Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Water related issues in the Mekong Basin and Mekong Delta, Nguyen Tat Dac

509 views

Published on

This presentation is part of the ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School 2017 ‘Water Security for Sustainable Development in a Changing Climate’.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Water related issues in the Mekong Basin and Mekong Delta, Nguyen Tat Dac

  1. 1. WATER RELATED ISSUES IN THE MEKONG BASIN AND MEKONG DELTA By Prof. Nguyen Tat Dac Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH)
  2. 2. CONTENT 1. About me 2. Brief background of the Mekong Basin and Mekong Delta 3. Some Constraints on the development 4. Water related issues: + Hydro power dams + Water Utilisation (Flood, Salinity) + Climate change and MSL rise 5. Development Scenarios
  3. 3. ABOUT ME Full Name: Nguyen Tat Dac Working for HUTECH as Lecturer Expertise: + Flow water and water quality Modelling, Project Manager, + Three years (2000-2003) working for MRC as Head of Working Group 1 on Basin Modeling and Knoeledge Base, WUP ( funded by WB) 2009 -> Now: Member of State Council for Professor Title on Water Resources + Develop 1D computer program (DELTA) for flow and water quality in river network + Develop 1-2D computer model for simulation of flow and salinity in case of mean sea level rise of the MK Delta
  4. 4. Background Upper China, Myanmar Lower Mekong Basin Thailand Lao PDR Cambodia Viet Nam > 60 million people
  5. 5. Background (Continued) Upper Basin: (China-Myanmar) + flow contribution: 18% + significant hydro-power potential Lower Basin: 1)- Thailand (middle): flow contribution 18% + Hydropower and reservoirs + significant irrigation development + land use changes/ forestry (impact on water quality)
  6. 6. Background (Continued) Lower Basin (continued): 2)- Laos (middle): flow contribution 35% + Hydropower and reservoir potential + land use changes/ forestry (impact on water quality) 3) Cambodia : flow contribution 18% + Operation of Great Lake, flood plain innudation + possible hydropower developments + increase of irrigation + fish migration
  7. 7. WATER RELATED ISSUES FOR BASIN DEVELOPMENTS
  8. 8. Background (Continued) Lower Basin (continued): 4)- Vietnam Delta: flow contribution 11% & 5% of the basin area. + a dense canal and embankment system + dry season irrigation: salinity intrusion + flood season: long and deep inundation + affected by tide and upstream changes Strongly impact by climate change and Mean Sea Level rise
  9. 9. Factors govern the VN Delta development
  10. 10. Dense canal and embankment system
  11. 11. CONSTRAINTS THE MK DELTA DEVELOPMENTCONSTRAINTS THE MK DELTA DEVELOPMENT  Flooding over an area of aboutFlooding over an area of about 11..4-14-1..99 million ha in the uppermillion ha in the upper area of the Deltaarea of the Delta  Salinity intrusion over an area of aboutSalinity intrusion over an area of about 11..2-12-1..66 million ha in themillion ha in the coastal areas with saline density of overcoastal areas with saline density of over 4g/l4g/l  Acid sulfate soils and the spread of acid water over an area ofAcid sulfate soils and the spread of acid water over an area of aboutabout 11..00 millionmillion haha in the lowland areasin the lowland areas  Shortage of fresh water for production and domestic usesShortage of fresh water for production and domestic uses over an area of aboutover an area of about 22..11 million ha in areasmillion ha in areas far from rivers,far from rivers, and close to the coastlineand close to the coastline  Impacts of global climate change to the flow regime in theImpacts of global climate change to the flow regime in the upstream areas, rainfall, and weather in the Mekong Delta andupstream areas, rainfall, and weather in the Mekong Delta and threat from sea level rise from the seathreat from sea level rise from the sea..  Lack of food security and low incomes for farmers, lack ofLack of food security and low incomes for farmers, lack of education of farmers, rapidly increasing populationeducation of farmers, rapidly increasing population
  12. 12. CONSTRAINTS FOR THE MK DELTA DEVELOPMENTCONSTRAINTS FOR THE MK DELTA DEVELOPMENT  Surface water pollution caused by agro-chemicals,Surface water pollution caused by agro-chemicals, industrialization waste discharge, ships navigationindustrialization waste discharge, ships navigation  Drastic changes in land use: Saline-water mangrove forests toDrastic changes in land use: Saline-water mangrove forests to fresh-water paddy fields, from fresh-water paddy fields tofresh-water paddy fields, from fresh-water paddy fields to brackish-water shrimp ponds (market control)brackish-water shrimp ponds (market control)  Destruction of fertile land: Fertile land is converted toDestruction of fertile land: Fertile land is converted to industrial zones, golf coursesindustrial zones, golf courses  Disappearance of biodiversity : traditional ones, “floatingDisappearance of biodiversity : traditional ones, “floating paddy” (“lúa nổi”), mangrove variety (“xoài cát”) givespaddy” (“lúa nổi”), mangrove variety (“xoài cát”) gives excellent taste crossed with a high-yield variety but worseexcellent taste crossed with a high-yield variety but worse tastetaste  Flood and climate risk-related interventions: Creation ofFlood and climate risk-related interventions: Creation of several canals, dike and embankment, large sluice gatesseveral canals, dike and embankment, large sluice gates change flow pattern in main stream and overland flow,change flow pattern in main stream and overland flow, increase water level.increase water level.
  13. 13. Dense canal and embankment system,…
  14. 14. Tides & impacts: Dry season: Impact the whole MD. 80% by the East Sea; 20% by the West Sea. Flood season: Impact >54% of MD. Tide from the East Sea: Semi-diurnal tidal. Big amplitude (2.5-4.0 m). Tide from the West Sea: Mixed and liked-duirnal tidal. Small amplitude (0.8-1.2 m). H
  15. 15. Flood and Salinity Intrusion
  16. 16. Hydro-powers on the MeKong mainstream and in tributaries
  17. 17. The potential for hydropower development in the Mekong basin  The total potential hydropower in the four Lower Mekong Basin countries is approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW). Of this, 13,000 MW are on the Mekong’s mainstream,  and the remaining potential is in the tributaries 13,000 MW on tributaries in Lao PDR,  2,200 MW on tributaries in Cambodia and 2,000 MW on tributaries in Viet Nam.  only 5 percent (some 1,600 MW) of the Lower Mekong’s hydro potential have been developed, and all projects are on the tributaries.  There is considerable hydro potential in the Upper Mekong Basin. In Yunnan Province of the People’s Republic of China, total hydro potential is an estimated 23,000 MW, and two projects, totalling 2,850 MW, have already begun
  18. 18. Hydropowers on the main MeKong river and in tributaries
  19. 19. HydroPower
  20. 20. HCM City Mar 2017 !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. !. Jia Ba Tuo Ba Manwan Xiaowan Mengsong Ganlanba Jinghong Nuozhadu Tiemenkan Hyang Deng Dachaoshan Gongguaqiao Si Chia Gang Wu Long Long Liu Teng Jian CHINA VIET NAM MYANMAR INDIA China Dams China Dams
  21. 21. Hydropower dam : Lower Sesan 2 Capacity : 400MW;Height: about 40m (from river bed) Length: 8km; Reservoir size: 33,500ha Estimated cost: 816 million USD; start building: 2014
  22. 22. POSITVE IMPACT OF HYDROPOWERS Harnessing of a renewable natural resource  Reducing of the negative impacts that power generation has on the global environment (for example, reducing the use of fossil fuels will lessen air and water pollution)  Increasing the river’s flow in the dry season, and reducing peak flow during the flood season  Increasing the availability of electrical power will stimulate economic development and Improve people’s living standards Revenues will be earned from the sale of power
  23. 23. NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF HYDROPOWER Adverse impacts on the ecosystem (aquatic life, animals, birds, vegetation) Blocking of the flow of sediment  Negative impacts due to changing a river’s flow pattern Negative social impacts (resettlement, loss of livelihood) Loss of scenic landscapes (tourism potential) Negative impacts on water quality due to storage of water (eutrophication, lower temperatures for discharged water) Negative impacts on other users of water (navigation, fisheries) Problems during the construction period (noise, vibration, dust, traffic problems)
  24. 24. FLOWFLOW Some cumulativeSome cumulative downstreamdownstream impacts of regulationimpacts of regulation 1) Dry season flows are1) Dry season flows are modified to a farmodified to a far greater extent than wetgreater extent than wet 2) The impacts on the2) The impacts on the dry season hydrologydry season hydrology are significant rightare significant right down the mainstreamdown the mainstream 3) Impacts on the flood3) Impacts on the flood season hydrology areseason hydrology are significant until thesignificant until the large tributaries enterlarge tributaries enter downstream of Vientianedownstream of Vientiane
  25. 25. WATER UTILISATION
  26. 26. !(!( !( !( !(!(!( !( !(!( !(!( !(!(!( !( !( !( !( !( !( !(!(!(!( !(!( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !(!(!( !(!(!( !(!( !( !( !( !(!(!(!( !( !( !( !(!( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !(!( !(!( !( !( !(!(!( !( !(!( !(!( !(!(!( !( !( !( !( !( !( !(!(!(!( !(!( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !( !(!(!( !(!(!( !(!( !( !( !( !(!(!( !( !( !( !(!(!(!( !( !( !( !(!( !( !(!( !( !( !( !( !( Irrigation MapIrrigation Map
  27. 27. HCM City Mar 2017 Legend WATERDMAVG 0 - 4 5 - 14 15 - 22 23 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 42 43 - 48 49 - 55 56 - 64 65 - 71 72 - 78 79 - 83 84 - 101 102 - 114 115 - 121 122 - 138 139 - 148 149 - 159 160 - 173 174 - 188 189 - 207 208 - 232 233 - 253 254 - 284 285 - 306 307 - 372 373 - 441 442 - 539 540 - 649 650 - 787 Water UsageWater Usage MapsMaps
  28. 28. ISAAN High Land (North East Thailand)
  29. 29. KOK-CHIMUN PROJECT
  30. 30. KOK-ING NAN PROJEC
  31. 31. AGRICULTURAL MAP OF THE VN DELTA
  32. 32. HCM City Mar 2017 FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS
  33. 33. Flood characteristics in the upper part of Kratie From June to November Highest: August -September Mountainous, high-land fast downstream Most from middle basin Kratie
  34. 34. Flood characteristics in the upper part of Kratie (continued) Ch.Saen Vientiane Muk. Pakse Kratie June 2490 3576 7136 8906 11031 Jul 4710 7100 14299 16981 22968 Aug 6800 12330 22118 27231 36587 Sep 5630 11297 21493 27551 38671 Oct 3840 6955 12412 16790 23931 Nov 2560 4025 6228 8330 11685 Discharge during flood season
  35. 35. Flood characteristics in the upper part of Kratie (continued) Probability of flood peak occurrence Chiang Saen Pakse Kratie Jul 4 0 0 Aug 76 51 38 Sep 20 49 61 Oct 0 0 1 Nov 0 0 0
  36. 36. Flood characteristics at Kratie Mainly from middle part Many peaks Peak usually in September Highest discharges (m3/s): + 1937: 64400 + 1939: 66700 + 1961: 62400 + 1991: 60800 + 1996: 64600 + 2000: 64000 Kratie
  37. 37. #Y #Y#Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y % % % % % % % % Snuol Takeo Kampot My Tho Pursat Kratie Takhmau Ha Tien Can Tho Dac Min Rach Gia Tra Vinh Cao Lanh Chau Doc Sisophon Ban Long Vinh Long Soc Trang Siem Reap Prey Veng Krong Kaeb Kien Luong Long Xuyen attambang PHNOM PENH Svay Rieng Senmonorom Stung Treng Kampong Thom Kampong Speu Kampong ChamMoung Roessei Buon Ma Thuot Sihanoukville Tbeng Meanchey Kampong Chhnang Ho Chi Minh City Legend Kb0_mfld_00 VALUE No flood 0 - 0.5m 0.5 - 1.0m 1.0 - 1.5m 1.5 - 2.0m 2.0 - 2.5m 2.5 - 3.0m 3.0 - 3.5m 3.5 - 4.0m 4.0 - 5.0m 5.0 - 6.0m 6.0 - 7.0m 7.0 - 8.0m >8.0m 0 30 60 90 12015 Kilometers µ Annual FloodAnnual Flood
  38. 38. Flood from Kratie to Vietnam-Cambodia border Flood plains expanded in both sides of the MK river  Regulation of the Great Lake (%) Flood season June July Aug Sep To G.Lake 10.1 16.2 19.0 12.1 Down. 89.9 83.8 81.0 87.9 Dry Season Oct Nov Dec Jan From G.Lake 16.0 42.7 53.2 53.8 From Kratie 84.0 57.3 46.8 46.2
  39. 39. Duration and Depth of flooding in Cambodia and the Viet Nam Delta, 2000
  40. 40. A dense man-made canals Embankment & road system Moderate but long duration Entire North part flooded Flooding caused by overland flow from border (~80% in the main stream) Tide influence Characteristics of Flood in the VN Delta
  41. 41. In the main stream: 35,405 m3/s & 351.0 billion m3 On the right side: 2,541 m3/s & 14.3 billion m3 On the left side: 13,873 m3/s & 89.0 billion m3 Flow distribution of the flood 2000 to the VN MeKong Delta
  42. 42. Flood 2011 in the VN Delta
  43. 43. FLOODING IN THE VN MEKONG DELTA Photo: Duy Thue, 1996 Photo: Ngoc Anh, 2000 Photo: Ngoc Anh, 2000 Photo: Quang Tri, 2001
  44. 44. Wedding ceremony under innundation
  45. 45. Wedding party with innundation
  46. 46. SALINITY INTRUSION
  47. 47. #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y % % Takeo Kampot Ca Mau My Tho Ha Tien Can Tho Rach Gia Bac Lieu Tra Vinh Cao Lanh Chau Doc Vinh Long Soc Trang Kien Luong Long Xuyen Svay Rieng Ho Chi Minh City 0 30 60 90 12015 Kilometers µLegend Kb0_msal_98 VALUE Khong man 0 - 1g/L 1 - 2g/L 2 - 3g/L 3 - 4g/L 4 - 6g/L 6 - 10g/L 10 - 15v 15 - 30g/L 30 - 40g/L Salinity Intrusion inSalinity Intrusion in the MK Deltathe MK Delta
  48. 48. Anti- Salinity Sluice gates after 2005
  49. 49. Salinity isoline In 2009 in the MK Delta
  50. 50. 11 anti-salinity sluicegates (by JICA)
  51. 51. Salinity maps by MK Delta Study (DHI-2014)
  52. 52. Salinity in the dry season of 2016
  53. 53. Daily Flow at Stung Streng and Kratie
  54. 54. Changes of WL at Chiang Saen in the dry season of 2016
  55. 55. WATER ISSUES RELATED TO TOPOGRAPHY, HYDOMETEOROLOGY CONDITIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS OF THE MEKONG BASIN
  56. 56. 59 Factors Impacted on Flood Upstream Reservoirs make Reduction of flood down to the Delta (normal Operation) and Increasing (full reservoirs, big flood). Construction of Dam at Tonle Sap may change flow (in-out) to the Reservoir  Increase flood water level Change of river bottom (erosion, deposition)  Change flow regime Embankement, Road, : CPC: Increasing flow in the main stream VN: Increase local water level, …..
  57. 57. HCM City Mar 2017 QL 91 QL 30 QL 54 Gates at river mouths Sea dykes Sea dykes Sea dyke GC- VT River dykes HTTL Nam HTTL QL-PH Topo-changes Sluice gates along MK, Bassac and Cam-VN border
  58. 58. Flood control in the Long Xuyen Qudrangle Vaøm Raêng 32,5m; -4 Coáng Soá 8; 7,5m,
  59. 59. Flood Control for the Plain of Reeds
  60. 60. New Roads, Emban- kement system Roads Roads
  61. 61. CLIMATE CHANGE & MEAN SEA LEVEL RISE
  62. 62. MEAN SEA LEVEL RISE Rate of global MSL rise (IPCC 2013 Climate Change 2013:) 1901-2010 : 19cm- with average rate 1,7mm/year 1993-2010 : 3,2 mm/year MSLR based on some scenaios: By the end of 2100 (compared to1986-2005)  RCP4.5 tăng từ 36 ÷ 71cm (minimum)  RCP8.5 tăng từ 52 ÷ 98cm (maximum)
  63. 63. CLIMATE CHANGE (CC) IN VN
  64. 64. Sea level has risen about 20 cm over the last 50 years Sea level rise in Vietnam -30.0 -20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 DH(cm) Thời gian (năm) DHmax DHmean DHmin Linear (DHmax) Linear (DHmean) Linear (DHmin) Source: Sea Level data at Hon Dau Station
  65. 65. Some Evidence on MSLR along coastal areas of VN Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Bãi Cháy -20.0 -15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Hòn Dáu -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Cồn Cỏ -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Cửa Việt -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Sơn Trà -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Quy Nhơn -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Phú QUýháy -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Phú Quốc -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Rạch Giá -20.0 -15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm) Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Vũng Tàu -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Mựcnước(cm)
  66. 66. 70 Water level rise  Source: SIWRR (Khang ND, 2016) Increasing of water levelceI Station Period Increasing WL (mm/year) Vũng Tàu 1980-2015 4.85 Gành Hào 1996-2015 16.6 2000-2015 19.6 Sông Đốc 1996-2015 13.3 2000-2015 11 Rạch Giá 1996-2015 2.9 2000-2015 5.3
  67. 67. Zonning for simulation of MSLR along VN coast area (MONRE 2016)
  68. 68. Existing and 2050 Inundation              > 4.54.5 Thang ñoängaäp (m) 2.0 2.51 .5 3.0 3.5 4.01 .00.0 0.2 0.5 BIEÅN ÑOÂNG BIEÅNTAÂY  Cµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ Mau B¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª u Sãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ng R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸ CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬ Trµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ Vinh BÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn Tre Mü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü Tho VÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh Long Cao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nh T©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n An VÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanh              > 4.54.5 Thang ñoängaäp (m) 2.0 2.51 .5 3.0 3.5 4.01 .00.0 0.2 0.5 BIEÅN ÑOÂNG BIEÅNTAÂY  Cµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ MauCµ Mau B¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª uB¹ c Liª u Sãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ngSãc Tr¨ ng R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸R¹ ch GI¸ CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬CÇn Th¬ Trµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ VinhTrµ Vinh BÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn TreBÕn Tre Mü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü ThoMü Tho VÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh LongVÜnh Long Cao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nhCao L· nh T©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n AnT©n An VÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanhVÞThanh
  69. 69. Flood (Aug and Oct 2000) with WL rise 30cm
  70. 70. Innundation area of some locations in the MK Delta corresponding to MSLR
  71. 71. 1-2D coupling Model for simulation of MSL Rise Impacts to the MK Delta
  72. 72. Salinity in Jan&Feb 2050 at 8 river mouths of the MK Delta (Normal and MSL rise) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Vàm Kênh Bình Đại AnThuận BếnTrại MỹThanh GànhHào Ông Đốc Biện Nhị RạchGiá River mouths MaxSalinity(g/L) T150 T150BT T2-50BT T2_50NBD
  73. 73. Salinity at 8 river mouths in Mar & Apr 2050 of the MK Delta (Normal and MSL rise) 10 15 20 25 30 35 VàmKênh Bình Đại An Thuận Bến Trại Mỹ Thanh Gành Hào Ông Đốc Biện Nhị Rạch Giá River mouths Salinitymax(g/L) T3_50BT T3_50NBD T4_50BT T4_50NBD
  74. 74. Salinity at 8 river mouths in May & June 2050 of the MK Delta (Normal and MSL rise) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 VàmKênh BìnhĐại AnThuận BếnTrại Mỹ Thanh GànhHào ÔngĐốc BiệnNhị RạchGiá River mouths Salinitymax(g/L) T5_50BT T5_50_NBD T6_50BT T6_50NBD
  75. 75. Max Salinity along the Vaico river in March and April 2050 (Normal and MSL rise) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Ngã ba VàmCỏ Soài Rạp Salinity T3-50BT T3-50NBD T4-50BT T4-50NBD
  76. 76. DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS
  77. 77. Scenarios for developmentScenarios for development 1.1. Baseline conditionsBaseline conditions 2.2. Impact of climate changeImpact of climate change 3.3. Impact of catchment cover changeImpact of catchment cover change 4.4. Impact of high irrigation demand growthImpact of high irrigation demand growth 5.5. Impact of dams/reservoirsImpact of dams/reservoirs 6.6. Impact of flood control structuresImpact of flood control structures 7.7. Impact of salinity control structuresImpact of salinity control structures 8.8. Impact of navigation improvementImpact of navigation improvement 9.9. Impacts of various development orImpacts of various development or conservation strategiesconservation strategies 10.10. etc …etc …
  78. 78. Development Scenarios for the VN MK Delta ( by MDP- Holland 2014-2015)
  79. 79. Flood diversion for Hau and Tien Rivers
  80. 80. Jica Project with 18 anti-Salinity gates for 2013-2020
  81. 81. Salinity simulated for coastal area (Jica Project)
  82. 82. Salinity simulated for coastal area (Jica Project)
  83. 83. Scenarios for developmentScenarios for development 1.1. Baseline conditionsBaseline conditions 2.2. Impact of climate changeImpact of climate change 3.3. Impact of catchment cover changeImpact of catchment cover change 4.4. Impact of high irrigation demand growthImpact of high irrigation demand growth 5.5. Impact of dams/reservoirsImpact of dams/reservoirs 6.6. Impact of flood control structuresImpact of flood control structures 7.7. Impact of salinity control structuresImpact of salinity control structures 8.8. Impact of navigation improvementImpact of navigation improvement 9.9. Impacts of various development orImpacts of various development or conservation strategiesconservation strategies 10.10. etc …etc …
  84. 84. WATER RELATED ISSUES FOR BASIN DEVELOPMENTS (China, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia)
  85. 85. SCENARIOS  Looking into 3 assumptions of changes:Looking into 3 assumptions of changes:  Climatic conditions:Climatic conditions:  System demand:System demand:  Change of water demand in and off-streamChange of water demand in and off-stream  Interventions:Interventions:  Change of irrigated areaChange of irrigated area  Change of forest coverageChange of forest coverage  New dams/reservoirs in the areaNew dams/reservoirs in the area  Embankment structure for flood controlEmbankment structure for flood control  Salinity control structuresSalinity control structures  New strategy on rice productionNew strategy on rice production  New strategy for fisheries developmentNew strategy for fisheries development  New strategy for energy productionNew strategy for energy production  Revised strategies on environment protectionRevised strategies on environment protection
  86. 86. Thank you all for your kind attention !

×