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A PARADOX? TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY
AND CARBON STORAGE IN ZOMBA
CITY, MALAWI
by
Frank B. Chimaimba
Acknowledgement
 LEAD SEA through AfriCity project (BMBF
01DG16015 / DAAD Project-ID 57353580)
funded by DAAD and BMBF
2
A PARADOX? TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY
AND CARBON STORAGE IN ZOMBA
CITY, MALAWI
by
Frank B. Chimaimba
Introduction
 Traditionally, urban landscapes are
associated with:
1. low biodiversity
2. less indigenous vegetation
3. Almost zero carbon storage
4
Introduction cont..
 The word “City” = intense infrastructural development,
Many cars, High pollution and High population density
5
Introduction cont..
 Ecological Studies in support of this assertion
 Blair (2001) - few avian species in city centre
of Palo Alto, California.
 Blood et al (2016) - more exotic tree species in
South-eastern US
6
Introduction cont..
 Meanwhile, some evidences from literature
suggest otherwise.
 Colding et al (2013) - Urban forests in Sweden
attained rare and endangered species
 Kühn et al, (2004) – Both native and exotic tree
species were higher in cities.
7
Introduction cont..
 Despite global growth of evidences, evidences
from Africa are limited.
 Ecological Research, policies have paid much less
attention on cities
 Need for more evidences in African Cities to
set the context appropriately.
8
Aims
 To establish tree species diversity and
Carbon storage of Zomba city, Malawi.
 Perhaps to probe ecological scientist, Policy
makers etc.
9
Study area
 Zomba city (at the foot of Zomba Mountain)
 39 km2
area – relatively small
 Considerable urban growth
 Experiences tropical climate (3 seasons)
 Capital of Malawi in 1891- British protectorate
 Granted city status in 2008
10
Sampling design
 Stratified sampling design by land use types.
 Used in UFORE model development in 1990’s
 Six Land use types were sampled.
 Urban parks, Cemeteries, Institution (Schools,
lodges, churches and offices), afforestation
hills, roads, and residential areas.
11
Sampling techniques
 Were dependant on land use type
 Road – Belt transects (Quadrats = 20m length
with varied width; regular interval= 500m)
 All non linear, except residential and
institutions - 10m x 10m (100m2
) or 20 x 20m
(400m2
)
 Residential and institution- area measured
and all trees within.
For Woodlots-100m2
plots were taken
12
Sampling techniques cont..
The following were
recorded on each plot
 Coordinates – GPS (62sc
Garmin)
 Tree species
 DBH (≥ 5cm)– diameter tape
 Height – hypsometer pair
13
Data Analysis
 The data was populated in Microsoft Excel
 Descriptive analysis (Frequencies, %) –
Microsoft excel
 Diversity indices - R package.
 Shannon Wiener diversity index
 Simpson diversity index
14
Data Analysis cont..
Biomass and Carbon stock
AGB =0.103685 x dbh1.921719
x ht0.844561
C = TLB x CF
15
Results
 The study recorded 2737 tree stems.
 With 176 tree species
 Chao 1 extrapolated 268 species (92 not
observed)
High than some forests reserves
16
Results cont..
17
• This is against the traditional notion
Results cont..
18
Results cont..
19
Results cont..
20
Results cont..
21
Results cont..
 Apart from the two:
 Pterocarpus angolensis
 Afzelia quansensis
 Burkea Africana
 Terminalia sericea
 A home of 6 protected tree (Forest act, 1997)
22
Results cont..
Number of
individual
tree count
Observed
Species
Richness
Estimated
Chao1
Shannon-
Wiener
Index
Simpson
index
Zomba City 2737 176 268 4.261 0.969
Exotic trees 1572 64 98 3.282 0.923
Indigenous
trees
1165 112 170 3.980 0.970
23
Results cont..
 This is well backed in literature.
 Agbelade et al., (2016) - Mina (3.08) and Abuja
(3.56) in Nigeria
 Possible reasons of High diversity of native
species:
 low urbanisation level – intermediate disturbance
theory
 High regeneration-afforestation initiatives
 Botanical garden / parks (Kuhn et al (2016)
24
Results cont..
 Above-ground Carbon stock
 Zomba city stores a considerable amount of
above ground carbon stock of trees.
 1136.2 t/ha
 Agrees with several studies e.g. Nero (2016)
25
Results cont..
26
Results cont..
 Reasons for this:
 Difference in allometric models used.
 Perhaps the city has high proportion of large
trees
27
Conclusion
 The study confirms that
 Urban landscapes are unquestionably
important embodiment of tree species
diversity and carbon storage.
Yet are marginalised
 Justify the consideration of urban landscapes
as viable options for biodiversity conservation
and climate mitigation, besides the protected
areas
 Promotion of this leads to sustainable cities
28
Thank you
For
Your attention
29

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A Paradox? Tree Species Diversity and Carbon Storage in Zomba City

  • 1. A PARADOX? TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CARBON STORAGE IN ZOMBA CITY, MALAWI by Frank B. Chimaimba
  • 2. Acknowledgement  LEAD SEA through AfriCity project (BMBF 01DG16015 / DAAD Project-ID 57353580) funded by DAAD and BMBF 2
  • 3. A PARADOX? TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CARBON STORAGE IN ZOMBA CITY, MALAWI by Frank B. Chimaimba
  • 4. Introduction  Traditionally, urban landscapes are associated with: 1. low biodiversity 2. less indigenous vegetation 3. Almost zero carbon storage 4
  • 5. Introduction cont..  The word “City” = intense infrastructural development, Many cars, High pollution and High population density 5
  • 6. Introduction cont..  Ecological Studies in support of this assertion  Blair (2001) - few avian species in city centre of Palo Alto, California.  Blood et al (2016) - more exotic tree species in South-eastern US 6
  • 7. Introduction cont..  Meanwhile, some evidences from literature suggest otherwise.  Colding et al (2013) - Urban forests in Sweden attained rare and endangered species  Kühn et al, (2004) – Both native and exotic tree species were higher in cities. 7
  • 8. Introduction cont..  Despite global growth of evidences, evidences from Africa are limited.  Ecological Research, policies have paid much less attention on cities  Need for more evidences in African Cities to set the context appropriately. 8
  • 9. Aims  To establish tree species diversity and Carbon storage of Zomba city, Malawi.  Perhaps to probe ecological scientist, Policy makers etc. 9
  • 10. Study area  Zomba city (at the foot of Zomba Mountain)  39 km2 area – relatively small  Considerable urban growth  Experiences tropical climate (3 seasons)  Capital of Malawi in 1891- British protectorate  Granted city status in 2008 10
  • 11. Sampling design  Stratified sampling design by land use types.  Used in UFORE model development in 1990’s  Six Land use types were sampled.  Urban parks, Cemeteries, Institution (Schools, lodges, churches and offices), afforestation hills, roads, and residential areas. 11
  • 12. Sampling techniques  Were dependant on land use type  Road – Belt transects (Quadrats = 20m length with varied width; regular interval= 500m)  All non linear, except residential and institutions - 10m x 10m (100m2 ) or 20 x 20m (400m2 )  Residential and institution- area measured and all trees within. For Woodlots-100m2 plots were taken 12
  • 13. Sampling techniques cont.. The following were recorded on each plot  Coordinates – GPS (62sc Garmin)  Tree species  DBH (≥ 5cm)– diameter tape  Height – hypsometer pair 13
  • 14. Data Analysis  The data was populated in Microsoft Excel  Descriptive analysis (Frequencies, %) – Microsoft excel  Diversity indices - R package.  Shannon Wiener diversity index  Simpson diversity index 14
  • 15. Data Analysis cont.. Biomass and Carbon stock AGB =0.103685 x dbh1.921719 x ht0.844561 C = TLB x CF 15
  • 16. Results  The study recorded 2737 tree stems.  With 176 tree species  Chao 1 extrapolated 268 species (92 not observed) High than some forests reserves 16
  • 17. Results cont.. 17 • This is against the traditional notion
  • 22. Results cont..  Apart from the two:  Pterocarpus angolensis  Afzelia quansensis  Burkea Africana  Terminalia sericea  A home of 6 protected tree (Forest act, 1997) 22
  • 23. Results cont.. Number of individual tree count Observed Species Richness Estimated Chao1 Shannon- Wiener Index Simpson index Zomba City 2737 176 268 4.261 0.969 Exotic trees 1572 64 98 3.282 0.923 Indigenous trees 1165 112 170 3.980 0.970 23
  • 24. Results cont..  This is well backed in literature.  Agbelade et al., (2016) - Mina (3.08) and Abuja (3.56) in Nigeria  Possible reasons of High diversity of native species:  low urbanisation level – intermediate disturbance theory  High regeneration-afforestation initiatives  Botanical garden / parks (Kuhn et al (2016) 24
  • 25. Results cont..  Above-ground Carbon stock  Zomba city stores a considerable amount of above ground carbon stock of trees.  1136.2 t/ha  Agrees with several studies e.g. Nero (2016) 25
  • 27. Results cont..  Reasons for this:  Difference in allometric models used.  Perhaps the city has high proportion of large trees 27
  • 28. Conclusion  The study confirms that  Urban landscapes are unquestionably important embodiment of tree species diversity and carbon storage. Yet are marginalised  Justify the consideration of urban landscapes as viable options for biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation, besides the protected areas  Promotion of this leads to sustainable cities 28