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Water storage for secure water supply, Ho Chi Minh City

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This presentation is part of the ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School 2017 ‘Water Security for Sustainable Development in a Changing Climate’.

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Water storage for secure water supply, Ho Chi Minh City

  1. 1. WATER STORAGE FOR SECURE WATER SUPPLY HO CHI MINH CITY Outcomes of the Workshop 5- 8 April 2016
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Project outline and partners • The Press • SAWACO’s raw water sources and water quality issues • Lessons learned from the Netherlands city of Rotterdam • Objectives and approach of the workshop • Solutions • Immediate measures • Short term solutions • Long term solutions • Adaptive pathways
  3. 3. PROJECT OUTLINE AND PARTNERS Project location: Mekong Delta and HCMC, Vietnam Period: April 2013 – March 2017 (4 years) Budget: 10.0 million Euro Grant: 4.4 million Euro Sustainable Water Fund (FDW)
  4. 4. THE PRESS February 19th February 26th March 2nd March 11th March 21th April 11th
  5. 5. SAWACO’S RAW WATER INTAKES AND PLANNED WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
  6. 6. SAWACO’S 2012 Measures to Adapt to Changes in Raw Water Resources PASSIVE • Reforestation of catchment areas • Construction of a sea barrier in the estuary of the Dong Nai / Nha Be river • Control of industrial zone development up- (and down-) stream of the raw water intakes ACTIVE / PASSIVE • Request to Tri An and/or Dau Tieng authorities to flush the Dong Nai and/or Saigon rivers ACTIVE • Relocation of raw water intakes to the Tri An and Dau Tieng reservoirs • Application of new treatment technologies • Construction of raw water storage reservoirs
  7. 7. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1-Jan 8-Jan 15-Jan 22-Jan 29-Jan 5-Feb 12-Feb 19-Feb 26-Feb 5-Mar 12-Mar 19-Mar 26-Mar 2-Apr 9-Apr 16-Apr 23-Apr 30-Apr Chloride(mg/l) 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Chloride Standard WATER QUALITY | Saigon River – Hoa Phu Intake (1/2) Chloride (mg/l) dry season 2007-2015: January - April
  8. 8. WATER QUALITY | Saigon River – Hoa Phu Intake (2/2) Chloride (mg/l) and Qflush from Dau Tieng Reservoir 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1-1-16 0:00 8-1-16 0:00 15-1-16 0:00 22-1-16 0:00 29-1-16 0:00 5-2-16 0:00 12-2-16 0:00 19-2-16 0:00 26-2-16 0:00 4-3-16 0:00 11-3-16 0:00 18-3-16 0:00 25-3-16 0:00 1-4-16 0:00 QflushfromDauTieng(m3/s) Chloride(mg/l) Qflush from Dau Tieng Chloride at Hoa Phu Chloride 24 hour average dry season 2016: January - April Chloride Standard
  9. 9. PROBLEM SUMMARY • Salinity intrusion is getting more severe; • Flushing of the Saigon river with water from the Dau Tieng reservoir has proven not efficient, nor effective in extreme situations; • Production has been halted during periods when salinity intrusion is too high, putting the continuity of public water supply in HCMC at risk, because clear water storage amounts to not more than half a day production capacity; • It will become increasingly precarious for SAWACO to rely on the Hoa Phu intake for raw water, hence alternative raw water sources are to be identified for the treatment of water by the Tan Hiep WTPs
  10. 10. ROTTERDAM DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WTP Honingerdijk in 1923 1960s: Huge problems for Rotterdam’s drinking water supply • Inferior water quality of the River Rhine due to heavy industrialization, and no domestic, nor industrial sewage treatment • Salinity intrusion in the winter of 1962-1963 due to extreme weather conditions (January 22-28, 1963: brackish, undrinkable drinking water from the tap)
  11. 11. SOLUTION FOR ROTTERDAM Moving Raw Water Intake and Building of Raw Water Storage Reservoirs in the Biesbosch • Storage is necessary for periods of low discharge (River Meuse is a rain-fed river) • Intake stops are possible in case of inferior water quality (seasonal, accidental or intentional discharges, or shipping accidents) • Water quality improves considerably during a retention time of 5 months De Gijster Honderd- en-Dertig Petrus- plaat
  12. 12. OBJECTIVES OF THE WORKSHOP Intensive Brainstorming aimed at achieving the highest degree of consensus possible on the following topics: • Short-term (low regret) solution for Tan Hiep WTP: e.g. small raw water storage reservoir to prevent interruptions of water treatment, as recently experienced; • Long-term water resources strategy and solutions for SAWACO; • Integral design of a possible (multi-functional) water storage reservoir for Tan Hiep WTP:  Drinking water supply,  Urban flood control,  Nature conservation,  Recreation.
  13. 13. STUDY AREA Elevation (m.a.s.l.)
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF A CHARRETTE DESIGN WORKSHOP • Intensive brainstorming • Developing solutions for problems with spatial components • Sharing ideas by drawing • Using different types of base maps • Field visits to study areas • Different groups learning from each other
  15. 15. IMMEDIATE MEASURES 1. Revise raw water intake criterion for chloride: Stop intake at 350 mg/l instead of at 250 mg/l. Because of 2:1 mixing with water of Kenh Dong WTP, chloride in the clear water will remain below 250 mg/l. 2. Do not stop production when chloride in raw water is > 250 mg/l, because this will have a negative impact on the production process. After treatment, discharge the water that does not comply with the standard for chloride, even after mixing with water of Kenh Dong WTP. 3. Reach an agreement with the regulator on what to do in a situation when chloride in the to be distributed clear water is > 250 mg/l. The advice is: keep providing water as chloride is not a health- related parameter, but an unpressured water distribution would definitely constitute a public health hazard.
  16. 16. Extend salinity monitoring along the Saigon River Develop an improved flushing policy for Dau Tieng reservoir to counteract salinity intrusion in the Saigon river Carry out salinity modeling of the Dong Nai / Sai Gon estuary and lower river basin IMPROVE FORECASTING SALINITY LEVELS AND FLUSHING POLICY
  17. 17. SHORT TERM SOLUTION #1Use Lang The canal 1. Shift intake point upstream to conjunction of Saigon river and Lang The waterway  11.5 km from Hoa Phu 2. Use existing waterways – 19 km – for raw water transportation 3. Reroute existing streams that connect to the waterway 4. Build a controllable weir, allowing controlled flushing of the waterway 5. Build intake works, pumps & 2 km pipeline to Tan Hiep WTP with a capacity of 300,000 m3/d 6. Mix raw water from new upstream intake point with raw water from Hoa Phu 1 2 4 5 6 3
  18. 18. SHORT TERM SOLUTION #2Move Intake Upstream 1. Shift intake point upstream to Nang Am  14 km from Hoa Phu (along the Sai Gon river) 2. Build intake works, pumps & 13 km pipeline to Hoa Phu with a capacity of 300,000 m3/d 3. Mix raw water from new upstream intake with raw water from Hoa Phu 1 2 3
  19. 19. SHORT TERM SOLUTION #3 Draw water from Irrigation Canal N31A 1. Create a new intake point at the end of irrigation canal N31A; available capacity at this point is 3.5 m3/s 2. Build intake works, pumps & 9 km pipeline to Hoa Phu with a capacity of 300,000 m3/d 3. Mix raw water from new intake with raw water from Hoa Phu 4. Existing N31A canal may require rehabilitation works 1 2 3 4
  20. 20. SHORT TERM SOLUTION #4Mixing and Storage Reservoir 1. Build a mixing and small storage reservoir (1-2 days) at ‘Duong Do Park (25 ha, ± 10m deep); location is close to Tan Hiep WTP; area around the reservoir can be developed for nature and/or ecotourism 2. Inflow: connect the existing raw water pipeline with the reservoir 3. Outflow: build intake works, pumps & 1 km pipeline to connect to existing raw water pipeline to Tan Hiep WTP with a capacity of 600,000 m3/d 1 2 3
  21. 21. REFLECTION ON SHORT TERM SOLUTIONS #1-4 0. Current situation 1. Use Lang The canal 2. Move intake upstream 3. Draw water from irrigation canal N31A 4. Mixing and small storage reservoir Mechanism to cope with salinity intrusion Flushing of water from Dau Tieng reservoir, selective intake at Hoa Phu Mixing water with Hoa Phu water 1:1 Mixing water with Hoa Phu water 1:1 Mixing water with Hoa Phu water 1:1 Peak shaving by mixing of the raw water from Hoa Phu Maximum chloride content (mg/l) at Hoa Phu intake at which production can continue 300 ± 450* ± 450* 575 ±500-600 Investment estimate (±40%) - 16 M$ 30 M$ 24 M$ 30 M$ Realization period (±2Y) - 2 years 2 years 2 years 5 years Multiple sources for Tan Hiep (redundancy, reliability) No, only one intake point from the Saigon river at Hoa Phu Partly, two intake points from the Saigon river Partly, two intake points at Saigon river Yes, Saigon river and Dau Tieng reservoir No, only one intake point from the Saigon River at Hoa Phu Main operational costs - - O&M intake, pumping station, canal and weir + dams - Pump energy - O&M intake and pumping station - Pump energy - Raw water price per m3 - O&M intake and pumping station - Pump energy - O&M intake, reservoir and pumping station - Pump energy *Assuming chloride at upstream intake point is 1/3 of chloride at Hoa Phu and mixing ratio Hoa Phu : upstream intake = 1:1
  22. 22. LONG TERM SOLUTION #1Green-Blue Lung 1. Shift intake point upstream to Nang Am, build intake works & pumps to fill Green Blue Lung (capacity of 1,200,000 m3/d) 2. Build the Green-blue Lung (19 km) with total area of 1,000 ha, of which 200 ha is waterway and 800 ha is a green multi- functional zone including dikes on both sides of the waterway (see impression on next page) 3. Build intake works & pumps to Tan Hiep WTP with a capacity of 600,000 m3/d 4. Where land is available additional multi-functional storage / retention reservoirs can be built, to provide storage for water supply in the dry season and flood retention in the wet season 5. Develop wetland nature, flood retention and eco-tourism in the surrounding area of the Green Blue Lung 1 2 4 3 A B Green Blue Lung 1000 ha A. 250 ha B. 270 ha *with a production of 600,000 m3/d; water depth at maximum water level 4 m; at minimum water level 2 m; average width 100 m **reservoir depth from surface level 15 m; maximum water level 1 m above surface level; minimum water level 1 m below surface level. 4 6 5 Green Blue Lung Res. A Res. B Retention time at max water level (days) 12* 63** 68 Retention time at min water level (days) 6 55 59 Storage capacity (days) 6 8 9 6. Optional when salinity intrusion tipping point is reached: controllable salinity weir and sluice gate in Saigon River
  23. 23. DRY SEASON WET SEASON CROSS SECTION OF GREEN BLUE LUNG
  24. 24. LONG TERM SOLUTION #2Multiple-day Reservoir 1. Shift intake point upstream to Nang Am, build intake works & pumps to fill reservoir A (capacity of 1,200,000 m3/d) 2. Build three storage & pre-treatment reservoirs with total area of ± 250 ha; connect reservoirs with pipes; water transport between reservoirs A B C by gravity; pipelines to bypass each reservoir are foreseen as well 3. Build intake works, pump and pipeline to Hoa Phu with a capacity of 600,000 m3/d 4. Develop wetland nature, flood retention and eco-tourism in the surrounding area of ± 250 ha (total area ± 500 ha) 1 2 4 3 A B C A. 84 ha B. 100 ha C. 78 ha Retention time at maximum water level 90 days* Retention time at minimum water level 70 days Storage capacity 20 days * With a production of 600,000 m3/d, reservoir depth of 20 m, height of embankment 5 m, maximum water level 20 + 3.5 m, minimum water level 20 - 2 m 6 6. Optional when salinity intrusion tipping point is reached: controllable salinity weir and sluice gate in Saigon river
  25. 25. LONG TERM SOLUTION #3 Draw Water from Irrigation Canal K45 1. Create a new intake point at the end of irrigation canal K45; the design capacity at this point is 1,000,000 m3/d; available capacity depends on the development of irrigation requirements, which are projected to decrease further in the future 2. Build intake works & pumps with a capacity of 600.000 m3/d 3. Build 20 km pipeline to Hoa Phu (2 x 1,500 mm) 4. Existing K45 canal may require rehabilitation works 5. A storage & pre-treatment reservoir with ± 8 days of storage may be necessary to cover the annual maintenance period; an area of ± 85 ha is required, as well as an additional pumping station 1 2 3 4 5
  26. 26. LONG TERM SOLUTION #4Pipeline to Dau Tieng 1. Shift intake point to Dau Tieng Reservoir, build raw water intake and pumping station with a capacity of 900,000 m3/d 2. Build pipeline to Hoa Phu 62 km (2 x 1,800 mm) 3. Build 2 booster pump stations along the route of the pipeline 4. A pretreatment facility at the intake from Dau Tieng reservoir may be necessary in order to prevent sedimentation and biofouling in the pipeline 1 2 3 3 4
  27. 27. REFLECTION ON LONG TERM SOLUTIONS #1-4 1. Green-blue lung 600,000 m3/d 2. Multiple-day reservoir 600,000 m3/d 3. Draw water from irrigation canal K45 600,000 m3/d 4. Pipeline to Dau Tieng reservoir 900,000 m3/d Mechanism to cope with salinity intrusion - Selective intake (6-23 day storage capacity) - Mixing - (Potentially) salinity weir in Saigon river - Selective intake (21 day storage capacity) - Mixing - (Potentially) salinity weir in Saigon river No salinity intrusion No salinity intrusion Investment estimate (±40%) (intake, pumps, pipelines) 21 M$ 64 M$ 80 M$ 600 – 1,200 M$ Investment Estimate (±60%) (earthworks, waterway & reservoir construction) 790 M$ 475 M$ 120 M$ (if needed to cover maintenance period on irrigation canal) - Realization period 15 years 10 years 10 years 10 years Main operational costs - O&M intake, canal, reservoirs and pumping stations - Pump energy - O&M intake , reservoirs and pumping stations - Pump energy - Raw water price per m3 - O&M intake and pumping station - (O&M reservoir) - Pump energy - O&M intake and pumping stations - Pump energy Multi-functionality Yes: flood retention, wetland nature, ecotourism To limited extent: wetland nature, ecotourism - -
  28. 28. COMBINING SOLUTIONS The current planning for Tan Hiep WTPs is to produce 900,000 m3/d by 2025. For the long term solutions #1-3, it is not clear whether they can provide this, or are limited to 600,000 m3/d. However, it is possible to combine several of the short and long term solutions to reach a raw water capacity of 900,000 m3/d. Combining solutions enhances the redundancy and reliability of the overall system (i.e. multiple sources of water). Option Long Term Name / Capacity Option Short Term Name / Capacity #1 Green-blue lung #3 Draw water from N31A irrigation canal 600,000 m3/d 300,000 m3/d #2 Multiple-day reservoir Nang An #3 Draw water from N31A irrigation canal 600,000 m3/d 300,000 m3/d #3 Draw water from K45 irrigation canal #2 Shift intake upstream to Nang Am + construct pipeline to Hoa Phu 600,000 m3/d 300,000 m3/d
  29. 29. SHORT TERM > > > LONG TERMNOW Draw water from N31A irrigation canal Pipeline to Dau Tieng Shift intake upstream to Nang Am + pipeline Hoa Phu intake Improve flushing Halt intake at 350 mg/l Multiple-day reservoir at Nang Am Shift intake upstream to Lang The canal + waterway Controllable Salinity weir Saigon River + sluicegate Connect irrigation canal to Green Blue Lung ADAPTIVE PATHWAYS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS Duong Do Park reservoir Draw water from K45 irrigation canal Reservoir to cover maintenance periods Lang The canal: the Green-blue Lung The adaptive pathways below illustrate whether new infrastructure investments can utilize previous infrastructure investments. The adaptive pathway can also be used for ‘back-casting’ by selecting the preferred long term solution(s) and determining which of short term solutions are in line.

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