in order to assign meaning to texts,
readers rely on previously stored
knowledge such as language, reasoning
abilities, making analogies and inferences.
Understanding of how text
comprehensions develop requires a
consideration of the develop mental
Chall’s “reading to learn” stage describes
children's increasing ability to understand
more sophisticated texts.
Children’s facility for understanding
texts increases as they became more
familiar with particular structure and
function of different text genres.
Developing of more sophisticated
reasoning skills, their comprehension
of various text necessarily increases.
Measures of vocabulary are integral
components of standardized measures
of language & reading comprehension.
Four levels of Reading
1. Literal reading
2.Inspectual reading or systematic skimming
-has a set of amount time to complete an
assigned amount of reading.
3. Analytic reading- is the best that reder can
4. Comparative reading- relating different
books and topics to one another.
Factors that Affect Reading
1. Language background
2. Auditory and visual perception
3. Physical well being
4. Emotional stability
5. Intellectual development
6. Interest or attitude
Early language Stimulation
Spoken language has an astonishing
impact on an infant’s brain
More verbal family increase an infant’s
chances for success
Environment factors predominate
A proposal for Reading
These reading stages is a scheme for
studying and for understanding course of
reading developments from its
beginnings to its mature forms.
These stages are presented in a “scheme”
or “model” w/c hopefully can help to
predict & control achievements in
Scheme for Reading
Stages (Chall, 1983)
1. Stages reading development resemble
stages of cognitive and language
2. Stage were the readers adapt to their
environment through the processes of
assimilation & accommodation.
3. Stages by interacting w/ their environment
4. Stage that will add a further useful
dimensions to standardized normreferenced testing, as well as the criterionreferenced testing.
5. Stages means that readers do “different
things in relation to printed matter at each
successive stage, although the term “
reading” is commonly used for all the stages.
6. Successive stages are characterized by
growth in the ability to read language that is
7.The readers responses to the text also
becomes more general, more influential,
more critical 7 more constructive w/
8. Stage were the extent to w/c prior
knowledge is needed to read understand
9. Stages were readers can persist in
characteristics techniques or habits.
10. Reading has effective as well as
The Reading Stages (Chall,
Stage O-Pre-Reading Stage
-Birth to Age 6
-from birth until the beginning of formal
education, children living in a literate culture
with an alphabetic writing system accumulate a
fund of knowledge about letters, words and
Stage 1-Beginning Reading Stage
-increasing errors that have a graphic
resemblance to the printed words.
-an “inside-out” process
Stage 2- Confirmation, Fluency, ungluing
-Grade 2-3 Ages 7-8
-there is a continued concern w/ graphic
exactness but also a return to greater semantic
Stage 3- Reading for Learning the New
-a first step
-the reading in this stage is essentially for the fails, concept,
for how to do things. If there is any reading for nuance and
variety of viewpoints, its is probably in the reading of
Stage 4- Multiple Viewpoints
-High School Ages 14-18
-mostly acquired through formal education-the assignments
in the various school textbooks, original & other sources, &
references works in the physical, biological, & social
sciences, through reading of more mature fiction: and
through the free reading of books, newspaper, and
Stage 5- Constructivist and Reconstruction- a
-College Ages 18-above
-Stage 5 can seen as reading that is essentially
constructive. From reading what other say, the
reader construct knowledge for himself or herself.
The processes depends upon analysis, synthesis and
judgement. The reader makes judgements as to
what to read, how much of it to read, at what pace,
and how much detail. This means a struggle to
balance one’s comprehension of the ideas, one’s
analysis of them, and one’s own ideas on them.
Government Support to the
The importance of teaching
using stories pay off according to Fr. Nebes.
Whether one first learns to read in Filipino,
English or not another language is not important.
The joy of reading will continue to flourish even
if someone learns a second or third language. It is
his principle that a country that has a cultivated a
reading culture has a priceless resource.
Reading is gaining more importance in the
Filipino educational system and culture.
Another Program, “Bright Minds Read”
(BMR) is a result od a partnership between
the Department of Education (DepEd) and
the Ronald Mc Donald House Charities
(RMHC). The league of corporate
Foundations, if w/c RMHC is a member,
turned over 126 reading kits to the DepEd’s
National Capital Region Office in Quezon
Four –pronged Approach
1. Beginners must develop a love reading by
making it a fun activity.
2. The story is used as a springboard for literal
comprehension and later critical thinking.
3. The study is used to expose children to oral
language and grammatical structure.
4. The pupils are taught to “educate” or recognize
Developing Habitual Reading in
The technology give us a lot of
advantages in helping people do their
work eagier and faster, that’s why
“Mamimihasa yung mga bata”, because
of technology kinds became very lazy to
In the early years of the leaner even
before they have developed their reading
The Importance of Reading
Book is a tool
Serves as inspirations to readers
Improves children’s analytical thinking
Parents serve as model to their children
Parents serve as model their children.
Create a reading environment where books
are placed in low shelves for children to
Bookstores or Libraries
- regular reading around session
-he/she should be aware of it
Begin Reading to children as soon as
possible. The younger you start them, the
Use Mother Goose rhymes and songs to
stimulate the infant’s language.
Read as often as you and the child (or class)
have time for.
Try to set aside at least one traditional time each
day for the story. Favorite story times are before
going to bed and before leaving the school.
Remember the art of listening is an acquired one.
It must be taught and cultivated gradually-it
doesn’t happen overnight.
Picture books can be easily to a family of
children widely separated in age. This requires
more effort on the part of the parents but it will
reap rewards in direct proportion to the efoort
expended. You will reinforce the specialness of
Start with picture books and build to storybooks and
Vary the length and subject matter of your reading.
Follow through with your reading.
Occasionally read above the children’s intellectual
level and challenge their minds.
Avoid long descriptive passages until the child’s
imagination and attention span are capable to
If your chapters are long or if you don’t have
enough time each a day to finish an entire chapter,
find a suspenseful spot at which to stop.
Allow your listeners to settle down and adjust their
feet and minds in the story.
If you are reading a picture book, make sure the
children can see the picture easily.
In reading a novel, position yourself where both you
and the children are comfortable.
Remember that even sixth-grade students love a
good picture book now and then.
Allow time for class and home discussion after
reading a story.
Remember that reading aloud comes naturally to
very few people. To do it successfully and with ease
you must practice.
Use plenty of expression when reading. If possible,
change your tone of voices to fit dialogue.
Read slowly enough for the child to build mental
pictures of what he just heard you read.
Preview the book by reading it to yourself ahead of
Read information about the author on your dust
Add a third dimension to the book whenever
Paper, crayons, & pencils allow them to keep their
hands busy while listening.
Bring a book with you whenever you travel with
Fathers should make an extra effort to read to
Regulate the amount of time your children spend
in front of the television.
Arrange the time each day– in the classroom or in
the home—for the child to read by himself.
Lead by example. Make sure your children see
you reading for pleasure other than at read-aloud
time. Share with them your enthusiasm for
whatever you are reading.
don’t enjoy yourself.
Don’t read stories that you
Your dislike will show in the reading, and that
defeats your purpose.
Don’t continue reading a book once it is obvious
that it was a poor choice.
If you are a teacher, don’t feel you have to tie
every book to classwork. Don’t confine the broad
spectrum of literature to the narrow limits of the
Consider the intellectual, social and emotional
level of your audience in making a read-aloud
selection. Challenge them, but don’t overwhelm
Don’t read above a child’s emotional level.
Don’t select a book that many of the children
already have heard or seen on television.
Don’t be fooled by awards.
Don’t start a reading if you are not going to
have enough time to do it justice.
Don’t unnerved by questions during the
reading, particularly from very young children.
Don’t use a book as a threat.
Don’t try to compete with television.