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Le francais du quebec

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Le francais du quebec

  1. 1. PLAN • • • • • • Introduction Historique Prononciation Lexique Expressions Le français du Québec en danger?
  2. 2. Ontario (CANADA) Manitoba (CANADA) New Hampshire (ETATSUNIS) Vermont (ETATSUNIS)
  3. 3. plus que 6 817 655 locuteurs pratiquant cette langue
  4. 4. ! dialecte patois
  5. 5. UN PEU D’HISTOIRE? XVII e siècle  langue commune  le «françois » Québécois parlaient : le patois  à la maison le français  au travail et dans les rapports sociaux. Conquête de la Nouvelle-France par les Anglais en 1759  Isolement du Québec et le français québécois a commencé à s'angliciser. Révolution française en 1789  En France: le français de la cour du roi a été remplacé par le français de la bourgeoisie. Au Québec le français du roi continue d'évoluer présence de nombreux mots anciens dans le français québécois d'aujourd'hui.
  6. 6. LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES DU FRANÇAIS QUÉBÉCOIS I) PRONONCIATION: a) Langue soutenue: Québécois : 250 à la minute Français: plus de 300 à la minute Québécois ne parle pas «pointu» comme le Français Caractéristiques phonologiques du parler québécois.
  7. 7. • Si le «t» et le «d» sont suivis d'un «i» ou d'un «u». 1 2 3 • Affrication. • Un son «s» ou «z» s'intercale entre la consonne et la voyelle. Ex: «petit» [pətsi] «dur» [dzyʀ]
  8. 8. En position finale, la voyelle est fermée. Lorsqu'elle est suivie d'une consonne qui se prononce, elle s'ouvre. Ex: tout et toute vit et vite [tu] [tʊt] [vi] [vɪt] N.B. C'est un phénomène qu'on rencontre également en Belgique!
  9. 9. b) Langue populaire: Compréhension difficile ! «Je suis allé» «Sur la table» «Il mange» «elle mange» [ʃtale] [sɥa tab] [imãʒ] [amãʒ]
  10. 10. Pour poser une question, on ajoute un «tu» après le verbe. Ex: Est-ce que tu peux? «Tu peux-tu?»
  11. 11. Comme dans le «français du roi», «moi» se prononce [mwe]. Comme dans le «français du roi», «-oir» en fin de mot est souvent prononcé [wɛʀ] : [avwɛʀ] (avoir), [a swɛʀ] (ce soir). «moi» [mwe] Un «t» d'autrefois persiste dans les expressions «il fait [fʀɛt]» (il fait froid), «mon [lɪt]» (mon lit), «viens [isɪt]» (viens ici). En fin de mot ou de phrase, le son [ɑ] est prononcé [ɔ]: le [kanadɔ], «c'est par [lɔ].
  12. 12. Un «t» d'autrefois persiste dans les expressions. Ex: il fait froid «il fait [fʀɛt]» mon lit «mon [lɪt]» viens ici «viens [isɪt]»
  13. 13. II. LEXIQUE: a) Archaïsme :(un emploi lexical ou grammatical passé de mode, qui n’est plus d’usage depuis fort longtemps.) Des mots anciens, souvent empruntés à la langue des marins. Ex: Embarquer dans un char (ancien véhicule rural tiré par des animaux) monter dans une voiture.
  14. 14. b) Anglicisme: (un emprunt fait à la langue anglaise par une autre langue.) Le français du Québec a emprunté de nombreux mots de l’anglais. Ex: arachide, cacahuète garçon de café [pinɔt] (de peanut) [wetœʀ] (waiter)
  15. 15. c) Néologisme: (un mot nouveau.) Les Québécois se défendent contre l'envahissement de l'anglais Ex: «logiciel» «courriel» « Clavardage » «Magasiner » «software» ou « program » le courrier électronique (mail) « Chatting » « shopping » néologismes
  16. 16. III. EXPRESSIONS: «Pantoute!» «pas du tout!» Un «bec» un baiser Mon «chum» mon ami ou mon amoureux Une «liqueur» «Faire la baboune» «I mouille» une boisson gazeuse bouder il pleut
  17. 17. IV. LE FRANCAIS QUEBECOIS EN DANGER! L'anglais menace la langue française au Québec. La Charte de la langue française (communément appelée la loi 101) est une loi définissant les droits linguistiques de tous les citoyens du Québec et faisant du français la langue officielle de la province québécoise. Manifestation : Le français en danger au Québec - au Parc Jeanne-Mance, 08-06-2008.
  18. 18. NE PENSEZ VOUS PAS QUE L’INTODUCTION DES NEOLIGISMES ET DES ANGLICISMES POURRAIT MENER A LA FORMATION D’UNE LANGUE EN PERPETUEL CHANGEMENT ET DONC INCOTROLABLE ?

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