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5 -  Transfer of Training 5 Chapter
Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Diagnose and solve a transfer of training problem. <...
Objectives  (continued) <ul><li>Develop a self-management module for a training program. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the tec...
Introduction <ul><li>Patagonia’s culture supports the company’s business objectives and strategy by creating conditions un...
Introduction  (continued) <ul><li>Employees and their managers value training, support attendance at training programs, an...
Transfer of Training <ul><li>Transfer of training  refers to trainees effectively and continually applying what they learn...
A Model Of The Transfer Process 5 -  Trainee Characteristics Training Design Work Environment Motivation Ability Create a ...
Training Design <ul><li>Training design  refers to factors built into the training program to increase the chances that tr...
Transfer of Training Theories 5 -  Theory Emphasis Appropriate Conditions Type of Transfer Identical elements Training env...
Self-Management Strategies <ul><li>Self-management  refers to a person’s attempt to control certain aspects of decision ma...
Self-Management Involves: <ul><li>Determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for usin...
Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: <ul><li>Work Conditions   (Trainee has difficulty usi...
Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training:  (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Peer Support   (Peers do...
Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training:  (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Management Support   (Ma...
Sample Content of Self-Management Module: <ul><li>Discuss lapses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note evidence of inadequacy </li></...
Sample Content of Self-Management Module:  (continued) <ul><li>Discuss coping skills and strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Work Environment Characteristics Influencing Transfer of Training: 5 -  Climate for Transfer Manager Support Peer Support ...
Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training:  <ul><li>Supervisors and co-workers encourage and set goal...
Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training:  (continued) <ul><li>Lack of punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Levels of Management Support for Training: 5 -  Level Description Teaching in Program Practice Skills Reinforcement Partic...
Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer of Training: <ul><li>The Learning Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Knowl...
The Learning Organization <ul><li>A  learning organization  is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, an...
5 -  Key Features of a Learning Organization Continuous Learning Knowledge Generation and Sharing Critical Systematic Thin...
Knowledge and Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge  refers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what individuals or teams of employ...
Knowledge and Knowledge Management  (continued) <ul><li>Knowledge management  refers to the process of enhancing company p...
Knowledge and Knowledge Management  (continued) <ul><li>Knowledge management can help companies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get...
Examples of Knowledge Management <ul><li>Ernst & Young  has information on employees’ skills and competencies to help asse...
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Chap05

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Chap05

  1. 1. 5 - Transfer of Training 5 Chapter
  2. 2. Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Diagnose and solve a transfer of training problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a work environment that will facilitate transfer of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain to a manager how he can ensure that transfer of training occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the implications of identical elements, stimulus generalization, and cognitive theories for transfer of training. </li></ul>5 -
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Develop a self-management module for a training program. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the technologies that can be used to support transfer of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the key features of the learning organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide recommendations of how to manage knowledge. </li></ul>5 -
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Patagonia’s culture supports the company’s business objectives and strategy by creating conditions under which innovative and creative clothing design can occur and contributions to protecting the natural environment can happen too. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the culture encourages learning and the use of new skills. </li></ul>5 -
  5. 5. Introduction (continued) <ul><li>Employees and their managers value training, support attendance at training programs, and encourage employees to use on the job what they have learned in programs, internships, or temporary assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Without a supportive culture or work environment, employees will be frustrated in trying to use training content on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, they will be less enthusiastic about attending formal training programs. </li></ul>5 -
  6. 6. Transfer of Training <ul><li>Transfer of training refers to trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training on their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>The work environment plays an important role in ensuring that transfer of training occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of training is also influenced by trainee characteristics and training design. </li></ul>5 -
  7. 7. A Model Of The Transfer Process 5 - Trainee Characteristics Training Design Work Environment Motivation Ability Create a Learning Environment Apply Theories of Transfer Use Self-Management Strategies Climate for Transfer Management and Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support Learning Retention Generalization and Maintenance
  8. 8. Training Design <ul><li>Training design refers to factors built into the training program to increase the chances that transfer of training will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>For transfer of training to occur we need to apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of training theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of self – management </li></ul></ul>5 -
  9. 9. Transfer of Training Theories 5 - Theory Emphasis Appropriate Conditions Type of Transfer Identical elements Training environment is identical to work environment Work environment features are predictable and stable Near Stimulus generalization General principles are applicable to many different work situations Work environment is unpredictable and highly variable Far Cognitive theory Meaningful material and coding schemes enhance storage and recall of training All types of training and environments Near and far
  10. 10. Self-Management Strategies <ul><li>Self-management refers to a person’s attempt to control certain aspects of decision making and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Training programs should prepare employees to self-manage their use of new skills and behaviors on the job. </li></ul>5 -
  11. 11. Self-Management Involves: <ul><li>Determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for using newly acquired skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals for using learned capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Applying learned capabilities to the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring use of learned capabilities on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Self – reinforcement. </li></ul>5 -
  12. 12. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: <ul><li>Work Conditions (Trainee has difficulty using new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few opportunities to use skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate budget </li></ul></ul>5 -
  13. 13. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Peer Support (Peers do not support use of new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourage use of new knowledge and skills on the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See training as a waste of time </li></ul></ul>5 -
  14. 14. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Management Support (Managers do not reinforce training or provide opportunities to use new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not accept ideas or suggestions that are learned in training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not discuss training opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose use of skills learned in training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate that training is a waste of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to provide feedback and reinforcement for trainees to use training content </li></ul></ul>5 -
  15. 15. Sample Content of Self-Management Module: <ul><li>Discuss lapses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note evidence of inadequacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide direction for improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify skills targeted for transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Identify when lapses are likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions to deal with lapses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify personal or environment factors contributing to lapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of manager or peer support </li></ul></ul>5 -
  16. 16. Sample Content of Self-Management Module: (continued) <ul><li>Discuss coping skills and strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a personal support network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss resources to ensure transfer of skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other trainees </li></ul></ul>5 -
  17. 17. Work Environment Characteristics Influencing Transfer of Training: 5 - Climate for Transfer Manager Support Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support
  18. 18. Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: <ul><li>Supervisors and co-workers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul><ul><li>Task cues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a trainee’s job prompt or remind him to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul>5 -
  19. 19. Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic reinforcement consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic reinforcement consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul>5 -
  20. 20. Levels of Management Support for Training: 5 - Level Description Teaching in Program Practice Skills Reinforcement Participation Encouragement Acceptance Participate as Trainer Allow Trainees Opportunity to Practice Discuss Progress with Trainees; Ask How to Support Trainees’ Use of New Capabilities Attend Session Accommodate Attendance at Training Through Rearranging Work Schedule; Endorse Employees’ Attending Training Permit Employees to Attend Training; Acknowledge Importance of Training HIGH SUPPORT LOW SUPPORT
  21. 21. Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer of Training: <ul><li>The Learning Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and Knowledge Management </li></ul>5 -
  22. 22. The Learning Organization <ul><li>A learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change. </li></ul><ul><li>Training processes are carefully scrutinized and aligned with company goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Training is seen as one part of a system designed to create intellectual capital. </li></ul>5 -
  23. 23. 5 - Key Features of a Learning Organization Continuous Learning Knowledge Generation and Sharing Critical Systematic Thinking Learning Culture Encouragement of Flexibility and Experimentation Valuing of Employees
  24. 24. Knowledge and Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge refers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a company’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tacit knowledge, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit knowledge </li></ul></ul>5 -
  25. 25. Knowledge and Knowledge Management (continued) <ul><li>Knowledge management refers to the process of enhancing company performance by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge </li></ul></ul>5 -
  26. 26. Knowledge and Knowledge Management (continued) <ul><li>Knowledge management can help companies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get products to market quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better serve customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop innovative products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attract new employees and retain current ones by giving people the opportunity to learn and develop </li></ul></ul>5 -
  27. 27. Examples of Knowledge Management <ul><li>Ernst & Young has information on employees’ skills and competencies to help assemble project teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox has created a database of “communities of interests:” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employees throughout the organization who have a common interest in a technology, product, service, or process who may not formally work together, but share and build knowledge for themselves and the company </li></ul></ul>5 -

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