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  1. 1. Corrosion!Corrosion is the gradual destruction of material, usually metal>>this mean oxidation of metals with oxygen.Corrosion occurs in the presence of moisture. For example when iron is exposed to moist air, it reacts with oxygen to form rust (Fe2O3.XH2O).i.e., rust is hydrated iron (III) oxide
  2. 2. Corrosion is a natural process…..tends to the lowest possible energy states.e.g: Iron has a natural tendency to combine with other chemical elements( such as oxygen) to return to lower E states:
  3. 3. WET & DRY CORROSION Wet / aqueous corrosion is the major form of corrosion which occurs at or near room temperature and in the presence of water Dry / gaseous corrosion is significant mainly at high temperatures
  4. 4. The hot dip galvanizing process
  5. 5. The hot dip galvanizing process Loading-jigging The steel items need to be supported during the hot dip galvanizing process. Can the item be easily jigged? Will touch marks be a problem? Solutions and molten zinc must be able to flow into all sections and drain off all sections.Steel items must be designed to prevent air,solutions and molten zinc becoming trapped
  6. 6. The hot dip galvanizing process Degreasing A hot (90 C) caustic bath is used to remove oil,grease,paint another organic compounds If these contaminating materials are not removed,the next stage of the process(pickling) is affected Check if any paint is on item-some paints are not easily removed and may require abrasive blasting before galvanizing some pipes and pipe fittings have a black varnish coating that cannot be removed in the caustic bath.
  7. 7. The hot dip galvanizing process Acid pickling the steel items are immersed in hydrochloric acid to remove- rust , mill scale and other metal oxides The steel surface must be perfectly clean of these oxides for the molten zinc to react with the steel very heavy rust may not be easily removed by pickling badly rusted items should be abrasive blasted or mechanically cleaned first.
  8. 8. The hot dip galvanizing process Pre-fluxing steel items are water rinsed after pickling and immersed in hot (70-80 C)zinc ammonium chloride(ZAC)solution. The ZAC solution conditions the clean steel surface ready for hot dip galvanizing Good pre-treatment = good quality galvanizing
  9. 9. The hot dip galvanizing process Hot dip galvanizing The steel is immersed in molten zinc(temp 450 C) The clean steel surface reacts with the molten zinc to form a zinc-iron alloy which is very strongly bonded to the surface. The hot dip galvanized coating forms in 3-5 minutes , depending on the steel thickness.
  10. 10. The hot dip galvanizing processQuenching After hot dip galvanized steel item is removed from the galvanizing bath , it is immediately quenched in a sodium dichromate solution The dichromate quenching cools the item so that it can be quickly handled and conditions the surface of the galvanized coating to maintain its bright appearance.
  11. 11. The hot dip galvanizing process Characteristics Typically 65-150 microns thick (1mm=1000microns) Zinc iron alloy layers make up 80% -100% of the coating. The zinc-iron alloy layers are harder than 250 grade steel Micrograph of hot-dip galvanized coating
  12. 12. The hot dip galvanizing process Coating comparisons Compared to zinc electroplating(ZEP) and continuous galvanizing (CG),hot dip galvanizing (HDG) is better because…. -HDG is thicker and will last over 50 years or more without rusting -HDG is harder and is 5 times more abrasion resistant than ZEP and CG -HDG coats all external and internal surfaces and edges . All CG coatings have cut , exposed edges after processing.
  13. 13. Coating thickness of coating on galvanized products
  14. 14. Corrosion removalIt is possible chemically to remove the products of corrosion to give a clean surface. For example phosphoric acid. Phosphoric acid may be used as a "rust converter", by direct application to rusted iron, steel tools, or surfaces. The phosphoric acid converts reddish-brown iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3 (rust) to black ferric phosphate, FePO4.
  15. 15. Corrosion of metal can be prevented if the metal is coated with something which does not allow moisture and oxygen to react with it. Coating of metals with paint, oil, grease or varnish prevents the corrosion of metals. Coating of corrosive metals with non-corrosive metals also prevents corrosion. Some of the methods by which metals can be coated with non- corrosive metals are:
  16. 16. ElectroplatingElectroplating is a plating process in which metal ionsin a solution are moved by an electric field to coat anelectrode.The process used in electroplating is calledelectrodeposition. It is analogous to a galvaniccell acting in reverse. The part to be plated isthe cathode of the circuit.
  17. 17. Electroplating Electroplating: In this method of a metal is covered with another metal using electrolysis. Silver-plated spoons, gold-plated jewelry, etc, are electroplated.Silver electroplating cell>>> The anode is a silver bar and the cathode is an iron spoon>>>
  18. 18. .
  19. 19. Polymer,heal thyself  A new polymer-based system that can heal it self when it becomes damaged….the material relies on network of vessels- similar to blood capillaries>>that carry a healing agent to areas that damaged.
  20. 20. Polymer,heal thyself The healing agent –monomeric dicyclopentadiene….fill into 200 micrometer channels.the catalys:Benzyldienebis(tricyclohexylphosphine)dichlo rorutheniumincorporated into the outer coating.
  21. 21. When a damage occurs at the coating, healing agent wicks from the microchannels into the crack(s) throughcapillary action>>>then the healing agentinteracts with the catalyst particles in the coating to initiate polymerization , rebonding the crack faces autonomically
  22. 22. The reaction between monomer and catalyst to produce solid compound After a sufficient time period the cracks are healed and the structural integrity of the coating restored.
  23. 23. The catalyst lowersthe energy barrierof the reaction andallows themonomer topolymerize withoutthe addition of heat.
  24. 24. There are many challenges in designing this type of material:1) the reactivity of the catalyst must be maintained even afterit is enclosed in wax2) the monomer must flow at a sufficient rate (have lowenough viscosity) to cover the entire crack before it ispolymerized3) the catalyst must quickly dissolve into monomer in orderto react efficiently and prevent the crack from spreadingfurther.
  25. 25. Some areas affected by corrosion
  26. 26. General Corrosion Examples
  27. 27. Collapse of Berlin Congress Hall in 1980