultural productivity Restricts crop production in agricultural land (by increasing salinity of lands) and conversion of agricultural lands to shrimp farming ponds reduces land availability. Does not affect the agricultural productivity. Impacts on the Sundarbans (in particular) Eradication of natural mangrove vegetation, and pollution of aquatic resources (negative). Eases and reduces the increasing anthropogenic pressures, making an alternative source of livelihoods for the local people who are dependent on the Sundarbans. Adaptation to climate change Increases the vulnerability to climate change. An innovative adaptation method to climate change for the vulnerable.
  23. 23. Ecological Milieu Biotic Components Abiotic Components Stock of Natural Resources •Symbiotic relationship •Production of Resources •Consumption of Resources Appropriation •Customary Rights •Usufruct Expropriation •Alienation •Accumulation by dispossession •Usurp Traditional Knowledge and Practices Institutional Fragility Sustainable Utilization and Production of Biodiversity Resources Yield > Harvest Unsustainable Biodiversity Resources Extraction Harvest > Yield Human-Nature-Sociality Framework Sustainable Utilization, Customary rights (Appropriation & Expropriation)
  24. 24. Thank You!
  25. 25. UNNAYAN ONNESHAN 16/2, Indira Road, Farmgate Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh Tell: + (880-2) 8158274, 9110636 Fax: + (880-2) 8159135 info@unnayan.org www.unnayan.org RCE SECRETARIAT

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