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Can Melbourne Remain the (Second!) World's Most Liveable City?


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Can Melbourne Remain the (Second!) World's Most Liveable City?
Presented by Dr Susie Maloney (RMIT University)
2018 ProSPER.Net Leadership Programme
12-16 November, 2018

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Can Melbourne Remain the (Second!) World's Most Liveable City?

  1. 1. 1 RMIT University School of Global Urban and Social Studies and Centre for Urban Research Can Melbourne remain the (second!) world’s most liveable city? Dr Susie Moloney Senior Lecturer Sustainability and Urban Planning Centre for Urban Research Email:
  2. 2. 2 RMIT acknowledges the people of the Woi wurrung and Boon wurrung language groups of the eastern Kulin Nations on whose unceded lands we conduct the business of the University. RMIT University respectfully acknowledges their Ancestors and Elders, past and present. RMIT also acknowledges the Traditional Custodians and their Ancestors of the lands and waters across Australia where we conduct our business. Acknowledgement of country
  3. 3. 3 Overview 1. Urbanisation trends – globally and nationally 2. How has Melbourne changed? 3. What does liveability mean? 4. Can Melbourne continue to be a liveable city for everyone? 3
  4. 4. 4 Urbanisation Trends
  5. 5. 5 World urban population 5
  6. 6. 6 Rates of growth 6 Estimated urban growth per hour through a combination of natural internal growth and migration in selected world cities. Source: UN World Urbanisation Prospects 2014/LSE Cities
  7. 7. 7 Urban population distribution or where do we all live? 7
  8. 8. 8 8 Source: State of Australian Cities 2015,p.16 Australia is highly urbanised More than 75% of Australia’s population concentrated in 20 largest cities Australia is projected to grow to just over 30million by 2031 (mainly in capital cities)
  9. 9. 9 9 Source: DIT 2011:p.6
  10. 10. 10 How has Melbourne changed?
  11. 11. 11 Melbourne Today
  12. 12. 12 Melbourne Area: 9,900+ sqkm Population: 5 million (more than 500/km2) Melbourne CBD’s skyline – by Anne Beaumont (Flickr)
  13. 13. 13 Pre-settlement days Late 19th Century Sketch by Eleanor McGinn from “The Art of Being Melbourne”
  14. 14. 14 ‘Melbourne from the Falls’ by Robert Russell
  15. 15. 15 Russell’s 1837 plan from • The site for Melbourne was first identified by John Batman in June 1835 who reportedly wrote in his diary that: “about six miles up, found the river to be good water and very deep. This will be the place for a village”. • John Batman conducted an exchange with local Aborigines that he believed was a land purchase. They apparently thought they were getting gifts for passing through the land. • John Fawkner arrived on the ship the Enterprise in Aug 1835 to establish a settlement.
  16. 16. 16 Map of Melbourne 1838
  17. 17. 17Hoddle’s 1837 plan from
  18. 18. 18 Melbourne Central City – Hoddle Grid
  19. 19. 19Melbourne 1850-60s– National Library of Australia -
  20. 20. 20 Early Settlers – The punt on Punt Rd 1856 Source: Cannon (1988),p46-47
  21. 21. 21 Elizabeth St about 1900 from
  22. 22. 22 Collins Street, looking west towards Queen street
  23. 23. 23 19th Century - Marvellous Melbourne • By 1888 Melbourne was the largest of all cities had a population of 419,000 Lithograph of the Royal Exhibition Building, built to host the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880 Federal Coffee Palace, one of many grand hotels erected during the boom
  24. 24. 24 The Melbourne ‘Slums’ Howe (1988) New Houses for Old, p.143 R. White’s Boot Factory, 1894, State Library of Victoria Oswald Barnett – Richmond – the children’s playground [ca. 1935] ries/the-unsuspected-slums/ Source: Beautiful Melbourne, Brotherhood of St Laurence 1947 melbourne/
  25. 25. 25 City Expansion and Town Planning in Australia begins • City expanded in post war era. • Along trams and trains lines • 1953 The first major plan Melbourne 1953 Plan of General Development, Melbourne p.25
  26. 26. 26 Plan of General Development, Melbourne p.185
  27. 27. 27 Post war Melbourne ICI House 1958 – First High Rise Melbourne 1967 Laurie Richards Collection at Museum Victoria 9369/negative-aerial-view-facing-south-west- towards-port-phillip-bay-from-east-melbourne- victoria-1967
  28. 28. 28 Melbourne expands….. Source: reports/settlements/settlements02-2a.html Donut city?
  29. 29. 29 A ‘buzzing’ central city “Planners and urban designers made a major contribution to the internationally famous and widely admired ‘buzz’ of Melbourne’s CBD. But they weren’t the only ones – the seeds were sown earlier” (Davies, A. 2014)
  30. 30. 3030 Melbourne keeps expanding…..
  31. 31. 31 Melbourne is growing fast…. • We need over 1.6 million homes by 2050…. • Two distinct trends across the largest cities in Australia – Growing suburbs on the edge of cities (urban fringe) – Growing number of high-density areas near the centre of the city 31
  32. 32. 32 Suburban Sprawl – Caroline Springs Over the last decade Melbourne grew by 600,000 – 60% in outer suburbs RMIT University©2016
  33. 33. 33 How do we ensure Melbourne remains a liveable and sustainable city in the future for everyone? Key challenges: • Congestion • Affordability • Accessibility • Climate change • Rural encroachment (Plan Melbourne 2013)
  34. 34. 34 What does liveability mean?
  35. 35. 35 Melbourne: the world’s most liveable city (until this year….) According to ‘The Economist Intelligence Unit’ • 2018 – out of 140 cities Vienna is no. 1 and Melbourne is no.2 • Approx 30 Criteria across 5 areas: – Stability, Infrastructure, Education, Health Care, Culture and Environment • Variables include: crime rates, climate, private schooling, parks, health care, housing and transport services • But….liveability for who? And what are we maintaining? 35 1. Vienna, Austria (99.1) 2. Melbourne, Australia (98.4) 3. Osaka, Japan (97.7) 4. Calgary, Canada (97.5) 5. Sydney, Australia (97.4) 6. Vancouver, Canada (97.3) 7. Toronto, Canada (97.2) 8. Tokyo, Japan (97.2) 9. Copenhagen, Denmark (96.8) 10. Adelaide, Australia (96.6)
  36. 36. 36 The Age Index of Liveability 2011/2015 36 15 Measures: topographic, infrastructure, cultural, proximity to train stations and other transport, access to schools, traffic congestion, tree density, policing offences etc
  37. 37. 37 What makes a liveable city? Liveability - studies the relationship between city planning, community health and well-being Four key factors: 1. How we move around (walkable neighbourhoods, connectivity, proximity) 2. Diverse areas to live with good access to community centres and amenities, local retail and good quality parks 3. Design features and street level characteristics (safe, attractive, desirable locations enhances community health and well-being) 4. Street network surrounding school sites – highly connected, lower levels of traffic, safe short walking and cycling for school children See Billi-Giles Corti – 5 Yr RESIDE Project and Creating Liveable Cities in Australia Report’ 2017), Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University 37
  38. 38. 38 A liveability community is…. ‘safe, attractive, socially cohesive and inclusive, and environmentally sustainable; with affordable and diverse housing linked by convenient public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure to employment, education, public open space, local shops, health and community services, and leisure and cultural opportunities’ Source: Lowe M, Whitzman C, Badland H, Davern M, Hes D, Aye L, et al. (2013) Liveable, healthy, sustainable: What are the key indicators for Melbourne neighbourhoods? Melbourne: Place, Health and Liveability Research Program, University of Melbourne.
  39. 39. 39 Measuring Liveability – policy implementation and national indicators Eight Liveability Indicators (Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth): • Walkability • Public transport • Public open space • Housing affordability • Employment • Food environments • Alcohol environments Some Findings: • No Aust city performs well on all indicators • Considerable spatial variation within cities • Density policy settings are too low to achieve walkable neighbourhoods • The vast majority travel to work by car • Mixmatch between urban liveability and walkability • Policies, standards and guidelines need to be better informed by evidence on how to create healthy, liveable, walkable cities • Ambitious targets and integrated planning are needed. “Creating Liveable Cities in Australia: Mapping urban policy implementation and evidence-based national liveability indicators”, Oct 2017,
  40. 40. 40 Planning for liveability – what we need to do 40 “Creating Liveable Cities in Australia: Mapping urban policy implementation and evidence-based national liveability indicators”, Oct 2017 liveability-report/
  41. 41. 41 Can Melbourne continue to be a liveable city for everyone?
  42. 42. 42 Plan Melbourne – metropolitan plan 2017-2050 42
  43. 43. 4343 Where will growth happen? What transport do we need? How do we create 20minute neighbourhoods?
  44. 44. 44 Thank you! 44
  45. 45. 45 Centre for Urban Research 45