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Greening water resource use: A perspective from the Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy, Pham Khanh Nam

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This presentation is part of the ProSPER.Net Young Researchers' School 2017 ‘Water Security for Sustainable Development in a Changing Climate’.

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Greening water resource use: A perspective from the Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy, Pham Khanh Nam

  1. 1. Greening water resource use: a perspective from the Vietnam National Green Growth strategy Pham Khanh Nam Economy and Environment Partnership for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) khanhnam@ueh.edu.vn
  2. 2. 2. A case study on water supply for domestic use in the Mekong river delta Green Economy Green Growth Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy Greening water resource use1. • Viewpoints • Framework • Backgrounds • Contexts • Research ideas
  3. 3. “Green Economy”: low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive (UNEP, 2011) Green Economy Low carbon Resource efficient Socially inclusive Green Growth Strategy Investing in natural capital: Agriculture Fisheries Forests Water Investing in energy and resource efficiency Renewable energy Manufacturing Waste Buildings Transport Tourism Cities Brown Economy
  4. 4. Global Green Growth Institute’s framework Provide clean water and sanitation (SDG6) Invest in water and ecosystem Build hydropower plant Reduce water pollution Use water more efficiently Negotiate transboundary water use Negotiate transboundary water use
  5. 5. Background on water resource in Vietnam
  6. 6. Background on water resource in Vietnam
  7. 7. Main challenges and risks related to water resources management in Vietnam • Impacts of climate change: sea level rise  saline intrusion • Over exploitation of water and related resources • Population increase • Increased living standards • Water pollution • Ecosystem degradation • Trans-boundary complexity • Water sector governance
  8. 8. Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy • Signed in September 2012 by the Prime Minister, decision No.1393 “the National Green Growth Strategy for the period 2011-2020 with a vision to 2050” • Three parts: 1) Viewpoints and objectives of the strategy, 2) Strategic Tasks, and 3) Solutions. Overall Objective: “Green growth, as a means to achieve a low carbon economy and to enrich natural capital, will become the principal direction in sustainable economic development; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and increased capability to absorb greenhouse gas are gradually becoming compulsory and important indicators in socio-economic development.” Comments?  Climate change mitigation policy?  Is it easy to implement?
  9. 9. Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy: Strategic tasks 1. Reduce the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and promote the use of clean and renewable energy according to the following essential targets • 2011-2020: reduce GHG 8-10% compared to the 2010 level • Towards 2030: reduce GHG 1.5-2% annually; 20-30% reduction for energy sector • Towards 2050: reduce GHG 1.5-2% annually 2. Greening production • Towards 2020: • Green technology 42-45% of GDP; • Development investment for natural capital 3-4% of GDP 3. Greening lifestyle and promoting sustainable consumption • Towards 2020: • 60% of wastewater collection and treatment systems meets standard • 35-45% public transportation • 50% of cities get green urban standards Comments?
  10. 10. • 17 Solutions (10 pages of 20 pages) • Solution No.7: Economic and efficient utilization of natural resources • “Establish and complete the legal framework and policies to enforce and effectively implement the Law on water resources…to strengthen the use of economic and administrative instruments based on the “polluters pays” principle.” • Solution No.8: Restoration and development of natural capital • “Apply an integrated management approach and improve management bodies of river basins and ecological systems.” • Solution No.9: Development of key sustainable infrastructure including: transportation, energy, irrigation and urban works • “Irrigation and water infrastructure: • Upgrading the dike system … meeting the demand for responding to climate change, sea level rise and flood control. • Enhance investment in irrigation systems • Increase investment for adequate water supply for industrial and urban development” Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy: solutions related to water Comments?
  11. 11. Provide clean water and sanitation (SDG6) Invest in water and ecosystem Negotiate transboundary water use The economics of greening water resource use Build hydropower plant Cost – Benefit Analysis Multicriteria analysis Analysis of co-benefits Use water more efficiently Negotiate transboundary water use Collective action Mechanisms for cooperation Water pricing Policy Instrument for ground water Water demand Nudges Reduce water pollution Policy instruments Valuation of damage costs Nudges Collective action Mechanisms for cooperation Payment for Ecosystem Services Values of ecosystems Management of common-pools Demand for domestic water Health and welfare impacts Economic analysis of supply options
  12. 12. Co-benefits Climate benefits Socio- Economic Environment benefits Socio-economic system Climate policy Efficient use of resource Hydro power Plant Projects Objective: Electricity Objective: GHG emission reduction Example of analyzing the economics of hydropower plant: the concept of co-benefits
  13. 13. Policy Instruments for managing water resources Command and Control Market Civil society Standards National parks Market creation Tax/Subsidy Community: Collective action, cooperation Voluntary Regulations Example of economics of policy instruments
  14. 14. Transboundary water use: can countries negotiate? • Water for downstream? • Water in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam: Life, Rice, Aquaculture, Sea level rise • Game theory • Experiments: Public good games, Hawk- dove, Stag hunt games

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