HZGD#12 - The Way We See Water - 4 June 2012


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Hello Everyone,

Welcome to Hangzhou Green Drinks (HZGD)!

These are the PPT slides for HZGD#12 presentation event which was held at the Vineyard Cafe/Bar in Hangzhou on 4 June 2012.

The topic was: "The Way We See Water : The Water Scenario of Developing countries"

Thank you to Sanjala Hari, Gabriella D'cruz and Pooja Kulkarni for this presentation.

To watch the video of the presentation online, go to our HZGD page on the TuDou video sharing site: http://www.tudou.com/home/item_u113433256s0p1.html

There were some technical difficulties during the presentation, so you will have to skip some parts. The contrast settings on the video are also not perfect, but the sound is reasonably clear.

Thank you to Matthias Schönborn for recording the video.

Best wishes,

Tim and the HZGD Team (Aaron, Lara, Cady, Tim)
HZGD Website: http://www.greendrinks.org/Hangzhou

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HZGD#12 - The Way We See Water - 4 June 2012

  2. 2. The global view Total Water Total WaterTotal volume of water on earth is about 1 million km3. The volume of freshwater is only 2.5% of that total volume. Fresh WaterOut of the total volume of freshwater (2.5%) on earth, 98.8% is from ice and groundwater and 0.3% is of rivers and lakes. FreshwaterIn only forty years (1960-2000), global water use has doubled. Ice andGlobally we use 70% of our water Groundwa sources for agriculture and ter(98.8%) irrigation, and only 10% on domestic uses. Rivers and Lakes (0.3%)
  3. 3.  Global Freshwater reserves are rapidly depleting and this is expected to significantly impact many densely populated areas of the world. Low to middle income developing regions as well as highly developed countries will face water stress in the future, unless existing water reserves are managed effectively. By 2025, India, China and select countries in Europe and Africa will face water scarcity if adequate and sustainable water management initiatives are not implemented.
  4. 4. WASTE WATERFacts : 2.2 million deaths per year due to waste water consumption. In developing countries, as much of 80% of illnesses are linked to poor water and sanitation conditions.Reasons : Improper sewage disposal Improper disposal of industrial effluents Excessive pollution Open defecation Radioactive waste leakage Lack of waste treatment plants
  5. 5. PATNA’S REALITY •Patna mainly relies on river Ganga and underground water. •Less than 10% of the cities population is connnected to the sewage network. •And hence 90% of the cities let their wastes in open drains in same river. •This waste water percolates in the ground water which is taken by the government. to pump and supply it to the people. •Hence Patna drinks its own untreated sewage water.
  6. 6. MEXICO’S POLLUTION •815 l/s raw municipal waste untreated dumped into river •Hundreds of industries along the bank contribute to pollution •High levels of heavy metals like lead, mercury and arsenic are present •Respiratory disorders and cancers are caused in the areas nearby
  8. 8. YANGTZE RIVER POLLUTION •33.9 Billion tons of industrial waste poured into the river annually •70% of water expected to be polluted in 3-5 years •40% of waste water dumped into river •Main source of water for Shanghai
  10. 10. LIST OF THE MAIN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES India China Pakistan Egypt Mexico Nepal Congo Republic Sri Lanka Ethiopia Brazil
  11. 11. INDIALocation – South AsiaCapital – New DelhiArea - 3,287,263 km2 (7thlargest country in the world)Largest city - MumbaiPopulation - 210,193,422people.GDP - Total$4.457 trillionCurrency - Indian rupee(INR)
  12. 12. INDIA•Freshwater withdrawal : 761 km3/year•Surface water withdrawal : 510 km3/year•Groundwater withdrawal :251km3/year
  13. 13. Dams In India: Tehri Dam
  14. 14. TEHRI DAM Country – India Location – Uttarakhand Construction began - 1978 Opening date – 2006 Construction cost – US$ 1 billion Type of Dam – Embarkment, earth and rock fill Maximum capacity – 2,400 MW
  15. 15. TEHRI DAMADVANTAGES OF THE DAM : Irrigation for 6,70,000 acres 270 Gallons of drinking water to the capital of India, New Delhi 2,400 MW of maximum hydropower generation Clean source of energy Flexible Low power costs Suitable for industrial applications
  16. 16. TEHRI DAMDISADVANTAGES : Destroyed fragile ecosystem of the Himalayan foothills Dam is located on Seismic Gap Cultural significance More than 1,00,000 people had to be relocated Nearly 125 villages and the big, historic Tehri town was submerged due to the construction of the dam. Sunderlal Bahuguna – Is an activist who fought against the construction of the dam for 40 years.
  17. 17. TEHRI DAMTehri Town submergance for building the reservoir of the Tehri Dam.
  18. 18. CHINALocation : AsiaCapital : BeijingArea : 9,640,821 km2Largest City : ShanghaiPopulation : 1,339,724,852GDP : $11.299 trillion
  19. 19. CHINA•China has about 6 percent ofthe world’s freshwater and 9percent the world’s farmlands.•Per capita freshwateravailability was 2 079 m3•Average annual groundwater resource is828.8 km3
  20. 20. Major Dams in China : Three Gorges Dam china Three Gorges Dam
  21. 21. THREE GORGES DAM Country : China Location : Yangtze river by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District of Yichang,Hubei province Completed – 2006 Construction cost – US$26 billion, 180 billion Yuan Type of Dam – Gravity dam Maximum capacity – 21,000 MW
  22. 22. THREE GORGES DAMADVANTAGES : 21,000 MW installed capacity Increase in shipping capacity of Yangtze River Largest flood conservatory project Clean source of energy Flexible Low power costs Suitable for industrial application
  23. 23. THREE GORGES DAMDISADVANTAGES: Reduction in biodiversity Reduction in the percentage of forested area Harm to the marine life Cultural destruction Relocation of 1.3 million people Increase in Landslides Flooding possibilities
  24. 24. THREE GORGES DAM The condition of the river before and after theLandslides along the Yangtze dam was constructed
  25. 25. SOME OTHER DAMSAtaturk Dam,Turkey Tarbela Dam,Pakistan
  26. 26. SOLUTIONS Rain water harvesting WATER EFFICIENT CROPS Water pollution management Water management through centralized body Water privatization Help from Private sector NGO help Dolphin help
  27. 27. Rain Water Harvesting Oldest and Most cost efficient method of water conservationExample :Saurashtra, Gujarat India
  28. 28. Rain Water HarvestingSolution was Rain water harvesting - To Replenish ground water they began recharging their wells by channeling rain water into them. They began building tanks on the rooftops to store rain water They also began building check dams which resulted in the increase in the ground water level. The dams were funded by the government and the villagers. Underground tanks and soak pits were constructed. And hence, groundwater and the local river systems were replenished
  29. 29. Present day Saurashtra :
  30. 30. Water Efficient Crops•Crops must becultivated in areassuited to their waterdemand, availabilityand climaticconditions.•Soil type must betested before crop isgrown.•Crop grown shouldalso compliment thesoil as well as wateravailibility so that nostress is put on thewater resources of that Example : Punjab, Indiaarea.
  31. 31. Water Efficient Crops•Shift from moreintense crops like riceto less intense andwater consumingcrops•Like citrus fruits andcorn.•Thereforeconsumption ofwater is reduced.•Higher incomegeneration than rice.
  32. 32. Water Pollution Management
  33. 33. CLEAN UP OF WATER RESOURCES : CHINA 312 Million chinese villagers facing water shortage and contamination. Cost China 136 billion USD to clean up pollution in 2004 alone. Solution is to spend 1 trillion Yuan (125 billion USD) for water security and improving water conditions.
  34. 34. Water Pricing Positive effects of Pricing Policy: 1.Reduces demand for water. 2.Increases the supply of water. 3.Reallocation of water across different sectors. Negative effects of Pricing policy: 1.Less water for poor. 2.Urban cannot take sudden price hike. 3.Ailing industries cannot pay.
  35. 35. EGYPT: WATER PRICING Drinking water management authorities of each governorate are now part of one big enterprise centralized in Cairo: a Holding Company for water and purification. They are subject to the laws of private sector companies, do not receive any government subsidies, and must efficiently deliver their product, water, to a wide customer base. Water is currently sold at less than 23 piasters per cubic meter.
  36. 36. Help From Various NGO Interaction with local people and understanding their problems. Working from the basic level and making a change. Spreading education and awareness. Taking up small projects and working towards their goal. Acting like a bridge between the government and the local people for voicing issues related to water.
  37. 37. Dolphins In The River GangesThreatened by :• Entanglement in fishing gear•For Dolphin oil•Water development projects•Industrial wastes andpesticides•Munciple Sewage discharge•Noise from Vessel traffic•Overexploitation of prey The area covered by the River Ganges
  38. 38. WWF INITIATIVEPLAN OF ACTION FOR CONSERVATION OF DOLPHINS: Reduce the threat by fisheries by catch and habitat degradation. Encourage local communities to use natural fertilizers so as to prevent pollution of the river. To improve sewerage management To reforest the banks of the river To ban fishing and mining activities. To educate local people to conserve the dolphin species
  39. 39. THANK YOU