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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1
Chapter 3:
Network Protocols and
Communications
Introduction to Networks
Presentation_ID 2© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 3: Objectives
Students will be able to:
 Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication.
 Explain the role of protocols and standards
organizations in facilitating interoperability in network
communications.
 Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a
small to medium-sized business network.
Presentation_ID 3© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 3
3.1 Rules of Communication
3.2 Network Protocols and Standards
3.3 Moving Data in the Network
3.4 Summary
Presentation_ID 4© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
What is Communication?
Presentation_ID 5© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
Establishing the Rules
Establishing the Rules
 An identified sender and receiver
 Agreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face,
telephone, letter, photograph)
 Common language and grammar
 Speed and timing of delivery
 Confirmation or acknowledgement requirements
Presentation_ID 6© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
Message Encoding
Presentation_ID 7© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
Message Formatting and Encapsulation
Example: Personal letter contains the following elements:
 An identifier of the recipient
 A salutation or greeting
 The message content
 A closing phrase
 An identifier of the sender
Presentation_ID 8© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
Message Size
The size restrictions of frames require the source host to break
a long message into individual pieces that meet both the
minimum and maximum size requirements.
This is known as segmenting.
Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the
address information, and is sent over the network.
At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and
put back together to be processed and interpreted.
Presentation_ID 9© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
Message Timing
 Access Method
 Flow Control
 Response Timeout
Presentation_ID 10© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
The Rules
Message Delivery Options
Presentation_ID 11© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Protocols
Rules that Govern Communications
Presentation_ID 12© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Protocols
Network Protocols
 How the message is formatted or structured
 The process by which networking devices share information
about pathways with other networks
 How and when error and system messages are passed
between devices
 The setup and termination of data transfer sessions
Presentation_ID 13© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Protocols
Interaction of Protocols
 Application Protocol – Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
 Transport Protocol – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
 Internet Protocol – Internet Protocol (IP)
 Network Access Protocols – Data Link & Physical layers
Presentation_ID 14© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Protocol Suites
Protocol Suites and Industry Standards
Presentation_ID 15© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Protocol Suites
Creation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP
Presentation_ID 16© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Protocol Suites
TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication
Presentation_ID 17© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Network Protocols and Standards
Standards Organizations
Presentation_ID 18© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Standards Organizations
Open Standards
 The Internet Society (ISOC)
 The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
 The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
 The International Organization for Standards (ISO)
Presentation_ID 19© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Standards Organizations
ISOC, IAB, and IETF
Presentation_ID 20© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Standards Organizations
IEEE
 38 societies
 130 journals
 1,300 conferences each year
 1,300 standards and projects
 400,000 members
 160 countries
 IEEE 802.3
 IEEE 802.11
Presentation_ID 21© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Standards Organizations
ISO
Presentation_ID 22© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Standards Organizations
Other Standards Organization
 The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
 The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
 The International Telecommunications Union –
Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
 The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
(ICANN)
 The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
Presentation_ID 23© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Reference Models
The Benefits of Using a Layered Model
Presentation_ID 24© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Reference Models
The OSI Reference Model
Presentation_ID 25© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Reference Models
The TCP/IP Reference Model
Presentation_ID 26© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Reference Models
Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models
Presentation_ID 27© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Data Encapsulation
Communicating the Messages
 Segmenting message benefits
Different conversations can be interleaved
Increased reliability of network communications
 Segmenting message disadvantage
Increased level of complexity
Presentation_ID 28© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Data Encapsulation
Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
 Data
 Segment
 Packet
 Frame
 Bits
Presentation_ID 29© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Data Encapsulation
Encapsulation
Presentation_ID 30© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Data Encapsulation
De-encapsulation
Presentation_ID 31© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Moving Data in the Network
Accessing Local Resources
Presentation_ID 32© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Accessing Local Resources
Network Addresses & Data Link addresses
 Network Address
Source IP address
Destination IP address
 Data Link Address
Source data link address
Destination data link address
Presentation_ID 33© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Accessing Local Resources
Communicating with Device / Same Network
Presentation_ID 34© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Accessing Local Resources
MAC and IP Addresses
PC1
192.168.1.110
AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA
PC2
192.168.1.111
BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB
FTP Server
192.168.1.9
CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC
R1
192.168.1.1
11-11-11-11-11-11
ARP
Request
S1 R1
Presentation_ID 35© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Accessing Remote Resources
Default Gateway
PC 1
192.168.1.110
AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA
PC 2
192.168.1.111
BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB
FTP Server
192.168.1.9
CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC
R1
192.168.1.1
11-11-11-11-11-11
R2
172.16.1.99
22-22-22-22-22-22
Web Server
172.16.1.99
AB-CD-EF-12-34-56
Presentation_ID 36© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Accessing Remote Resources
Communicating Device / Remote Network
Presentation_ID 37© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Accessing Remote Resources
Using Wireshark to View Network Traffic
Presentation_ID 38© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Network Protocols and Communications
Summary
In this chapter, you learned:
 Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary
devices, and the media connecting the devices. For
communication to occur, these devices must know how to
communicate.
 These devices must comply with communication rules and
protocols. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite.
 Most protocols are created by a standards organization such
as the IETF or IEEE.
 The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and
TCP/IP models.
Presentation_ID 39© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Network Protocols and Communications
Summary
In this chapter, you learned:
 Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is
segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and
other labels. The process is reversed as the pieces are de-
encapsulated and passed up the destination protocol stack.
 The OSI model describes the processes of encoding,
formatting, segmenting, and encapsulating data for
transmission over the network.
 The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that
has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or
approved, by a standards organization.
Presentation_ID 40© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Network Protocols and Communications
Summary
In this chapter, you learned:
 The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for
transmitting and receiving information using the Internet.
 Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the
protocols of the TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame,
and bits.
 Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade
associations to analyze current networks and plan the
networks of the future.
Presentation_ID 41© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

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Network Protocols and Communications Explained

  • 1. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 3: Network Protocols and Communications Introduction to Networks
  • 2. Presentation_ID 2© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 3: Objectives Students will be able to:  Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication.  Explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications.  Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to medium-sized business network.
  • 3. Presentation_ID 3© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 3 3.1 Rules of Communication 3.2 Network Protocols and Standards 3.3 Moving Data in the Network 3.4 Summary
  • 4. Presentation_ID 4© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules What is Communication?
  • 5. Presentation_ID 5© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules Establishing the Rules Establishing the Rules  An identified sender and receiver  Agreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face, telephone, letter, photograph)  Common language and grammar  Speed and timing of delivery  Confirmation or acknowledgement requirements
  • 6. Presentation_ID 6© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules Message Encoding
  • 7. Presentation_ID 7© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules Message Formatting and Encapsulation Example: Personal letter contains the following elements:  An identifier of the recipient  A salutation or greeting  The message content  A closing phrase  An identifier of the sender
  • 8. Presentation_ID 8© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules Message Size The size restrictions of frames require the source host to break a long message into individual pieces that meet both the minimum and maximum size requirements. This is known as segmenting. Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address information, and is sent over the network. At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and put back together to be processed and interpreted.
  • 9. Presentation_ID 9© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules Message Timing  Access Method  Flow Control  Response Timeout
  • 10. Presentation_ID 10© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential The Rules Message Delivery Options
  • 11. Presentation_ID 11© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Protocols Rules that Govern Communications
  • 12. Presentation_ID 12© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Protocols Network Protocols  How the message is formatted or structured  The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks  How and when error and system messages are passed between devices  The setup and termination of data transfer sessions
  • 13. Presentation_ID 13© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Protocols Interaction of Protocols  Application Protocol – Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)  Transport Protocol – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  Internet Protocol – Internet Protocol (IP)  Network Access Protocols – Data Link & Physical layers
  • 14. Presentation_ID 14© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Protocol Suites Protocol Suites and Industry Standards
  • 15. Presentation_ID 15© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Protocol Suites Creation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP
  • 16. Presentation_ID 16© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Protocol Suites TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication
  • 17. Presentation_ID 17© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Network Protocols and Standards Standards Organizations
  • 18. Presentation_ID 18© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Standards Organizations Open Standards  The Internet Society (ISOC)  The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)  The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  The International Organization for Standards (ISO)
  • 19. Presentation_ID 19© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Standards Organizations ISOC, IAB, and IETF
  • 20. Presentation_ID 20© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Standards Organizations IEEE  38 societies  130 journals  1,300 conferences each year  1,300 standards and projects  400,000 members  160 countries  IEEE 802.3  IEEE 802.11
  • 21. Presentation_ID 21© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Standards Organizations ISO
  • 22. Presentation_ID 22© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Standards Organizations Other Standards Organization  The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)  The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)  The International Telecommunications Union – Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T)  The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
  • 23. Presentation_ID 23© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Reference Models The Benefits of Using a Layered Model
  • 24. Presentation_ID 24© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Reference Models The OSI Reference Model
  • 25. Presentation_ID 25© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Reference Models The TCP/IP Reference Model
  • 26. Presentation_ID 26© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Reference Models Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models
  • 27. Presentation_ID 27© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Data Encapsulation Communicating the Messages  Segmenting message benefits Different conversations can be interleaved Increased reliability of network communications  Segmenting message disadvantage Increased level of complexity
  • 28. Presentation_ID 28© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Data Encapsulation Protocol Data Units (PDUs)  Data  Segment  Packet  Frame  Bits
  • 29. Presentation_ID 29© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Data Encapsulation Encapsulation
  • 30. Presentation_ID 30© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Data Encapsulation De-encapsulation
  • 31. Presentation_ID 31© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Moving Data in the Network Accessing Local Resources
  • 32. Presentation_ID 32© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Accessing Local Resources Network Addresses & Data Link addresses  Network Address Source IP address Destination IP address  Data Link Address Source data link address Destination data link address
  • 33. Presentation_ID 33© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Accessing Local Resources Communicating with Device / Same Network
  • 34. Presentation_ID 34© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Accessing Local Resources MAC and IP Addresses PC1 192.168.1.110 AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA PC2 192.168.1.111 BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB FTP Server 192.168.1.9 CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC R1 192.168.1.1 11-11-11-11-11-11 ARP Request S1 R1
  • 35. Presentation_ID 35© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Accessing Remote Resources Default Gateway PC 1 192.168.1.110 AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA PC 2 192.168.1.111 BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB FTP Server 192.168.1.9 CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC R1 192.168.1.1 11-11-11-11-11-11 R2 172.16.1.99 22-22-22-22-22-22 Web Server 172.16.1.99 AB-CD-EF-12-34-56
  • 36. Presentation_ID 36© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Accessing Remote Resources Communicating Device / Remote Network
  • 37. Presentation_ID 37© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Accessing Remote Resources Using Wireshark to View Network Traffic
  • 38. Presentation_ID 38© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Network Protocols and Communications Summary In this chapter, you learned:  Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary devices, and the media connecting the devices. For communication to occur, these devices must know how to communicate.  These devices must comply with communication rules and protocols. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite.  Most protocols are created by a standards organization such as the IETF or IEEE.  The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and TCP/IP models.
  • 39. Presentation_ID 39© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Network Protocols and Communications Summary In this chapter, you learned:  Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and other labels. The process is reversed as the pieces are de- encapsulated and passed up the destination protocol stack.  The OSI model describes the processes of encoding, formatting, segmenting, and encapsulating data for transmission over the network.  The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or approved, by a standards organization.
  • 40. Presentation_ID 40© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Network Protocols and Communications Summary In this chapter, you learned:  The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for transmitting and receiving information using the Internet.  Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the protocols of the TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame, and bits.  Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade associations to analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future.
  • 41. Presentation_ID 41© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential