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2nd International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development: Final Report

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DRSD -2021 Final Report 2
Final Report
2nd
International Symposium
on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development
The ...
DRSD -2021 Final Report 3
Table of Contents
Executive Summary................................................................
DRSD -2021 Final Report 4
Executive Summary
The 2nd "International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Develo...
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2nd International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development: Final Report

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The Second International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development was organised virtually by Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, in coordination with Keio University, Japan; Miyagi University of Education, Japan; Andalas University, Indonesia; and Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia under ProSPER.net consortium from 24-25 June, 2021. The symposium successfully contributed to building academic alliances for promoting sustainability paradigm as aimed in the ProSPER.Net supported project 'Disaster Education for Integrating SFDRR and SDG in Asia.'

Learn more: https://prospernet.ias.unu.edu/projects/past-projects/disaster-education-for-integrating-sfdrr-and-sdg-in-asia

The Second International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development was organised virtually by Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, in coordination with Keio University, Japan; Miyagi University of Education, Japan; Andalas University, Indonesia; and Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia under ProSPER.net consortium from 24-25 June, 2021. The symposium successfully contributed to building academic alliances for promoting sustainability paradigm as aimed in the ProSPER.Net supported project 'Disaster Education for Integrating SFDRR and SDG in Asia.'

Learn more: https://prospernet.ias.unu.edu/projects/past-projects/disaster-education-for-integrating-sfdrr-and-sdg-in-asia

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2nd International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development: Final Report

  1. 1. DRSD -2021 Final Report 2 Final Report 2nd International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development The International Symposium is one of the initiatives of ProSPER.Net project ‘Disaster Education for integrating SFDRR and SDG in Asia’ led by AIT along with its partners in the Asia Pacific Region. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of leading universities in the Asia-Pacific region that are committed to integrating sustainable development into postgraduate courses and curricula. Prepared by Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand 9 58 Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang District, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand web: www.dpmm.ait.ac.th email: dpmm@ait.asia
  2. 2. DRSD -2021 Final Report 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary............................................................................................................................................4 Opening Session: .....................................................................................................................................................5 Key Note Sessions....................................................................................................................................................6 Keynote Session One (KS 01)....................................................................................................................................... 6 Keynote Session Two (KS 02)....................................................................................................................................... 7 Keynote Session Three (KS 03) .................................................................................................................................... 8 Keynote Session Four (KS 04) ...................................................................................................................................... 9 Parallel Session......................................................................................................................................................10 Technical Session One (TS 01): DRR Education: Science and Technology ................................................................ 10 Technical Session Two (TS 02): Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainable Development I....................................... 13 Technical Session Three (TS 03): Public Health Emergency & COVID-19 Risk I ......................................................... 15 Technical Session Four (TS 04): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance I....................................................................... 18 Technical Session Five (TS 05): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance II....................................................................... 20 Technical Session Six (TS 06): Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainable Development II ........................................ 22 Technical Session Seven (TS 07): Technology, Innovation and Disaster Risk Reduction I ......................................... 24 Technical Session Eight (TS 8): Critical Infrastructure Resilience............................................................................... 27 Technical Session Nine (TS 09): Bangabandhu Chair Dialogue Panel ....................................................................... 29 Technical Session Ten (TS 10): Vulnerability, Resilience, and Cross-Cutting Issues................................................... 31 Technical Session Eleven (TS 11): Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable Development III.................................. 34 Technical Session Twelve (TS 12): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance III................................................................. 36 Technical Session Thirteen (TS 13): Circulating Ecological Sphere and Ecosystem ................................................... 38 Technical Session Fourteen (TS 14): Critical Infrastructure Resilience II ................................................................... 40 Technical Session Fifteen (TS 15): Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable Development IV................................. 42 Technical Session Sixteen (TS 16): Disaster Risk Reduction in Higher Education ...................................................... 45 Technical Session Seventeen (TS 17): Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable Development V ............................ 47 Technical Session Eighteen (TS 18): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance IV.............................................................. 49 Technical Session Nineteen (TS 19): Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable VI .................................................... 51 Technical Session Twenty (TS 20): Natural Hazard and Disaster Risk Reduction ...................................................... 53 Special Session:.......................................................................................................................................................... 56 Closing Session ......................................................................................................................................................58 Annexes.................................................................................................................................................................58
  3. 3. DRSD -2021 Final Report 4 Executive Summary The 2nd "International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development" was organized virtually by the Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, in coordination with Keio University, Japan; Miyagi University of Education, Japan; Andalas University, Indonesia; and Universities Gadjah Mada, Indonesia under ProSPER.net consortium on June 24 – 25, 2021. The symposium has successfully contributed to building academic alliances for promoting sustainability paradigm as aimed in the project "Disaster Education for integrating SFDRR and SDG in Asia." The consortium had collaborated with sixteen institutional partners reaching out to 333 participants throughout 4 keynote sessions and 21 technical sessions, providing a vibrant platform for policymakers, academia, researchers, development practitioners, private sectors, and relevant stakeholders to discuss various dimensions of higher education systems in the Asia-Pacific region, focusing on Disaster Risk Reduction and Sustainable Development. As a result, the International Symposium has successfully delivered multiple dimensions of the existing and future risk scenarios and concerted efforts of the scientific communities to find new adaptation methods.
  4. 4. DRSD -2021 Final Report 5 Opening Session: The Second International Symposium on Disaster Resilience and Sustainable Development was officially inaugurated by Dr. Eden Woon, President, Asian Institute of Technology on 24 June 2021. In his inaugural remarks, President Woon highlighted the contribution of AIT in disaster resilience and sustainable development in the region and emphasized the role of the symposium in contributing to the vision of the institution. In his remarks, he said, "AIT is working on disaster resilience for quite a long time in the region and our motto 'Social Impact with Innovation' is well reflected through this multidisciplinary and international event attended by the Academicians, Scientists, Practitioners, Policymakers, Researchers from around the world." As a Keynote Speaker the opening session was addressed by Her Excellency Dr. Armida Salsiah Alisjahbana, the executive secretary of The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. She highlighted the importance of regional cooperation in building resilience to cascade disaster risk. She specified, "To promote regional cooperation to implement the health aspect of the Sendai framework, including those reflected in the Bangkok principles, ESCAP is already working with member countries to discuss solutions, to build resilience to cascading risks and we look forward to partnering with AIT to support countries in the region." His Excellency Mr. Mohammed Abdul Hye, Ambassador of the People's Republic of Bangladesh to the Kingdom of Thailand delivered special remarks in the opening session. He stated, "AIT and its programs have supported developing the capacity of large numbers of government officers of Bangladesh." During the opening ceremony, the book "Disaster Resilience and Sustainability" edited by Dr. Indrajit Pal, Prof. Rajib Shaw, Dr. Riyanti Djalante, and Prof. Sangam Shrestha was launched by President Woon. Alongside, two volumes of 'Energy, Disaster, Climate Change: Sustainability and Just Transitions in Bangladesh' published in the International Energy Journal, Bangabandhu Chair Special Issue were also released by President Woon and H.E Abdul Hye. The released special volumes were edited by Prof. Joyshree Roy, Prof. Sheikh Tawhidul Islam, and Dr. Indrajit Pal. Welcoming all the guests and participants, the Chair of the organizing committee of DRSD 2021, Dr. Indrajit Pal said, "The symposium is successful in becoming a virtual melting pot of researchers, development
  5. 5. DRSD -2021 Final Report 6 agencies and practitioners to exchange knowledge and innovative ideas as well as a platform to explore collaborative research opportunities." Keynote Sessions The keynote talks delivered by experts from diverse sectors during the two-day symposium provided contemporary discourses and urged for a collaborative effort in addressing the ongoing issues of disaster resilience and sustainable development. Global challenges addressed in the Symposium: • The Global Risk Agendas and Uncovering Resilience Strategies • Dwellers and Deltas in Asian- Mega Deltas: their contribution to locally led adaptation and resilience • Technological and Social Innovation Pathways for Safer and Inclusive Societies • The Pandemic Challenges and Road to Recovery of Education System Keynote Session One (KS 01) The first keynote session on "The Global Risk Agenda and Uncovering Resilience Strategies" of the symposium was chaired by the Prof. Rajib Shaw of Keio University, Japan. The session commenced with his remarks and introduction of the keynote speakers. The first speaker of the session, Prof. Takeuchi Kazuhiko, President of Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan, spoke on "Creation of a Circulating and Ecological Sphere (CES) for Attaining Integrated Disaster & Climate Resilience." During his talk, Prof. Takeuchi highlighted the approach behind CES partly stems from the inappropriate relationship between people and wildlife. He also shared that the proximity of the two is becoming the fundamental fact of the pandemic's origins. He mentioned about a global approach to solving current pressing issues and stated, “Most of the efforts and international frameworks produced by different institutions have been discussed separately and individually. Therefore, extra effort is needed to downscale global frameworks to solutions on the ground.” He then stressed on the importance of environmental sustainability plans to be integrated into the economic and social lifestyles and further added, "CES focuses on issues of material cycles. It needs to consider the circulation of energy and CO2. Increasing resilience for communities can be achieved through Eco-DRR or NBS. Ecosystem-based approaches can help achieve a resilient society that lives in harmony with nature.” The second speaker of the session, Mr. Hans Guttman, Executive Director of Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), spoke about the global frameworks and policies of international institutions and their importance. He highlighted the aim of ADPC: to integrate
  6. 6. DRSD -2021 Final Report 7 all the frameworks, localize them, and transform them into local actions and solutions to promote disaster-resilient communities. He also shared one of the many ADPC initiatives- Asian Preparedness Partnership: a regional network between Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and other South Asian countries. Keynote Session Two (KS 02) The second keynote session was on the theme ‘Dwellers and Stakeholders in Asian Mega-Deltas: their contributions to locally- led adaptation and resilience.’ The session was chaired by Prof. Andy Large from Newcastle University, United Kingdom. The sessions started with his remarks and introduction of the keynote speakers. The first speaker of the session, Ms. Hap Navy, Chair, Sustainable Mekong Research Network (SUMERNET) spoke about 'The Role of Women and Small-Scale Fisheries in the Deltas.' She shared a story of the Mekong region, Cambodia, and highlighted the importance of fishery in the Mekong delta. She shared about the impact of development activities and climate change which is directly affecting the individual, families, and communities in the area. She pointed out, "This has sidelined the role of women and small-scale fisheries. However, this contribution is undermined in the development and policies." The second speaker of the session Dr. Shailesh Nayak, Director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies, India shared his perspectives on Natural Hazards and the key issues to be tackled to achieve the SDGs. He proposed steps to be taken for the mitigation of natural hazards. He highlighted, "There is a need for effective relationship building and coordination between the neighboring countries, networking, preparing the human population for hazards, collaboration between research institutions and practitioners. And it's time to build education system -enhance capability at national, institutional and every other level, evaluate and improve the forecasting system." The third speaker of the session Dr. Saleemul Huq, Director of the International Center for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), Bangladesh shared the connection of DRR and CCA contextualizing Bangladesh and the locally-led adaptation. He highlighted how climate change has affected many areas with South Asia in the top rank. He pinpointed the current disaster context of Bangladesh, "The frequency of floods has increased due to climate change. Flood- coastal and flash are increasing in intensity, not frequency. Cyclone is increasing in the area in terms of frequency and intensity as the sea temperature was raised than expected that is two-degree Celsius." The session concluded with the Panel
  7. 7. DRSD -2021 Final Report 8 discussion facilitated by the Chair. The panelists were Dr. Hue Le, Vietnam National University, Vietnam; Dr. M.F. Feisal Rahman, Durham University, United Kingdom; and Prof. Fabrice Renaud, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. The panelists shared their specific opinions and viewpoints on the issues addressed by the keynote speakers. Keynote Session Three (KS 03) The third keynote session discussed on the theme ‘Technological and Social Innovation Pathways for Safer and Inclusive Societies’. The session was chaired by Dr. Sanjay Srivastava, Chief of Disaster Risk Reduction section at United Nations Economic and Social Commission (UNESCAP) for Asia and the Pacific. The session began with his talk about the frontier technologies for a resilient future, highlighting the ways to find out how countries manage COVID-19 and disasters together. He stressed on how the pandemic has accelerated use of technology to protect people from the COVID-19 and other disasters. Dr. Srivastava introduced the speakers of the session. The first speaker of the session Dr. Reinhard Mechler, from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria spoke about ‘Understanding and managing public sector disaster risk for informing policy progress and challenges over the recent years.’ During his talk, he shared his thoughts and analysis on disaster and climate- related risk and how it has seen broad evolution over the last few decades toward broad- based debate concurrently encompassing epistemological, instrumental, reflective, and participative discourses. The second speaker of the session Prof. Gretchen Kalonji from Sichuan University, China, spoke on ‘Interdisciplinary disaster sciences research and education in the context of COVID-19.’ She shared her understanding and viewpoint of changing dimensions of disaster risk sciences in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic with reference to the Institute of Disaster Management and Reconstruction, Sichuan University. She highlighted, "All of the research universities worldwide need to develop stronger connections among the health sciences, natural and social sciences and engineering to build on the framework of the WHO theme of Health Emergencies and Disaster Risk Management." The session emphasized the need for Multidisciplinary participation in science and technology to collaborate and start research opening future opportunities and urged that Disaster research shall become an urgent issue requiring more internships and projects.
  8. 8. DRSD -2021 Final Report 9 Keynote Session Four (KS 04) The last keynote session of the symposium ‘The Pandemic Challenges and Road to Recovery of Education System’ was chaired by Dr. Zita Sebesvari from United Nations University, Germany. Dr. Zita shared her views on the session theme and introduced the speakers. The session started with the presentation by Prof. Dilanthi Amartunga Head, Global Disaster Resilience Center, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom on 'Disaster Risk Reduction & Sustainable Development Goals: Education & Research.’ She highlighted the cross-cutting interrelation of DRR between the Global Goals and pinpointed how SDGs cannot be achieved unless DRR is achieved. She also reflected about the specific opportunities to achieve SDGs through disaster risk reduction, one opportunity is through Education and pointed, "Education is a human right and a force for sustainable development and peace. Education can encourage more sustainable lifestyles and break the cycle of poverty, malnutrition, and disease. Education also plays a role in building knowledge, skills, and attitude to reduce disaster risk. Education concerning disasters needs to shift from managing disasters as they happen to manage risk before they happen. Thus, Education can help to reduce disaster vulnerability." The second speaker of the session, Mr. Soichiro Yasukawa, Programme Specialist, United Nations Educational, Scientific Cultural Organization (UNESCO), France spoke on 'UNESCO's Contribution to SDG and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.’ He shared, "It is evident that the global community was not prepared to face this scale of biological hazard (COVID19)" and pinpointed that Inequality and lack of social protection are increasing the vulnerability of people to natural hazards. He stated the approaches of UNESCO to operate between the natural and social sciences, education, culture, and technology and shared how UNESCO has been supporting its member states in coordinating action and reducing risk to disasters. The keynote session highlighted the importance of Education in disasters. It underlined how Education could reduce vulnerability to disasters by increasing knowledge, improving behavior and attitudes that can help minimize the risk of disasters. The session outlined the transition and paradigm shift in Education during the pandemic.
  9. 9. DRSD -2021 Final Report 10 Parallel Session During the two-day symposium, five parallel sessions were organized. Each parallel session had four technical sessions. The key thematic areas addressed during the parallel sessions: • Science, Technology and DRR Education • Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable Development • Public Health Emergency & COVID-19 • Risk Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance • Technology, Innovation and Disaster Risk Reduction • Critical Infrastructure Resilience • Vulnerability, Resilience, and Cross-Cutting Issues • Circulating Ecological Sphere and Ecosystem • Disaster Risk Reduction in Higher Education • Natural Hazard and Disaster Risk Reduction Technical Session One (TS 01): DRR Education: Science and Technology Technical Session One was co-chaired by Jacquleen Joseph and Nichole Georgeou. The session comprised of nine presentations focused on Science, Technology, and DRR Education. Presentation and key points presented: Science Diplomacy for Disaster Risk Reduction: Experience in a New Elective Course at Sichuan University by Glenn Fernandez • Although any single nation can tackle or solve the shared common challenges of pandemics, disasters, and climate change, the collective efforts of multi- nation to tackle the issues are also needed. • The new elective course of Science Diplomacy for Disaster Risk Reduction at Sichuan University aims to introduce theory and practices of science diplomacy, explain the interconnection between science and diplomacy, and present science diplomacy in disaster risk reduction seven international faculty members. Cooperative Education during Covid 19 pandemic: Enhancing legal rights and professional development of interns in Thailand by Siwarut Laikram • Although Thailand has been equipped with the cooperative education framework and several relevant acts have been implemented, there is a lack of physical
  10. 10. DRSD -2021 Final Report 11 security, legal rights, and accountability towards students both at the university and company level. • The cooperative education program could not guarantee the full-time employment of the interns working as an employee after the program ended which was aggravated by the threats of COVID-19, supporting policies insufficiency and obsolescence, and financial limitations. Additionally, interns' legal rights and welfare in a workplace were not as equally treated, emphasized, and protected as that of other employees. Assessment of River Erosion's Situation based on Influence Area: A Case Study on Gaibandha, Jamalpur and Sherpur District of Bangladesh by Jenifar Selim • The unserved areas cannot serve the people or residents during river erosion but instead creates burdens to the regions served. • Besides the educational institution, medical facility, flood camp or shelter, and river flow, other factors that influence the influenced area need to be studied. Impact of COVID -19 in Education: Perceptual Analysis by Ganesh Dhungana • The primary impacts of COVID-19 on institutes are field visit postponement or cancellation, loss of education days, post-psychological effects, and loss of learning hours; and the critical challenge faced during educational transition is lack of teacher-student networking and bond. • The primary concerns of the transition are lack of accessibility and affordability to the internet and digital devices, psychological and physical health impacts due to prolonged in-class environment separation and mobilized-restricted learning patterns, inefficiency of home settings environment for learning, nonalignment between virtual learning and social-educational practices, and learning cultures alteration. Influence of Parental Involvement on Disaster Risk Reduction's Learning Outcomes of Preschool Children, Bangkok, Thailand by Kullanan Sukwanchai • Although preschoolers below 5 years of age are the most vulnerable group of children, they are not the main target group for Disatser Risk Reduction Education. Therefore, the influence of parental involvement and preschoolers’ DRR learning competencies were studied. • The knowledge and attitude of children has changed towards disaster risk reduction. The parents' involvement in exercises had significant positive impacts on the DRR learning achievement of their children. Therefore, investment in a holistic disaster risk reduction curriculum for preschoolers and parental involvement prioritization is critically essential. Disasters Early warning through Electronic Media: Impact of next generation of early warning dissemination on vulnerable communities by K.A.D.P.K. Kodippili • Media plays a significant role in disseminating information to the public throughout the disaster cycle whether educating, warning, gathering and transmitting information, and alerting relevant organizations, especially electronic media due to its speed of access. • However, there are gaps found in early warning perception of communities, standardization of information dissemination through electronic media, community response capacity to information, and institutional coordination.
  11. 11. DRSD -2021 Final Report 12 Need Assessment Study to Develop an Integrated Framework for Disaster Resilience Capacity Building by Rudi Febriamansyah • According to the findings, building public awareness and preparation prior to a disaster, developing a network and capacity building for preparing community, and enhancing the role of universities to be as a center of excellence for development are crucially significant. Primary and Secondary Data Collection for Thesis or Dissertation Writing in the Advent of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Guidepost by Antonio S. Valdez • During COVID-19, doing research has become more difficult and challenging, especially for primary data collection due to travel restrictions and lockdowns; however, conducting research needs to be carried on. • Accordingly, the guidepost is very significant in doing research and assisting in conducting internationally accepted research with limited primary data and extensive secondary data during COVID-19. Integrating Gender and Social Inclusion in the curricula of Higher Education Institutions: an approach for the Hindu Kush Himalaya Region by Vishal Narain • The context of gender equality and social inclusion of Hindu Kush Himalaya Region is reflected in social differentiation, social constructs of gender and patriarchy, and the increase of gender-based vulnerability. • Based on that, the study of the integration of gender equality and social inclusion in higher education curricular context is ongoing in India, Nepal, and Bhutan through semi-structured interviews with academic administrators regarding the current state of Gender and Social Inclusion (GESI) in curricula, demand for GESI professionals, and institution frameworks and constraints towards GESI; and with faculty members regarding the understanding of basic concepts, pedagogical issues in teaching GESI, and factors on gender relations. The session highlighted the impact of disasters in all aspects of human lives and the ecosystem that we inhabit, emphasizing disaster risk management and disaster risk reduction are disciplinary with finding the balance between natural science, technology, and social science. One of the co-chairs shared, "Recently, there has been an increasing critique that these disciplines are dominated by technology, leading to the need for better contextualization of the use of technology. This technical session on science, technology, and DRR education is in the right position in bridging the gap and exploring the possibility of meaningful application of technology to address concerns around DRR education." The discussion held during the session demanded a new approach to look at science and technology-based solutions that can work to support people at risk by involvement and participation of those communities.
  12. 12. DRSD -2021 Final Report 13 Technical Session Two (TS 02): Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainable Development I Technical Session Two was co-chaired by Mokbul Morshed Ahmad and Deepthi Wickramasinghe. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainable Development. Presentation and key points presented: Evaluating Urban Resilience in Planning: The Case of Chengdu, China by Yang Wei • The study frames the urban resilience in urban planning through Resilience Planning in Thinking (RPT) to evaluate local plans in Chengdu, China with seven fundamental stages. • Local planning relates to socio-economic planning, urban and rural planning, land use planning, and isaster prevention planning. Indigenous Tourism Contribute to Indigenous Resilience to Disasters: A case study on Taiwan's Highlands by Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak • The research stated that post-disaster recovery efforts were generally implemented in a top-down manner. Participation in tourism played a salient, albeit diverse, role in post-disaster recovery among the three villages. • Bridging between Government and NGOs played a key role in three villages for post- disaster recovery and other socio-economic affairs. The enhancement of Government’s interest in the local tourism contributes in community development and more funding opportunities. Building Resilience against Floods in India: Human Development, Income, Inequality and Forest Cover by Chandra Sekhar Bahinipati • Building resilience against flood in India in the context of human development, income inequality, and forest cover is important. Suppose the forest coverage is high than the number of people affected. • Human development significantly reduces fatalities from flood. Forest cover has negative impacts on L&D indicators. Higher human development and income does not mean that the state is becoming climate resilient. Addressing Challenges towards Achieving Green Growth in Malaysian Cities – by Vishanthini Kanasan • There are challenges in addressing green growth in Malaysian cities. Urban green growth fostering economic growth and development through urban activities that reduce environmental impact.
  13. 13. DRSD -2021 Final Report 14 • Key challenges in the achievement are availability of reliable data, mainstreaming capacity building via cross-department collaboration, engaging the people, and opportunities for public financing. Opportunities and Challenges Farmer’s Experiences Using Indigenous Knowledge to Adapt to Climate Change in Sustainable Development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam by Pham Xuan Phu • Local participation in decision making for household construction and relocation is key. • Building mutual trust and introducing a participatory concept is more important. Post-disaster long-term livelihood issues in indigenous context- A cause study of 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Rinari settlement by Sung Lun Tsai • The central government prioritizes the relocation strategy which prompted a confrontation between the indigenous population and government. • The government chooses state-owned land and relocates people with a contract which can be negotiated in the future. This kind of relocation may isolate people from their community. Assessment of Rural Water Security and System Sustainability in Nagpur Metropolitan Area, India by Vibhas Sukhwani • Disproportionate impact in water distribution in rural area and rural livelihood has been highlighted causing issues of availability, accessibility, quality, security and risk. Focused Group Discussion was done to understand the perception of the locals to different indicators of accessibility (Negative change was observed) in village. The limitation is data insufficiency. The community-based disaster risk reduction modeling of the Anak Krakatau Volcano, South Lampung, Indonesia by D.B. Prasetya • The study examined community-based disaster risk reduction from a diverse perspective such as physical aspects and ecological aspects; and how emergency response communities and organizations use social media during an emergency for volcano eruption and tsunami preparedness and response. Public tweets on the volcanic eruption were the major source of reporting than by Government and mass media. Building capacity and developing community women leadership for disaster resilience in Fiji by Iftekhar Ahmed • Flexibility and adaptability of training package require to allow extra time for activities when needed. • Reliance on technology for delivery need to be reduced. The importance of cultural awareness in the undertaking of this type of research process was realized whereby the synthesis of local knowledge with global technical know-how is equally important. A primary key to achieve the project objectives is involvement of and consultation with the local stakeholders. Vulnerability Assessment of Balikpapan (Indonesia) for Climate Change Induced Urban Flooding by Ariyaningsih • DPSIR is used to analyze changes in flood state and serves as a reasonable framework for compiling the information. • The main drivers are growth, land-use change, urbanization, and energy demand that lead to increase rainfall and temperature leading to higher flood discharge.
  14. 14. DRSD -2021 Final Report 15 Damage and sedimentation were identified as the most important impacts of flooding in the study area. The session was interactive and had an insightful discussion about the importance of horizontal and vertical relationships in community resilience for post-disaster recovery. During the session, different approaches to achieve urban green growth requirements such as green economy, participation of people, climate resilience, and greater urban environment were also discussed. In addition, community-based disaster risk reduction from a diverse perspective such as physical aspects and ecological aspects and their social media skill during an emergency period were discussed. The topics covered were common as well as undisclosed. Both the co-chairs Dr. Ahmad and Dr. Wickramasinghe facilitated the session and provided their expert opinions on queries raised by the participants. Technical Session Three (TS 03): Public Health Emergency & COVID-19 Risk I Technical Session Three was co-chaired by Sylvia Szabo and Victor Hoe. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Public Health Emergency & COVID-19 Risk. Presentation and key points presented: Impact of COVID-19 public measures on country-level trade flows: A global panel data analysis by Worawat Srisawasdi • The rapid spread of COVID-19 and the measures implemented by governments to contain the pandemic have seriously impacted global trade and economies. The results show that containment shows a positive impact to trade flows. Stringent measures show negative impacts on trade. GDP show positive impact on trade flows. Better containment and health policies show a positive impact on trade flows. • The study concluded that economic support measures do not significantly impact trade flows but can effectively relieve the financial stress of households and individuals and boost domestic consumption. Therefore, future research can focus on other economic sectors as well. A Thematic Review on Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management: Strategy for the Application of Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management in Malaysia by Ainatul Fathiyah Binti Abdul Rahim • The COVID-19 pandemic has tested the public health system of Malaysia which stresses the urgency to provide a basis for coherent action building resilience and health security for the public health system. • Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management (HEDRM) captures the intersection of health and disaster risk management. The research identifies the pattern of how
  15. 15. DRSD -2021 Final Report 16 HEDRM is applied in several countries. Current mechanisms should be enhanced to integrate the new framework of HEDRM to respond to global pandemics or other health-related disasters. A Framework of Risk Profile in Public Healthcare System Development: A Literature Review by Kodchakorn Krutphong • A risk profile is the result of the risk assessment process. The demographic of the study has steadily increased from 2011 to 2020. • A disaster risk profile needs the appropriate guideline for data collection and risk assessment. It will benefit the operational and policymaking actors in taking necessary actions and developing guidelines. Pesticide Use Pattern & Health Impacts Among Farmers & Laborers in Kalahandi District of Odisha, India by Nishikanta Kumar • Indiscriminate and excessive use of pesticides can have negative environmental and human health impacts. Around 30 thousand pesticide poisoning and 220 thousand deaths occur annually worldwide, mostly from developing countries. The results show that several farmers and agricultural workers are unaware or are erroneous in applying pesticides, how they use pesticides, and when to apply them. COVID-19 as a disaster: Indian Response towards the Public Health Emergency by Satabdi Das • India invoked the disaster management act of 2005 and the epidemic act of 1897 as the legal tool for the pandemic. The amendment made to the epidemic act of 1897 results in a more cohesive approach and process between pandemic and disaster management. • India's policy response to the pandemic was highlighted by maintaining essential services, pushing back loan repayments, providing rations for low-income families. However, because of the pandemic, many SDGs are negatively affected and hampered, including more prevalent poverty, lack of education, affected livelihoods, etc. Business Continuity and Response to infectious diseases of the public- listed companies in Japan:Results of Questionnaire Surveys at the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the COVID-19 pandemic by Shohei Beniya • Infectious disease pandemics can negatively affect the business continuity of companies and private sector areas. The business impact of COVID-19 is much more significant than the H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The results show that large companies tend to have better countermeasure plans against infectious diseases. • Companies without countermeasure plans faced more challenges during the COVID- 19 pandemic, and those that did have countermeasures had been successful in increasing sales. Transportation, warehousing, and chemical industries were the ones most negatively affected by the COVID-19. A study on the need for effective detection and early warning mechanism for resilience pandemic and epidemic response: lessons from COVID-19 pandemic by Thushara Kamalrathne • The need for robust pandemic and epidemic early warning and preparedness has found new importance due to COVID-19. Therefore, early detection of pathogens and dissemination is critical. • Research shows that the most important step within the early warning is the surveillance, detection, and analysis of the emerging pathogen. Most emerging
  16. 16. DRSD -2021 Final Report 17 pathogens are from bacteria, but viruses generally have a larger social and health impact. Multi-Level Spatial Analysis and Mapping of Child Malnutrition Outcome and its Determinants in India by Ranadheer Reddy • Antenatal care (receiving iron and folic acid) is the most important factor in determining wasting, stunting, and general nutritional health of the child. At the state level, underage marriage (18) can result in more cases of wasting and stunting. • 472 districts in India have wasting prevalence. Sanitation and availability of clean drinking water can create a negative persistence of malnutrition. Community Perception of Flood Induced Health Risk in Sudan, a case study of Sharq El- Nile area by Ahmed Abdelgadir Babiker Ahmed • The impact of floods on public health is significant. Sudan's floods are usually associated with secondary disasters of disease outbreaks. Locals (including authorities) are often unprepared and unable to respond timely and on target. In Sudan, local communities are unsupportive toward the health impacts of floods; and local authorities do not have sufficient capacity in responding to these floods to avoid auxiliary health impacts. • The optimistic risk perception is the main driver of community vulnerability. COVID-19 response by municipal authority with the help of community-led organizations during a lockdown: evidence from Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh by Md. Bayezid Islam • The municipal authority took immediate steps to ensure lifesaving assistance, like food and clean water provision, sanitation, and hygiene kits. However, they were hampered in their efforts because of lacking workforce • Community groups assisted the local municipal authority in rapid needs assessment and gap identification; they played an important role in risk communication and built trust with the communities. The institutional structure and trust afforded to community groups can enable them to protect communities in future waves of COVID-19 cases. The Technical Session provided ample discussion around the COVID-19 pandemic and public health management in general. It also served a deeper discussion around the intersection between disaster risk management and public health management, including taking steps to improve the relationship between relevant and complementary sectors. During the discussion in the session, a concerted effort to improve the guidelines and institutional frameworks to create an enabling atmosphere for public health management were discussed and highlighted the need for improvements in data collection and evidence-based studies to improve decision making. Concluding the session, both co- chairs endorsed the need for community groups, and local government plays important roles in managing public health emergencies and disaster response. The session reflected role of communities in raising awareness while that of local governments' in supporting in increasing the capacity of relevant institutions and community groups.
  17. 17. DRSD -2021 Final Report 18 Technical Session Four (TS 04): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance I Technical Session Four was co-chaired by P. K Joshi and Md. Anwarul Abedin. The session comprised of eight presentations focused on Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance. Presentation and key points presented. Vulnerability mapping of residential buildings with respect to cyclonic wind in Mauritius using Remote Sensing and QGIS by Hisaindee Muhammad Nadiim • This study is intended to bring forth a pivotal contribution for professionals working in the construction and public infrastructure industry by providing relevant information pertaining to areas of high risk by cyclonic winds. • It highlights the most vulnerable zones across Mauritius on vulnerability maps generated by QGIS software. GIS-based Runoff Estimation and Identification of Potential Runoff sites in Maroodijeex Catchment, Somaliland by Mohamed Omar • To estimate surface runoff and find proper regions for runoff collection based on the physical properties like watershed through practicing GIS besides Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) as the mechanism for result support. Regional-scale groundwater vulnerability assessment to pesticides by leaching from Paddy fields in the Northeast region of Thailand by Doungpond Ponggumnerd • Develop a mass fraction model that accounts for the intermediate vadose zone or heterogeneous soil layers while assessing the leaching potential of the agrochemicals in the present study. • Evaluate the developed mass fraction model accuracy under heterogeneous layered soil systems in the Northeast region of Thailand against a simple index-based model with reference to physical-based HYDRUS-1D model results. • The comparison results show that the developed mass fraction models were more consistent and robust in screening the agrochemicals than simple index-based models Applying Google Earth Engine for Flood Mapping and Monitoring in the Downstream Provinces of Mekong River by Bui Phan Quoc Nghia • The application of Google Earth Engine (GEE) and Sentinel-1 ground range detected synthetic aperture radar (Sentinel-1 GRD SAR) images to visualize and to calculate flood-prone area in the downstream province of the Mekong River basin in Vietnam. • The analyzed results showed that there is a shift in flood pattern in the downstream provinces of the Mekong Delta.
  18. 18. DRSD -2021 Final Report 19 Ultimate bearing capacity of shell footing on hill slopes by Sukanta Das • This paper aims to present the results of numerical modelling (FELA) on bearing capacity and settlement of shell foundations. • Numerical investigation shows on average 40–45% higher load–carrying capacity than its flat counterpart Nat-Bowtie; a New Approach for Natech Risk Assessment by Sachin Atmaram Damle • Every technological site has safety systems in place, but natural hazards can interact with the safety systems and pose severe threats to the technological sites. This interaction may result in severe consequences which called a Natech accident. • In the study, the Bowtie method has been modified to assess threats posed by Natech hazards, and the new Nat-Bowtie method, a qualitative tool has been proposed. The ready templates of the Nat-Bowtie offer visualization of possible natural threats to the technological systems which are generally overlooked. Integrated Rapid Visual Screening and Vulnerability Assessment for Seismic Hazard, Yangon, Myanmar by Hnin Ei Win • The study of buildings vulnerability against seismic hazards is the primary objective of this paper. • The studied scope covers the evaluation of downtown 5 townships in Yangon city, Myanmar. First, the buildings are discussed and illustrated by conditions assessment as a quick sidewalk survey. In addition, the level 2 analysis of rapid visual screening method classified and prescribed vulnerability assessment with reference to FEMA 154 P. Multi-hazard impact and vulnerability analysis in building city infrastructure resilience by Pawel Gromek • The objective of the study is to analyze impact and vulnerability of crisis city hazards, crucial city infrastructures and their relations in terms of cascading effect materialization. • The results proved that first responders would be the most vulnerable in terms of cascading effect development, decreasing the city resilience during multi- emergency response. • More information concerning the methodology you can find in literature related to AHP method (hierarchical analytical process). The Social Network Analysis could be cognitively valuable. The session had an intensive discussion regarding the vulnerability assessment. The discussion also provides insight into the use of Python in assessing the groundwater vulnerability by the geoprocessing functionality of ArcGIS in combination with Python using the ArcPy site package. The session also discussed about Applying Google Earth Engine for Flood Mapping and Monitoring and understanding the decreasing trend of floods.
  19. 19. DRSD -2021 Final Report 20 Technical Session Five (TS 05): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance II Technical Session Five of the symposium was co-chaired by Albert Salmanca and Sisira Madurapperuma. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance. Presentation and Key points presented: Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment of Educational Institutes of Dehradun, Uttarakhand by Shivani Chouhan • The results show that many school structures (23%) have very high seismic risk. • Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment (MHRA) carried out in schools identifies the weaknesses in current school structures. Saline Intrusion Vulnerability and Resilience in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam: A Case Study from Tien Giang Province by Hue Le • The research identifies situation of saline intrusion in Tien Giang Province. The area is heavily affected by floods. In 2016, the region experienced intense drought and saline intrusion and 80 thousand households suffer from freshwater shortage. • The research relies on both primary and secondary data. The findings suggest that the impacts of saline intrusion include the reduction of rice cultivation area; reducing yield levels of rice; reducing income. Indirect impacts include higher water prices, salinization, and landslides. Solutions include better water piping to replace lack of freshwater, freshwater filtering machine, creating water storage ponds, however they are not without challenges. It also found that poor and near poor households are more vulnerable than their higher income counterparts. The same applies for women. Reframing the disaster risk discourse to incorporate indigenous knowledge by Bosco Bwambale • The research investigates whether indigenous knowledge is considered in the larger Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) discussion spectrum and in Uganda in particular. Indigenous knowledge is not necessarily implemented by communities but can be used to complement DRR knowledge and actions. • The research shows that the discourse dictates that disaster prone areas are tamed for serious reasons like state capitalist motives. This shows that hazard capitalist discourse is held, and indigenous knowledge is not very much in consideration. The research concludes that indigenous discourse and local initiatives are not included and considered in the practical disaster reduction paradigm.
  20. 20. DRSD -2021 Final Report 21 Localizing Climate and Disaster Risk Assessment for Selected Communities in Quezon City and Angat, Bulacan by Ma. Lorena P. Hernandez • Climate and Disaster Risk Assessment (CDRA) is usually conducted in a municipal or provincial scale and it used to assess the risk in a specific area. It operates on the intersection between CCA and DRR. The study found that CDRA should be localized so that local participation can be increased and ensures that no one is left behind. • The findings show that the process followed for the localized CDRA does not offer biases regarding the possible vulnerabilities. The results of localized CDRA can also help prioritization of local governments in disaster risk management. Cyclonic Damage Assessment of Rural Houses for the East Coastal Region of India by Pradeep K. Goyal • The damage assessments consist of 2 processes, first is the hazard assessment, second is the vulnerability assessment. Quantitative method consists of component- based approach, where each structural component vulnerability is measured separately; and direct approach where a model is used to determine overall vulnerability without considering individual components. • The study shows that the distribution of yearly maximum wind speed does not have significant impact to the annual mean damage. The COV of components of houses combined with the COV of wind speed have significant impact on annual mean damage. Separately however, the impact is less. A study on behavior of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower considering the effect of Soil Structure Interaction by Mahesh Kumar C L • A cooling tower is a structure used to extract the heat from water in a stream and emits it to the atmosphere, found in many thermal power plants. Large shell structures, such as cooling towers, are required to be designed for earthquake loading, especially in areas with high seismic activity. The study compares the behavior of cooling towers between fixed boundary condition and soil-structure interaction. • The results show that natural frequency and maximum principal stress for SSI is lower than fixed boundary condition. The maximum displacement however is higher for SSI than fixed boundary condition. It concludes that SSI significantly modifies the earthquake behavior of Hyberbolic Cooling towers. An Extensive Study on Damage Assessment of Earthquake Affected Buildings in Nepal by Shwetha K G • The study aims to evaluate the level of damage caused by the Gorkha Earthquake. It evaluates the effect on the structure in terms of structural scale or cost scale. • The study concludes that by doing a damage assessment, it allows the researchers to grade the damages from 1 to 4. The grades describe whether the building is still safe to live in; if it needs only minor repairs; whether it needs to be retrofitted; or if it needs to be demolished. Site-specific ground response analysis and liquefaction assessment of Can Tho city (Vietnam) by Van-Quang Nguyen • The study serves to perform a site response analysis and liquefication assessment to evaluate ground behavior under earthquake loading. It utilizes a one-dimensional analysis. It compares between the O Mon district and the Chai Rang district. • The study concludes that the PGA or peak ground acceleration increases from bedrock to the surface. The maximum shear strain occurs at the boundary between
  21. 21. DRSD -2021 Final Report 22 two soil layers. The results also show that liquefaction in Can Tho city does not occur. Evaluation of empirical SPT blow counts and shear wave velocity correlations using 1D site response analysis for shallow bedrock sites in Islamabad, Pakistan by Muhammad Aaqib • The study conducted a review of Pakistan’s Building Codes (PBC) and selected 4 representative SPT profiles. The Vulnerability profiles are developed by correlations of Lee (1990) and Ahmad et al. (2015). • The comparisons demonstrate that design spectrum developed from Ahmad et al. (2015) output results in a better match with the code spectrum of the PBC. Study on the influence of site seismic dynamic response under different geological conditions by Xiao Meng • This paper studies the seismic dynamic response combined with geological exploration data. The effects of different types of earthquakes under different geological conditions on the dynamic parameters of site seismic response were discussed using DEEPSOIL numerical software and the site safety was analyzed. • The analysis of dynamic profiles shows that the ratio of maximum shear stress to vertical effective stress varies with depth between the two studied and calculated models. This session mostly focused on engineering-approaches to disaster impact assessments or mitigation and their varied methods of analyses, therefore truly living up to its name as a “technical” session. Most of the speakers are from a civil engineering background, applying direct focus to structural or geotechnical methods of analysis. An important aspect added by Dr. Madurapperuma at the end of the session for each speaker is to consider how the results of their study can impact real change through policy decisions or direct interventions, something which most speakers overlooked. Closing the session Co-chair Dr. Madurapperuma suggested all the researchers presented to look at the engagement of policymakers and regulatory bodies because that should result in policy change and transformation Technical Session Six (TS 06): Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainable Development II Technical Session Six was co-chaired by Joyee Chatterjee and Michael Boyland. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainable Development. Presentation and key points presented:
  22. 22. DRSD -2021 Final Report 23 Climate change impacts in India - Cross sectoral case studies by Shweta Sinha • India is facing key environmental challenges these days: heatwaves, impact of rising temperature on agriculture, water resources, coastal sea level rise, impact on marine biodiversity and impact on health. Some practices, activities and measures are carried out as solutions to the challenges but there are still needs that require more emphasis. • More localized data systems are needed and there are more interventions with interdisciplinary approach coupled with climate resilient technologies to mitigate climate risk at national/ local levels in India. EIA in India plays a crucial role in better decision making of future environment. Towards an inclusive communication management framework for flood-risk reduction in Davao City, Southern Philippines by Karen Joyce Cayamanda • The building and strengthening of community resilience is a process involving interrelated disaster risk reduction element and strategy including efficient risk communication management, a duality approach capitalizing on community-based disaster risk and reduction management intervention and strong community resilience can provide inclusive disaster resilience towards sustainable development at the community level. Oil spill laws: A legal perspective for oil spill disasters in Thailand by Shubham Pathak • The implementation and Acts on Oil Spill including Navigation in the Thai Waters Act (1913), Civil and commercial law code of Thailand and International fund for compensation for Oil Pollution Damage Caused by Ships Act (2017) need to be revised. Understanding and Mapping the Spatial Variability of Social Vulnerability in the Philippines by Sarah Healey • The SoVI shows high variability in social vulnerability across the Philippines, with east and west coastal municipalities and southern municipalities being the most vulnerable. Assessing Household Vulnerability to Flooding using Livelihood Vulnerability Index in Selected Puroks of Los Baños, Laguna by Darlene A. Tandang • Strategies to improve household resilience/adaptive capacity should include diversification of income sources, promotion of health awareness, encourage community involvement, and strengthen government support towards adaptation and mitigation of the impacts of flooding. Wind hazards on Indian power system and challenges for future: A review by Sarv Priya • The power system damages caused by cyclone is serious and the distribution subsystem is more vulnerable than the generation and transmission subsystem under extreme wind. • Physical and systemic vulnerability approaches employ to predict the damage of components within the subsystem and interconnected subsystems respectively. Community resilience for Disaster Risk Reduction by engaging local Governance in Bihar (India) by Geetanjali Kumari • The mixed methodology (exercise/mock drill/ team training) of capacity enhancement found very effective and the key to successful participation of local stakeholders is the design of interactive sessions with sufficient scope of socio- cultural and contextual adaptations.
  23. 23. DRSD -2021 Final Report 24 • Application of adult learning principles and customized use of mass media, pictorial, posters, and audio-visuals are very well accepted among the stakeholders. Living with pervasive hazards: Place-based coping strategies of an island community in Cebu, Philippines by John Ceffrey L. Eligue • Vulnerability is exacerbated by pervasive hazards, and the impacts may vary across scale, space, season and social interactions which influence the coping strategies. Surviving the colossal eruption of Samalas 1257 CE, Lombok, Indonesia: lessons from the ancient civilizations' response to disaster by Mukhamad N. Malawani • The survival strategies of ancient civilization during natural hazards are applying the paradigm of response centric: avoiding hazards and seeking the safe place. • The results emphasizes that Indonesia has had social capital for coping with disasters since the 13th century or might be older. Evaluating municipal disaster risk reduction and management plan towards improving disaster management: A case study in the Philippines by Sophia Mae U. Caralde • This study recommends decentralizing disaster preparedness seminars and trainings in the barangay level, developing a logical framework, procuring rescue equipment, and ensuring that community members are consulted and part of the planning process. The question-and-answer session held after the presentation led to further discussions. Some of the significant concerns reflected during the discussions were- communicating risks and intervention is very crucial in risk reduction and management; local context and experiences of communities can provide clear manifestations of risk- related behaviors and adaptive capacities; Experiences and risk perception can both be a source of vulnerabilities as well as a source of adaptive strategies by the communities affected by the hazards/disasters; and social interactions due to COVID-19 is affected hence coping mechanisms is slightly affected too. The session was very interactive and brought important reflections on community perspectives in DRR. Technical Session Seven (TS 07): Technology, Innovation and Disaster Risk Reduction I Technical Session Seven was co-chaired by G.P. Ganapathy and Basanta Raj Adhikari. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Technology, Innovation and Disaster Risk Reduction. Presentation and key points presented: Why Farmers in India are not Adopting Crop-Insurance? Insights from Behavioral Economics Literature by Dinamani Biswal
  24. 24. DRSD -2021 Final Report 25 • Agriculture is one of the major sources of employment in India. Agricultural products are at risk of being affected by climate variability. Therefore, a risk coping mechanism is crucially required. However, there is low adoption of crop insurance as for the risk coping mechanism. • It was found that economic (premium, price, and liquidity), social demographic (caste, social class, and household size), educational (financial literacy) and structural (land ownership, chance of crop diversification) factors, and behavioral anomalies (framing effect, ambiguity aversion, cognitive bias, and trust) have contributed to the low adoption among the farmers. Assessment of the numerical methods for seismic resilience of built structures in India by Bhushan Raisinghani • Due to the susceptibility to moderate-strong earthquakes, rapid urbanization, and unsatisfactory earthquake-resistant structure design and construction, the seismic resilience of built structures needs to be evaluated. • It was found that the inter-storey drift is beneficial to identify the time histories which can be used for defining the resilience-based performance parameters. Additionally, the local building bylaws shall govern the resilience parameters for designing. The Role of Facebook in the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management: Case Study of the Municipality of Cainta by Shekinah Noa Shelomi C. Wenceslao • Due to the availability of free and discounted accessibility, there have been many Facebook users recently. However, Facebook’s credibility as a viable source of disaster risk information at the local level is questioned. • Facebook is the most popular source for disaster information search. However, more attention on information communication, information reliability, information updates, official Facebook page centralization, and alternative information sharing and searching source availability is suggested for further study and improvement. ANN application in predicting residual strength of CFST column after fire by Aishwarya Narang • The cross-section area, exposed temperature, and thickness of the encasing steel of CFST are the most influential parameters on residual strength. • The developed ANN model can predict the residual strength of CFST columns with no limitation on the input range and complexity. In addition, the model can be used for the fire safety design purposes and to retrofit the affecting structures. Numerical simulation of spherical source blast-induced stress wave amplification by Jawad Ur Rehman • As a major concern of high-level vibrations which may potentially damage adjacent structures and facilities from drilling and blasting as an economic and effective technique; the prediction of stress wave amplification factor for spherical blast source using numerical simulation was studied. • For uniform homogeneous rock mass, amplification factor increases as a source depth increases. In addition, inhomogeneity of rock mass plays an important role in wave amplification.
  25. 25. DRSD -2021 Final Report 26 Feasibility study of Locally Accessible Cloud System (LACS) conducted in a remote island in Cebu, Philippines to meet the real demand for ICT under the COVID-19 pandemic by Toshikazu Sakano • Locally Accessible Cloud System (LACS) was introduced as a promising solution to fill the demand-supply gap of ICT in disasters including the COVID-19. LACS was used for e-education through smartphones, disaster response in demonstration of searching for a missing person, and a service platform for a resident management system demonstration. Assessing Public Value of Government-led DRRM Interventions: The Case of DOST's Hydromet and EWS by Marie Antoinette F. Bangabang • Public value of Government-led DRRM interventions were dependent on benefits, existing investment, experiences and exposure to the flood events, awareness, and support from the government. • Institutionalizing the need for the hydromets and EWS as a part of disaster mitigation, alongside with the other CBDRRM activities was suggested. Blast Performance Enhancement of RC Square Column Jacketed with Steel Angle Sections and Battens by Mohd Shariq • According to the data analysis, it was found that seismic confining lateral reinforcement does not contribute to reducing the maximum displacement and damage. In addition, proposed strengthening technique enhances the blast performance of the square RC columns significantly. Furthermore, higher thickness of the angle sections and battens are not found to be more effective in the case of the seismic confining reinforcement at the ends and middle regions. • Further investigation in higher grade of steel angles and battens to prevent the yielding under similar and higher blast loading is recommended. Towards Resilient Municipal Wastewater Sewerage Systems in Khartoum: A Surcharged Flow Measurement Device by Moayad Mutwalli Dawoud Mohamed • Due to lack of surcharged conditions measurement devices in Khartoum network, finding an effective way of measuring the flow in surcharged conditions was conducted. • Venturi meter used in surcharged sewer was manufactured. Improving flood flow prediction and early-warning systems using radar-based precipitation data and the HEC-HMS hydrological model: a case study in the Kelani River basin by H.D. Jayanga Thanuka Samarasinghe • Gauge-based precipitation adjustments are implemented to improve satellite precipitation and overcome the shortcomings. Additionally, ANN can be used to improve daily satellite-based precipitation. • Improved satellite-based precipitation can be used to simulate the floods using HEC – HMS hydrological model. However, the prediction capability of extreme events is still questionable. This technical session was mainly focused on the application of technology and innovation in disaster risk reduction. The thematic session was diverse and discussed about risk transfer through crop insurance, use of numerical methods for seismic resilience of built structures, role of Facebook in DRR, ANN application in civil engineering, use of ICT government-led DRRM interventions, and early warning systems using radar-based
  26. 26. DRSD -2021 Final Report 27 precipitation data for improving flood flow prediction. In concluding remarks, Dr. Ganapthy said “Technology and innovation play a key role because we are in a very fast-moving world. Therefore, innovation could be a better solution for particularly disaster risk reduction and many others as well. Today we had good, unique, innovative, and interesting presentations from different parts of the world here.” Technical Session Eight (TS 8): Critical Infrastructure Resilience Technical Session Eight was co-chaired by Sreevalsa Kolathayar and Djoen San Santoso. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Critical Infrastructure Resilience. Presentation and key points presented: Role of Financial Incentives in promoting Disaster Resilience by Shavindree Nissanka • The study aims to point out the need and role of financial incentives in embedding disaster resilience, highlighted by identifying the current practices, challenges, and prerequisites. • The study is based on an extensive literature synthesis, using the narrative literature review method and finally, qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis to summarize the findings. Developing a Framework on School Resilience for Risk-Informed Decision-Making by Vipul Kumar Nakum • The study aims to develop a ‘School Safety Resilience Index’, whereby extrinsic and intrinsic factors associated with school safety such as physical, human resources, natural conditions are analyzed. Public Investment Strategies for Reducing Risks of Accidents in Water Transport – by Watchara Pechdin • This paper aims to suggest appropriate investment strategies for reducing risks of accidents in water transport of Thailand by adopting Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) method. • Key findings indicate that an efficiency of each investment strategy on the risk reduction of accidents significantly accords to linkage multipliers of a water transport sector and other sectors in an economy. Sustainability of Coastal Critical Infrastructure: A Case Study of Multi-Purpose Cyclone Shelters of Gujarat by Ankit Jaiswal • This paper provides insights on various service and sustainability models available for running the Multi-Purpose Cyclone Shelters (MPCS) around the world. It also provides the uniqueness of the service plan and sustainability model of Gujarat for maintaining their MPCS.
  27. 27. DRSD -2021 Final Report 28 • It also provides the insight on the roles played by different institutions involved in maintaining the MPCSs. A Review of Risk Assessment Methodologies of Critical Infrastructure by Anil Kumar • This study examines different risk assessment methodologies available for critical infrastructure. • It analyses the pros and cons of these methodologies and other similar methodologies adopted for critical infrastructures. • It considers some of the important hazards of coastal region such as sea level rise, storm surge, cyclone, and coastal flooding. Solar energy systems as critical infrastructure in community resilience building: case studies from South Asia by Parimita Mohanty • This study consolidates the findings from case studies from South-Asia where distributed solar system is used to provide critical community scale infrastructure facilities to have uninterrupted access to power and enhance the community- resilience. • Based on these learnings, it discusses the policy and financing strategies that enables such interventions are successful in resilience building in the face of extreme weather events. Impact of COVID – 19 on Higher Education Institutions in Northern Mindanao and Manila City: A Pandemic Recovery and Rehabilitation Strategic Plan by Sherlito Poyot • This study aims to identify the impacts of COVID-19 to higher education institutions in Northern Mindanao and Manila City with Gov. Alfonso D. Tan College and Philippine School of Business Administration (PSBA), Manila as pilot institutions. Also, the study seeks to know what their COVID-19 Pandemic Recovery and Rehabilitation (PRR) strategic plans in coping with the changes in learning mode are ensuring quality education. • In the case of PSBA, Manila, training on Google Suite for Education was conducted for its faculty. Computers were also procured and special classrooms with internet were set up for the virtual learning. Contribution of Energy Resilience Assessment to Sustainable Operation of a Rural Microgrid by Kampanart Silva • In this study, resilience of a microgrid consisting of 100 kW solar power plant, 300 kWh battery and a standalone electrical grid in a rural community in northern Thailand was assessed to derive resilience measures that can reinforce the climate adaptation capability of the microgrid and the community. • The results show that this microgrid can be used as a role model for introducing off-grid electricity generation to areas with no access to national grid. A Nonlinear Site-Specific Ground Response Study for Soil Sites in Port Sudan Harbor by Mohammed T.M. Ahmed • In this study, an effort has been made to critically obtain a reliable estimation of the Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) profile. • Results are observed to be similar for shallow soil strata, while a significant difference is observed for deeper soil strata. Policy, Institutional Advancements and Challenges in Making Critical Infrastructure Disaster Resilient by Sujit Kumar Mohanty • The study highlights the policy and institutional advancements made by countries in making critical infrastructure disaster resilient
  28. 28. DRSD -2021 Final Report 29 • The gaps and challenges in the same in the context of emerging risk landscape globally have been discussed. Technical Session Nine (TS 09): Bangabandhu Chair Dialogue Panel Technical Session Nine was the Bangabandhu Chair Dialogue Panel co-chaired by Joyashree Roy and Sheikh Tawhidul Islam. The session comprised of ten presentations regarding different aspects of Bangladesh. Presentation and key points presented. Development of a Disaster and Climate Risk Atlas in Bangladesh: Methodology for Quantification of Risk by Md. Sirajul Islam • The research shows that risk can be quantified by collecting components of hazard, exposure, vulnerability. The research discussed that the most realistic risk calculation for Bangladesh is made up of unequal weight for exposure and vulnerability. • The risk atlas can be utilized to project screening tools of governmental development projects for disaster and climate change. The next step would be to quantify the costs needed to mitigate future disasters. Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Build Back Better to Post Disaster Recovery Practices: Insights from Bangladesh by Sakib Rahman Siddique Shuvo • During a crisis period, information is very important. It flows through communication technologies or ICT. Several examples include ICT in social protection programs, community radio in disaster response, etc. • However, ICT intervention still lacks integration. There is a missing link between community and implementors; and integration is hampered by the lack of communication infrastructure in remote areas. Post-Disaster Recovery for Building Resilience: Bangladesh Perspective by Faiyad H Rishal • Post disaster recovery in Bangladesh is less understood and practiced. Lack of resilient recovery costs Bangladesh 2.2% of its GDP annually. But there are gaps that exist, including top-down framework, lack of financial allocation for long term recovery, corruption and negligence. • The way forward requires a national framework for recovery to fill the policy and institutional gaps that persist. Also included is community participation, build back better via post and pre assessments, and technology integration such as GIS and EWS.
  29. 29. DRSD -2021 Final Report 30 Promoting Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting for Sustainable Water Usage in Residential Buildings for Climate Resilient City Building- A Case Study of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh by Muhammad Waresul Hassan Nipun • Rainwater harvesting is a technique adopted for storing rainwater for later use. It can complement the municipal water supply system and trigger groundwater extraction. Recycling rainwater can be useful for Bangladesh, a country with a tropical monsoon climate. • The study shows that as roof area increases, the cost of water is decreased, and the municipal water supply usage can be reduced up to 78%. Drinking and cooking water demand can be met by the rainwater harvesting. Rainwater harvesting could be an important tool to increase water efficiency. Socioeconomic Vulnerability and Mental Health Risk During the Lockdown Periods of COVID-19 Outbreak in Bangladesh: A Perception-based Analysis of Young Adults by Md. Ashik-Ur Rahman • The pandemic has brought about unprecedented economic and social crises for young adults. The study aims to assess the mental health status of young adults in urban areas during lockdown periods. It utilizes mental anxiety scores or GAD7 to do this. • The results show that most respondents reported mild anxiety or more. Young adults worried mostly about their educational uncertainty. The study concluded that there are protective and risk factors among different socio-economic groups with which the government can intervene to reduce anxiety levels. Household migration as a unit following Cyclone Aila in Bangladesh: financing of migration costs and the role of social networks by Sebak Kumar Saha • Cyclone Aila hit Bangladesh in 2009, it affected 11 coastal districts and 3.9 million people. It caused massive displacement and widespread migration. The study attempts to determine how the households who migrated away were able to finance their move. • The results show that households usually migrated with only transportation money and food money for a few days. Most of the households had existing social networks in Khulna City (their destination) and almost all of them reached out to their social contacts before their move. Most of them received assistance related to accommodation and food costs. This reinforces the idea that poor households may not be able to migrate in the future. Assessment of Flood Hazard in Climatic Extreme Considering River’s Fluvio-Morphic Responses by Shampa • Due to the high population density in Bangladesh, most hazards pose high risk to its inhabitants, including the risk of floods. The study utilizes DFRM to determine areas that will be flooded, their flow rates, water levels, etc. In using the model, the uncertainty from river platform and basin land use changes needs to be treated carefully. Livelihood in Normal and Stressed Situations: Pluvial Flood prone Urban Poor Communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh by Hasina Akther • Pluvial flood has become a regular event in Dhaka City due to intense rainfall during monsoon and broken drainage networks. The study aims to explore the level of status of the urban poor households in a normal and stressed situation. The findings suggest that the livelihood status of the urban communities is significantly different
  30. 30. DRSD -2021 Final Report 31 • The correlations proved that there is significant relationship between normal and stressed situations in flood prone urban poor households which implies that the stressed situation was affected by the normal situation. Humanitarian Agencies and Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention: An Investigation using Culture Centered Approach in Rohingya Refugee Settlements of Bangladesh by Marjan Akhter • This research aims to explore the intersecting aspects related to gender, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions, and humanitarian organizations working in refugee camps. • The research finds that within organizational structure, gender influences communication pattern. Staff are more comfortable communicating with superior or same gender. Gender division of labor and perception of women's place were reproduced within the organizations. The findings indicate that there is a need for capacity building and gender mainstreaming within these organizations. As part of gender transformative approach to SRH, the health needs of all genders need to be considered. This session served as the Bangabandhu Chair Dialogue Panel and as a result, most of the presentations revolved around disaster risk management and sustainable development in Bangladesh. Prominent academicians who are conducting important research into this topic in Bangladesh were afforded the time to present their findings. Several presentations focused on specific and singular hazards, like floods and cyclones. However, there were pertinent information being shared about post-disaster recovery, sexual and reproductive health interventions, vulnerability from the COVID19 pandemic, and much more. Technical Session Ten (TS 10): Vulnerability, Resilience, and Cross-Cutting Issues Technical Session Ten was co-chaired by Ichinose Tomonori and Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Vulnerability, Resilience, and Cross-Cutting Issues. Presentation and Key points presented. Farmer’ choices of climate-resilient practices in coping with water scarcity: Current situation and welfare impacts on rice-cultivating households in Vietnam by Nguyen Duc Kien
  31. 31. DRSD -2021 Final Report 32 • The study focused on the current status and welfare impacts in choices of climate- resilient practices made by rice cultivating farmers in coping with water scarcity in Vietnam. A comparative study of climate change vulnerability of farm households in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar by Minh Dao Duy • The paper is comparative study of climate change vulnerability of farm households in Delta countries- Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar as delta region are highly affected by climate change and specially the migrants are seriously affected by CC issues. Water use, management are under conflict sensibility. In Vietnam, Myanmar, and Cambodia (CVM): majority of citizens live in rural areas and have agri-based livelihood strategy. Rural households are poor and lack the resources to adapt and minimize the impact of CC. Their vulnerability is not well understood. • This study aims to compare the level of vulnerability to the adverse effect of climate change in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar (CVM) countries and from the given results, the study will propose the orientation, solutions, recommendations to the household, local government and central government. Business Continuity Level of Quezon City in the Advent of Environmental Catastrophe towards Business Sustainability Development by Tabassam Raza • The study talks about the Business Continuity Level of Quezon City in the advent of Environmental Catastrophe towards Business Sustainability Development. • The argument of incorporating business and disaster management was Business for one is the most vulnerable to natural and man-made hazards. A disruption of business can form a chain reaction to its customers who themselves own and conduct businesses. Further, the disaster usually impacts business causing interruption in its functions, leaving business unsustainable. One in four business never reopen the doors after a disaster. The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Engagement Strategies for Disaster Preparedness: Case of Foreign Residents in Japan by Bismark Adu-Gyamfi • The study talks about the potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Public Engagement Strategies for Disaster Preparedness in the case of Foreign Residents in Japan. It also showcases how the public engagement helps in disaster management in Japan. Disaster risk activities can be practiced in both structured and learning by doing approach. Structured: curricula, instructional methods, or program designs for disaster risk reduction activities. COVID-19 and Regional Disaster Governance in Southeast Asia by Lina Gong • The presentation was focused on regional cooperation in disaster management. Political needs of cooperation in member state and why the financial support is required has been discussed. Review the initiatives to mitigate health emergencies caused by COVID-19 pandemic in Rohingya refugee camps of Bangladesh by Abir Ahammad Talukdar
  32. 32. DRSD -2021 Final Report 33 • The study reviewed the initiatives taken to mitigate Health Emergencies caused by COVID-19 pandemic in Rohingya Refugee Camps in Bangladesh. Due to the highest density and poor amenities the camp is already vulnerable but during the pandemic health emergencies was in a big threat because of the reduced number of health workers and concerns about the safety of front-line workers. The pandemic created a complex situation between the local communities and Rohingya refugees. Limited number of protection actors in the camps resulted in a vacuum in conflict, mediation, and legal services particularly concerning gender-based violence. Occupational health and safety of garments and textile industry workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh by Edris Alam • The study talks about occupational health and safety of garments and textile industry workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study demands occupational health and safety should be a holistic exercise encompassing the office design, ergonomics, tiling and flooring, protective tools and equipment, ventilation, lighting, and many other things that will ease the work process of the staffs in the respective industries. Contribution of Disaster Learning Tools to Earthquake Disaster Risk Reduction in Japan: Applying a Framework Classified by the Real and Virtual of Social Network and Community Space by Yusuke Toyoda • The Study reflects the need of social network and mutual help among neighbors for to cope with disaster and practice. Disaster Early Warning systems for vulnerable, agriculture dependent communities: From Upstream to Downstream by J.M.A.R. Jayarathne • The study presented about disaster early warning systems for vulnerable, agriculture dependent communities in the upstream and downstream. • The aim of the research was Research and analysis of the links between early warning, early action and community-based adaptation to improve anticipation, adaptive capacity, and disaster risk management of vulnerable, agriculture dependent communities. The research objective was assessment of risk and vulnerability of agricultural systems to different climate change scenarios including underlying causes of vulnerability, gender and power dynamics, access to resources, and services. Evaluating the network of stakeholders in Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEW) for multiple simultaneous hazards amidst COVID-19, Sri Lanka as a case in point by Chandana Siriwardana • The key aspects of the study were evaluating the network of stakeholders in Multi- Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEW) for multiple hazards amidst the biological outbreak based on Sri Lanka. • The study objective was to visualize the network of stakeholders in Multi-Hazard Early Warning Systems (MHEW) for multiple simultaneous hazards and to identify the stakeholders with key roles and their contribution to the communication network.
  33. 33. DRSD -2021 Final Report 34 Technical Session Eleven (TS 11): Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable Development III Technical Session Eleven was co-chaired by Yonariza and Van Kien Nguyen. The session comprised of nine presentations focused on Vulnerability, Resilience and Sustainable Development. Presentation and key points presented: A proposal for disaster risk management in the local level: lesson learned from earthquake prone area in Sengon Village, Central Java, Indonesia by Djati Mardiatno • Being the most densely populated and infrastructure island, and the most prone province to earthquake, the study aims to propose a model for disaster risk management in the local community level in Sengon village, Java province. • It was found that Sengon village has adequate capacity to reducing the risks to earthquakes. In addition, the existence of resilience village group in the village can be a good social capital to maintain the sustainability of disaster risk reduction program. Understanding the Importance and identification of mechanisms for better integration of Community-based knowledge into Disaster Risk Assessment by Asitha de Silva • Due to the lack of micro environmental perspective in disaster risk assessment method, the aim of the study is to understand how important the community-based knowledge in disaster risk assessment; and to identify the mechanisms to better integrate community-based knowledge into disaster risk assessment. • In brief, the understanding of micro environmental characteristics which enhance disaster risk is important in productive disaster management. Therefore, integrating community-based knowledge will provide a strong basis towards identifying the absolute risk for better planning and implementation to develop sustainable solutions. A validated framework for women’s empowerment in disaster risk governance by Kinkini Hemachandra • Although number of examples of women’s roles in disaster risk reduction have been witnessed in both global and national level, gaps in mainstreaming gender into disaster risk reduction remains. For example, absence of women in DRR strategies development and decision-making processes. Therefore, the study aims to propose a framework to empower woman in disaster risk governance. • Challenges for women’s empowerment in Disaster Risk Governance were identified as socio-cultural, job-specific, operational, individual, political, and legal and policy challenges. According to the findings, the framework was developed which consists
  34. 34. DRSD -2021 Final Report 35 of four interventions of individual, community, legislative, and organizational interventions. Geopolymer concrete - a study of an alternative material for ordinary portland cement by Ishan Thakar • The study showcases that geopolymer provides more strength as compared to ordinary portland cement. Mechanical Behavior of Geopolymer in Addition with Fiber Reinforced Materials – A Review by Divya Jat • The study emphasized on the various research work done on geopolymer with different natural as well as inorganic fiber mainly basalt, cotton, carbon, polyvinyl alcohol, and glass. • Based on the result of mechanical behavior of different fibers from different studies, it was found that fiber reinforced geopolymer have shown significant increase in mechanical properties and can be used as an alternative for ordinary portland cement. Assessing risk and adaptation options across building types and neighborhoods in the cities and urbanizing regions of Vietnam by Nigel K. Downes • Being ranked as one of the most vulnerable nations to be highly affected by both current and future climate change impacts combined with high urbanization rate in major cities of Vietnam, Vietnam is much more susceptible to be affected by climate change hazards. • According to the findings, it was suggested to concretely link weather-related and climate change impacts to the urban environment in a downscaled manner, provide a substantial area-wide data basis for urban monitoring and climate change assessments, facilitate trans-disciplinary communication by providing a common spatial working environment; and to ensure that proposed climate change adaptation measures are easily integrated into the urban planning framework for administration, designers and planners. Perception Of Climate Change and Farmer’s Choice of Community-Based Adaptation Methods: A Case Study in Central of Vietnam by Nguyen Thi Dieu Linh • Due to the high susceptibility to climate change impacts of agricultural sector, and high risk of increase of salt-water intrusion on rice crop failure in Vietnam, the study aims to understand farmers’ perception on climate change and saltwater intrusion and investigate determinants of farmers’ choice of community-based adaption methods. • It was found that even if most farmers are aware of local climate change, less adaptive responses to reduce its negative impacts have been implemented. Additionally, farming experience significantly impacts on the choice of adaptation methods. Farm characteristics strongly influence the probability of applying new varieties of rice, shrimp, and lotus-fish method. Furthermore, institutional factors enhance the adaptation to saltwater intrusion. A Review of Flood Hazard and Risk Management Strategies, past, present, and future challenges in the South Asian Region, Particularly in Sri Lanka by Tharika Fernando • Based on the review of flood hazard and risk management, and past, present, and future challenges in the South Asian Region, particularly in Sri Lanka, it was found that flood hazard mapping should be in the context from 1:5000 to 1:20000 scale. Maps should be created for a high and low probability. Additionally, the detailed
  35. 35. DRSD -2021 Final Report 36 planned maps should be prepared with a lower and return period. Furthermore, timely, accurate, and reliable flood warning system would be beneficial for the nations to mitigate flood. Effects of herbicides application on the sustainability of tea production in Sri Lanka by IDUH Piyathilake • Due to the fact that tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world and is expected to be toxic-free; therefore, the study aims to assess the negative impacts of the herbicides on quality of soil and tea in Sri Lanka. • The frequent application of herbicides significantly affects the level of Fe, Zn, and Pb in the soil. Additionally, the Pb contamination of herbicides applied tea in significantly higher in comparison with non-herbicides applied tea. Therefore, based on the results, the environment and human health are potentially vulnerable due to the frequent application of herbicides in the tea lands. This technical session mainly focuses on the vulnerability, resilience and sustainable development which opened diverse discussion within the theme like community-based knowledge and disaster risk assessment, women’s empowerment and disaster risk governance, use of geopolymer in construction reinforcement, climate change perception, and sustainable tea production and herbicides application. Dr. Yonariza in his concluding remarks thanked all the presenter and said “We have learned many things today from the citizens in Asia. We hope for new ideas of integration and managing risk from this session.” Dr. Kien shared “The presentations cover both structural measure of engineering of geopolymers and non-structural measure of community-based approach, women empowerment in disaster risk reduction in different societies which is very important.” Technical Session Twelve (TS 12): Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance III Technical Session Twelve was co-chaired by Jessada Karnjana and Takashi Oda. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Multi-Hazard Risk and Governance. Presentation and key points presented: Comprehensive Flood Risk Analysis at Your Fingertips by Matthijs Bos • Royal Haskoning DHV has been developing the Global Flood Risk Tool (GFRT). The GFRT conducts a thorough flood risk assessment and delivers a set of customized solutions if the identified flood risk is considered significant. • Interactive, visually attractive, geospatially distributed flood risk, and understandable user interface for non-experts. Enables informed decision-making for increasing flood resilience and business case modelling.
  36. 36. DRSD -2021 Final Report 37 Livelihood Assessment of Smallholder Rice Farmers in Drought prone Regions in Bihar, India by Vivek Kumar Singh • The intended objective of this article is to examine various factors affecting smallholder farmers' livelihood in drought-prone areas of Bihar, India, to recommend stakeholders to adapt or change its policy and how to intervene for improving the livelihood of smallholder rice farmers in the region. • Results and discussion of this study indicate that collaboration and coordination among stakeholders have a serious stake in improving the livelihood of smallholder rice farmers. Greedy Copula Segmentation applied to Multivariate Non- Stationary Time Series for Optimal Climate Change Adaptation by Lance Manuel • This study aims to propose a computationally efficient algorithm called Greedy Copula Segmentation (GCS) and an associated novel climate change adaptation strategy (CCA). • The authors provide an algorithm for the formulation of greedy copula segmentation and validate the performance of the methodology on a benchmark problem as well as on a 120-year drought data set from a region. Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of an existing building in Chennai by Kausalya P • This study presents the seismic evaluation of an existing five storey residential building in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. • As a result, the structure is found to be safe, and has the capacity to meet the seismic demand. Comparison of the Vulnerability Assessment of Step – Back Configuration and Set –Back Configuration Structures on Hill Slopes by Yaman Hooda • This study involves the vulnerability analysis of modelling of G + 5 Storeyed structures, considering both the type of structural configurations on hill slopes: Step – Back Configuration and Set – Back Configuration Structures. • The modelling of the structure is done with varying slope angles with respect to the horizontal surface. • If the structure comes under the category of “Structurally unfit”, then various options of retrofitting technique with bracing is mentioned, having a positive effect on the strengthening of the weak elements of the structures. Effect of Transverse Circular and Helical Reinforcements on the Performance of Circular RC Column under High Explosive Loading by Rafat Tahzeeb • This research highlights the role of equivalent circular columns, and the effect of circular and helical steel and CFRP transverse reinforcements on blast performance under high explosive loading. Time-Frequency Analysis of Strong Ground Motions from the Mw 6.8 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake by Kanuka Mareddy • On 29th March 1999, the Garhwal-Kumaun region in the western Himalayas was struck by a damaging Mw 6.6 earthquake. In the presentation, the frequency content of 22 horizontal ground motions from the 1999 Chamoli earthquakes are examined using fast Fourier transforms. • The results indicate that at several sites, the arrival of high-amplitude waves with high frequencies corresponding to the resonant frequency range of low-rise structures corresponds to observed enormous damage to the structures.
  37. 37. DRSD -2021 Final Report 38 Framework of Pandemic-Risk Assessment and its Applicability to Reduce the Pandemic’s Adversity by Md Shahid Akhter • This study attempts to develop a “Pandemic-Risk Assessment Framework” based on the practical experiences, existing risk assessment frameworks, and available kinds of literature on pandemic risk and its assessment. Wavelet Analysis of Strong Ground Motions from the 2015 Nepal Earthquake by Mohammed Ayub Ifan • The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is utilized to understand the changing time-frequency characteristics of the earthquake ground motions. • It is concluded that these observations correlate well with the observed distribution of damage to reinforced concrete and unreinforced masonry structures in the region. Categorization of Differential Impacts of Disasters in the Batangas Province, Philippines by Flordeliz Agra • This study aims to introduce new methods in categorizing the impacts (not affected, very low, low, medium, and worst hit areas) of these disasters to Batangas Province by using new methods and formula using population density as the main factor. • The findings of the study highlight the need of change and to start considering the use of population density as the main determining factor in categorizing differential impacts of disasters for planning and devising a more effective disaster risk reduction and management strategies and approaches. The technical session prioritized more technical discussions and analysis on multi-hazards, hazard impacts; assessment in terms of vulnerability, risk and livelihood; and specific to structural measures. Technical Session Thirteen (TS 13): Circulating Ecological Sphere and Ecosystem Technical Session Thirteen was co-chaired by Tetsuo Kuyama and Bijon Kumer Mitra. The session comprised of ten presentations focused on Circulating Ecological Sphere and Ecosystem. Presentation and key points presented: Capturing mutual benefits through urban-rural partnership: A city regional perspective for collective security of food, energy, and water in the post COVID-19 era by Priyanka Mitra • This study aims to capture the link and possible mutual benefits between urban and rural areas, especially regarding WEF security. This study assumes the perspective or rural areas as suppliers of basic needs to meet the large demands which exist in urban areas.

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