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Car free cities bmdc meeting 9th september 2016 haneen

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Background: Many cities across the world are beginning to shift their mobility solution away from the private cars and towards more environmentally friendly and citizen-focused means. Hamburg, Oslo, Helsinki, and Madrid have recently announced their plans to become (partly) private car free cities. Other cities like Paris, Milan, Chengdu, Masdar, Dublin, Brussels, Copenhagen, Bogota, and Hyderabad have measures that aim at reducing motorized traffic including implementing car free days, investing in cycling infrastructure and pedestrianization, restricting parking spaces and considerable increases in public transport provision. Such plans and measures are particularly implemented with the declared aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These reductions are also likely to benefit public health.

Published in: Environment
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Car free cities bmdc meeting 9th september 2016 haneen

  1. 1. CAR FREE CITIES AND PUBLIC HEALTH Haneen Khreis, Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, ISGlobabl-CREAL, Barcelona
  2. 2. THE CAR • The car is an important part of the transport system -- brought increased mobility, convenience, employment, technological advances and economic prosperity • To a large extent, the car defined the past century and is hard to imagine a world without cars
  3. 3. THE CAR
  4. 4. THE CAR
  5. 5. THE CAR
  6. 6. THE CAR
  7. 7. A NEW MOVE • Many cities are beginning to shift their mobility solutions away from the private car and towards more environmentally friendly and citizen- focused mobility
  8. 8. A NEW MOVE
  9. 9. A NEW MOVE
  10. 10. A NEW MOVE • Hamburg, Helsinki, Madrid and Oslo (2019) have recently announced their plans to become (partly) private car free cities • Other cities like Bogota, Brussels, Chengdu, Copenhagen, Dublin, Hyderabad, Masdar, Milan, New York and Paris have different measures that aim at reducing traffic including implementing • car free days • investing in cycling infrastructure and pedestrianization • restricting parking space • considerable increases in public transport provision
  11. 11. WHY? • Plans and measures are particularly implemented with the declared aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions • Reductions in road traffic is also likely to benefit public health, both in the short and long-term • We aimed to scope and review the expected health benefits
  12. 12. CAR FREE CITIES: PATHWAYS TO HEALTHY URBAN LIVING?
  13. 13. WHAT WE FOUND – AIR POLLUTION • Car traffic contributes to a considerable proportion of air pollution in cities • The extent varies depending on factors such as the car fleet make up, car density, layout • The range of the traffic contribution to urban PM concentrations in Europe is from 9-53% for PM10 and 9-66% for PM2.5 with an average of 39% and 43% at traffic sites and a higher range for NO2 of over 80%
  14. 14. WHAT WE FOUND – AIR POLLUTION AND NOISE • Paris nitrogen dioxide dropped by up to 40% in parts of the city on Sunday 27 September 2015, when cars were banned • When the Tour de France cycling event came to Leeds, on the day of the Grand Départ, when cars were banned from the centre of Leeds and cyclists took over, NO2 levels dropped by 20% • Brussels Environment (2015) found a greater than 10 dB reduction in noise levels on car free Sundays
  15. 15. AIR POLLUTION AND PREMATURE MORTALITY 7% increased risk for premature mortality per 5 ug/m3 PM2.5, Beelen et al 2014
  16. 16. NOISE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Relative risk of 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.13) per increase of the weighted day-night noise level LDN of 10 dB (A) 8% increased risk of cardiovascular disease for a 10 dB (a) increase in noise, Babisch 2014
  17. 17. WHAT WE FOUND – MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES
  18. 18. WHAT WE FOUND – MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES
  19. 19. WHAT WE FOUND – PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  20. 20. Woodcock et al 2010
  21. 21. WHAT WE FOUND – GREEN SPACE
  22. 22. WHAT WE FOUND – GREEN SPACE
  23. 23. WHAT WE FOUND – GREEN SPACE 4% reduction in cardiovascular mortality between highest and lowest green
  24. 24. SOME CONCERNS
  25. 25. SOME CONCERNS
  26. 26. SOME CONCERNS1154 659 599 376 116 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Physical activity (95% CI: 858,1577) Air pollution (95% CI: 386, 834) Noise (95% CI: 0, 1009) Heat (95% CI: 324,442) Green spaces (95% CI: 0, 236) Total number of premature deaths =2904 (1568, 4098), 20% of total deaths Life expectancy= 360 (219, 493) days, Total cost 9.3 (4.9, 13.2) billion euros
  27. 27. SOME CONCERNS
  28. 28. SOME CONCERNS • A concern for reducing car traffic in cities is the reduction in retail sales • Lawlor (2014) reviewed the effect of the reduction of cars on impact on existing business performance (footfall and retail); urban regeneration (new business, rental income, employment, social exclusion etc.); improved consumer and business perceptions, and business diversity • They found that case study evidence suggests that well-planned improvements to these public spaces can boost footfall and trading by up to 40%
  29. 29. SOME CONCERNS • In Barcelona for example average speeds for trips by • Car is 23.5 km/hr • Bike 14 km/hr • Bus / tram 11.2 km/hr • Metro / train 25 km/hr
  30. 30. CURRENT PARADIGM Economic Growth Travel Time Savings Cost Effectiveness Land-use Accessibility Noise Reductions Equality Providing for Cars Efficiency Safety Policy IntegrationConnectivity Economic Growth Travel Time Savings Cost Effectiveness Land-use Accessibility Carbon Reductions Noise Reductions Equality Providing for Cars Efficiency Safety Policy Integration Connectivity
  31. 31. BETTER PARADIGM Economic Growth Travel Time Savings Cost Effectiveness Land-use Accessibility Noise Reductions Equality Providing for Cars Efficiency Safety Policy IntegrationConnectivity Public Health Travel Time Savings Cost Effectiveness Land-use Accessibility Carbon Reductions Noise Reductions EqualityProviding for Cars Efficiency Safety Policy Integration Connectivity
  32. 32. URGENT NEED FOR SYSTEMIC APPROACHES
  33. 33. URGENT NEED FOR SYSTEMIC APPROACHES
  34. 34. URGENT NEED FOR SYSTMIC APPROACHES
  35. 35. • Car free cities can have considerable health benefits • Our cities are too car dominated • Transport planning and policy too much for the vehicle and too little for the public and active transport modes • Decades of planning and investments in car infrastructure attracted cars to cities --it will take decades to overturn this • Large infrastructures for cars are in place and are underway with relatively small parts of the budget allocated to and little work done for cyclists and pedestrians across most regions • There is an urgent need to rebalance and provide better, safer infrastructures and policy support for active/ public transport • New paradigms needed -- car free cities?

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