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Enterprise architecture


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Enterprise architecture

  1. 1. Enterprise ArchitectureEnterprise architecture Author Author Affiliation Date
  2. 2. Enterprise Architecture Table of Contents1. Enterprise architecture definition2. Enterprise architecture Level function a. Conceptual level b. Logical level3. Review of industry trend a. Bio data b. Data analysis c. Consumerization d. Mobility e. Context aware of IT f. Cloud Computing4. Six Phases of enterprise architecture5. Application of enterprise architecture6. Future development of enterprise architecture7. Benefit of enterprise architecture8. Customer relationship management introduction
  3. 3. Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture 1. DefinitionEnterprise architecture (EA) is the process of translating business visionand strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicatingand improving the key requirements, principles and models that describethe enterprise‟s future state and enable its evolution.The scope of the enterprise architecture includes the people, processes,information and technology of the enterprise, and their relationships to oneanother and to the external environment. Enterprise architects composeholistic solutions that address the business challenges of the enterpriseand support the governance needed to implement them. Reference is Enterprise Data Architecture Responsible for?  An EDA is responsible for providing a consistent strategy for  conceptually,  logically, and  physically governing (i.e., uniquely defining and organizing) the data that defines an enterprise  An EDA is foundational to an enterprise IT architecture2. Enterprise Level functionAt the enterprise level , the root of the Function Chart may contain thename of the organization (or a major function or sub-function within anorganization). The root is broken down into no more than three levels ofdetail. A brief description is provided for each function.
  4. 4. Enterprise ArchitectureThe second level identifies major business functions, typically related toPlanning, Execution, and Control.Note that administrative functions such as Finance, Accounting, andPersonnel should not be top level functions. Top level functions shouldonly be functions that directly contribute to the production of anorganizations product or service. Administrative functions should only befurther decomposed if required, for example, if a system is being developedto support administrative functions. Because Function Charts read sosimilarly to Organization Charts, i.e., both use a top-down structure, it canbe politically very difficult to convince the Corporate Vice President ofFinance and Personnel, for example, that his or her function is not a toplevel function. One method of addressing this is to draw separate FunctionCharts for each of the administrative functions so that each has its own toplevel Function Chart. This does not take much time, gets these functionsincluded in the documentation, and works well as long as the charts are notfurther expanded. Another method of addressing this is to includeadministrative functions under a function called, for instance,Organizational Support.
  5. 5. Enterprise Architecturea. Conceptual Level of DetailAt the conceptual level, leaf level functions (i.e., lowest level functions) onthe enterprise level chart within the context of the system are decomposedinto the next level of detail. This level identifies the major businessprocesses necessary to accomplish each function. Processes identified atthis level typically correspond to application systems or sub-systems, forexample, Sales, Finance, or Purchasing.Functional Decomposition at the conceptual level of detail helps define thescope of a project. b. Logical Level of DetailAt the logical level , the Function Chart decomposes processes into thelowest level of detail. Functional Decomposition at this level identifies allthe processes within the scope of the project. The lowest level processeson the Function Chart can be documented using ActionDiagrams, Structured English .
  6. 6. Enterprise ArchitectureOnce started, leaf level processes must continue to conclusion or else betotally undone. A leaf level process takes the business from one state toanother or does not change the state of the business at all. To completeFunctional Decomposition, each branch of the tree must be decomposed tothe lowest level process. However, not every branch will be decomposedto the same number of levels.Complete understanding of the characteristics of a leaf level processrequires an understanding of:· volume and response time requirements, i.e., determine how oftenand how quickly a response from the process is required,· security, i.e., determine who performs what processes,· design menu structures, i.e., determine what user groups use whatprocesses,
  7. 7. Enterprise Architecture· plan for distribution, i.e., determine the geographic locations wherethe processes are performed.Reference Review of major industry trends:In this light, the enterprise architect will scan the industry analysts, thetrade journals and the vendors for ideas and trends. Here is my short list ofsix trends for 2012: 1. Big Data – Databases of large magnitude are not uncommon anymore. I recall discussions at client sites only ten years ago lamenting how hard it was to handle terabytes of data. The physical constraints and cost of storage per unit is declining, and now we speak of exabytes and zettabytes of storage. The data isn‟t just
  8. 8. Enterprise Architecture traditional databases of the 3rd normalized form, but unstructured data, email, video, mobile, and much more. Your future state architecture should consider tools, methods and infrastructure to support initiatives like access, de-duplication, appropriate backup and recovery, and retention strategy. Analytics and social media are a huge part of this. [Note to EAs: well-informed Information Architects are going to be your new best friend on this one.]2. Data analytics – This adjunct to the big data discussion highlights thegrowing demand for data analytic tools, process, and access to data thathas not been traditionally accessed. Not only is the structured datavaluable for analysis, so is what you can glean from social media orcombinations of your data silos, marts and warehouses in the organization.If your cloud strategy is in place, have you considered providing a serviceto create a data snapshot for analysis? For example, the user selects thedataset service; the cloud service provisions the infrastructure and softwareand copies the snapshot for use; and the user pays for use,decommissioning and releasing the service when complete, and perhapsdoing the same thing next month.3. Consumerization of IT- As an EA, your focus has traditionally centeredon what the business needs, and how to support it. In the past, the“business architecture” was derived from key business stakeholders, andused to create the application, information, security and infrastructurearchitectures. Consumerization of IT suggests a revision to that model bymaking IT responsive to its consumers, users and clients with content andsolutions they expect, provisioned as Instant-On . It suggests acommoditization of IT products, and it suggests services offered as a menuof choices. The latter is competitive to that which they can purchaseoutside IT and which they can provision instantly. It suggests theconsideration of the social media strategy. Consumerization of IT alsosuggests that a number of innovations are required to support thesedemands.4. Mobility –Unless you are under a rock, you already see the influence ofmobility on your future state architecture, and likely it is already a part of
  9. 9. Enterprise Architecturethe current state architecture. This year, however, mobility is no longer abolt-on solution for email and texting in the enterprise. It is being promotedby the consumer of IT as the preferred device for interactions through“apps.” “Bring your own device” or BYOD is becoming the norm rather thanthe exception. How will you handle lost devices that have sensitive data onboard? [Hint: develop a remote wiping strategy, or limit access]. It‟s unwiseto ignore your unified communication strategy. Unified Communications as-a-service (UCaaS)* needs to be discussed as a strategy (see this NetworkWorld report: top 5 UC predictions for 2012).5. Context-aware IT – Programmers and designers always consider theparameters of where their products are used, and by whom, but contextawareness is a paradigm where new and existing products must be awareof, or capable of understanding, their operation based on the user‟sintentions, location, history, tasks or other context-related information. If Iam a plant manager, my interface to technology will change as I use mymobile device in the factory or at home, or if I use my desktop. As a mobileworker, I would like to enter my timesheet easily while I‟m on the road, froma smartphone app, and have full access to reports and detailed data whenI‟m in the office. It is deeper than this when one considers the implicationsfor analytics, cloud service selection (the selection asking, “You chose adevelopment platform last time, do you want the same thing now?”) or web-based client interactions.6. Cloud Computing - I see an interesting trend where the cloud isdisappearing from the hot trends this year. I see this not as an omission,but an acknowledgment that the early adopters have a cloud strategy andhave implemented some or part of it. It is a part of the enterprisearchitecture more than ever, since the cloud services that are deployedneed review for viability, efficiency, and renewal. If you are operating ahybrid cloud, mixing traditional and cloud services, you have theopportunity to review the mix and put more or less in the cloud. Reviewyour public cloud strategy. For those organizations not invested in thebenefits of cloud computing, you have the opportunity to align yourdirection to improve the service strategy, process, portfolio, culture and
  10. 10. Enterprise Architectureinfrastructure to leverage the savings and agility of the Instant-On cloudsolutions.Reference your enterprise architecture program in six phasesGartner recommends that chief architects and their teams establish andevolve the EA program using sixmajor phases. The phases may vary depending on the problems you aretrying to solve and the decisionsyou are trying to make:Strategize and plan: Gain agreement on the major problems to be solved;charter the EA program;and develop a future-state description comprising the requirements,principles and models.Assess current state: Identify your current level of strategic and EAmaturity; gather existingdocuments that describe your business and technology capabilities,practices, formal process models,data and systems.Assess competencies: Identify budgetary, staffing and other requirementsto prepare the businessfor the analysis of strategy. Review the established budgeting mechanismsand processes used in thebusiness and strategic-planning organizations, and consider refining them.
  11. 11. Enterprise ArchitectureGain approval: Leveraging the charter from phase one, provide businessand IT executives witha formal plan, and bring business and IT experts together for a sharedstrategic-planning exercise.Develop the requirements, and assess the results.Implement: Analyze the findings from strategic-planning and EA efforts toprioritize the gaps to befilled. Develop investment plans using business cases that emerged fromEA efforts. Present thefindings to stakeholders and leaders to get investment plans approved.Operate and evolve: Improve and refine your efforts. Over time, the futurestate will be articulated ingreater detail.Applications of Enterprise Architecture(In social network)  Architecture defined capability to collect ,discover ,represent ,relate, and reason about the knowledge.  it supports dynamic coordination and social use of knowledge resource relevant to missions  Social networking architecture enables evolution of community knowledge  Knowledge is dynamic and evolves with human experience and social networks  An overarching knowledge perspective is required across all architecture views  (In Business)
  12. 12. Enterprise Architecture Using the Enterprise Architecture Context Models Systems Architecture Business Process Enterprise Architecture Models Business Reengineering Implementation Data Models Business Intelligence Radar Chart Models Portfolio ManagementThe future Development of Enterprise ArchitectureIs Enterprise Architecture going anywhere? This looks like a legitimatequestion. It is, albeit slowly in the absence of an agreed practicalframework and clear proof of its business case. The reason isstraightforward: EA is a necessary "evil". Any system needs a blueprintenabling proper operation, maintenance, planning... To fulfill theexpectations, EA needs to satisfy its many stakeholders in topmanagement, business, technology/IT and organization. Here are a fewdirections, I can see the Enterprise Architecture progressing, in noparticular order, but happening in the next five years or so:A. EA will finally be recognized as a business discipline, havingincorporated Value Chains, Business Models, Strategic Planning...B. The EA evolves to increasingly cover business architecture ratherthan IT alone; the Enterprise Architecture will be the result of the fusion ofIT, Business and Organization/People architectures; what is the value of anapplications architecture, without the process it implements or the peopleoperating it?
  13. 13. Enterprise ArchitectureC. The governance for EA will be more & more business and topmanagement heavy; this is because it would be used in mapping thestrategy to components, to derive the enterprise transformation portfolio,make investments and take strategic and tactical decisions.D. The EA development will be increasingly triggered by Mergers &Acquisitions and outsourcing activities; IT BPO, SaaS(ASP) are riding astrong current right now.E. The Enterprise Architect would be more and more called in thebusiness decision making process; because the EA architect deals with thebusiness logic, technology operation and strategy, is able to understandboth worlds and use both business and IT vocabularies.F. A combined EA framework emerges to take advantage of thestrengths of various frameworks, such as Zachman, TOGAF, FEA andothers.G. SOA is recognized as part of the EA program as the target EA styleof architecture and technology, rather than executed in isolation as it oftenhappensH. EA would be increasingly required by shareholders/owners/investorsto provide the blueprint of the business operation to describe assets,provide proof of regulatory compliance, map costs and profits on variousoperations and align strategy. The US government mandates EA to thepublic sector. EA would become a regulatory feature for public listedcompanies.Benefits of Enterprise ArchitectureIf Enterprise Architecture is successfully defined, implemented andfollowed - a simple set of benefits should be delivered - better, fasterand cheaper
  14. 14. Enterprise ArchitectureOrganizations from a wide range of industry sectors who have adopted anarchitecture approach, report the following business benefits:A more efficient IT operationBetter return on existing IT investment and reduced risk for future ITinvestmentFaster, simpler and cheaper procurementIncreased flexibility for business growth and restructuringFaster time-to-market for new products or even operational innovationsReduced business risk associated with ITBridging of the business strategy & implementation gapMore pertinent and relevant solutions for the business.Reference
  15. 15. Enterprise Architecture Customer Relationship ManagementWhat Is CRM?CRM, or Customer Relationship Management, is a company-wide businessstrategy designed to reduce costs and increase profitability by solidifyingcustomer satisfaction, loyalty, and advocacy. True CRM brings togetherinformation from all data sources within an organization (and whereappropriate, from outside the organization) to give one, holistic view ofeach customer in real time. This allows customer facing employees in suchareas as sales, customer support, and marketing to make quick yetinformed decisions on everything from cross-selling and upsellingopportunities to target marketing strategies to competitive positioningtactics.  Customer Relationship Management  Becoming a common and important concept in many industries  Beyond mere „Contact Management‟  Knowing the customer and the Touch points  Single undertaking view of customers  Most industries have CRM software to help sales process, on-going service, and even accountingPurposes of CRMCRM in its broadest sense , means meaning all interactions and businesswith customerImprove customer serviceA good CRM program will allow a business to acquires customersIncrease value of customer to the companyRetain good customers and determine good customers can be retained.
  16. 16. Enterprise ArchitectureWhy organization loose their customers:  Product related reasons  Competitor reasons  Personal reasons  Price related reasons  Service related reasonsOrganization strategies differ on :  An organization strategies towards developing and maintaining sustainable relationship differ from one organization to another  Nature of business  Size of market share  Nature of product  Volume of sale  Geographic concentration  Socio -economics status  Life style of people Organizations differ in following factors:  People  Process  ProductDetermining the Need for Customer Relationship Program  Is customer retention your primary management objective?  Is customer satisfaction measured and assessed regularly?  Is there a constant effort to enhance customer satisfaction?  Do you measure quality standards and communicate results with your employees?  Do you train and retrain your customer service providers?
  17. 17. Enterprise Architecture  Do you have employee turnover problems?  How much do you spend to keep current customers?  What is your current cost for acquiring a customer?  What is your average annual customer dollar value?  What is your current customer defection rate?  How do you get lost customers back?  Do you constantly deliver what you promise to your customers?Guidelines for Establishing a Customer-Relationship Program  Examine who your customers are and what specific needs they have.  Identify specific objectives to be realized by the program.  Create a manageable program of customer retention.  Create a culture that stimulates customer interest.  Determine a timetable for evaluation. What Today’s Customers Expect  Availability: Services designed to meet the customer‟s schedule.  Accessibility: When the customer needs to talk, the provider can be reached.  Accountability: Customers prefer quick and accurate answers to service questions.
  18. 18. Enterprise Architecture General Statistics The average business never hears from 96% of its unhappy customers, 91% never come back Those people will tell a minimum of 4 other people, Getting a repeat customer from this group is 1 in 11, Dissatisfied customers may tell 9-10 people about their experience, For every positive they tell 4-5 people, For every complaint received the average business in fact has 26 customers with the similar concern. Customer Relationships
  19. 19. Enterprise ArchitectureCRM Summary  CRM is the strategic use of information, processes, technology and people to manage the customer‟s relationship with a company‟s (marketing, sales, services and support) across the entire customer cycle.  The Plan and Practice of managing the lifetime relationship with your customer  CRM focuses on strategic impact rather than operational impact  CRM is a total discipline  CRM includes all functions that directly touch the customer throughout their entire lifetime with a company .
  20. 20. Enterprise Architecture