Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

M1 seminar

445 views

Published on

based on the partial replacement of cement with ggbs as a concern to reduce the demand for cement. this seminar is being conducted in reference to 2 important journals...on the study carried out in RC beams and plain hardened concrete. Various tests are being conducted and it reveals that upto 70% replacement can be used which gives the same result as that without replacement.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

M1 seminar

  1. 1. STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG IN CONCRETE GUIDED BY PRESENTED BY Ms. Smrithi Cheriyath Hamsui Harold Asst. Professor M1 SE Dept. of Civil Engg Roll No.9 MBCET MBCET
  2. 2. OVERVIEW 11/12/20172  Introduction  Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag(GGBS)  Literature Review  Case study  Experimental study of RC beams  Experimental study on the properties of plain concrete  Conclusion Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete3  Cement A substance used in construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials and binding them together. Used to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Made by grinding together a mixture of limestone and clay, which is then heated at a temperature of 1,450°C.
  4. 4. Introduction (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete4 Disadvantages of cement  Causes the emission of a significant amount of CO2 to the atmosphere and therefore contributes widely to the formation of the greenhouse effect.  Quarrying of OPC causes destruction of wildlife habitats.  Less resistant to erosion and weathering action.
  5. 5. GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG (GGBS) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete5  By-product of the metallurgical industry where metals such as iron, copper, lead, or aluminum, are purified or transformed.  Chemical composition varies considerably depending on the composition of the raw materials in the iron production process.  Composed of a non-metallic product which consists of silicates and alumnio-silicate of calcium with different bases and a metallic product which consist of iron and manganese.
  6. 6. MANUFACTURE OF GGBS 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete6  Usually produced by heating the combination of iron-ore, coke, and limestone in the blast furnace to 15000 C.  Products of these materials are molten iron and molten slag.  Molten slag contains silicates and alumina, floats above the molten iron and separate the molten slag from the molten iron.  Molten slag under high pressure water jet quenches the slag into crushed particles which are often less than 5 mm. GGBS (Contd…)
  7. 7. GGBS (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete7  Left to dry and grinded in a rotating ball-mill to produce a very fine powder of GGBS. Fig 1:Granulated blast furnace slag[4]
  8. 8. GGBS (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete8 Fig 2: Extraction of GGBS(http://www.nationalslag.org/blast- furnace-slag)
  9. 9. Applications of GGBS 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete9  Durable concrete structures in combination with Ordinary Portland Cement or other pozzolanic materials.  Production of quality-improved slag cement, namely Portland Blast Furnace Cement (PBFC) and High-Slag Blast-Furnace Cement (HSBFC), with GGBS content ranging typically from 30 to 70%.  Production of ready-mixed or site-batched durable concrete. GGBS (Contd…)
  10. 10. Advantages of using GGBS 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete10  Enhances lower heat of hydration  Higher resistance to sulphate and chloride attack when compared with normal ordinary concrete.  Minimizes the use of cement during the production of concrete.  Protect the steel reinforcement more efficiently.  Provides higher resistance to chloride ingress. GGBS contd…
  11. 11. GGBS (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete11  Can minimize corrosion in an effective way.  Lead to much durable structure without considerable increase in cost.  Reduces the risk of damages caused by alkali–silica reaction (ASR).  Act as a partial substitution for Portland cement without significantly compromising the compressive strength.
  12. 12. LITERATURE REVIEW 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete12 Author & Year Topic Description Results Veena G Pathan et al. (2012) Durability of Concrete by partially replacing cement with GGBS. • Carried out experimental investigations to evaluate the durability of concrete made with GGBS. • They replaced some percentage of cement by GGBS. • With proper curing the strength goes on increasing tremendously at 30% replacement. • Concrete mix with 40% replacement of cement with GGBS gives higher compressive strength. The compressive strength decreases when the cement replacement is more than 50%.
  13. 13. Literature review(Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete 13 Author & Year Topic Description Results Jagdish Prasad et al. (2010) Compressive Strength Properties of Concrete using GGBS as Cement Replacement Material. • Studied the compressive strength properties of concrete using GGBS as cement replacement material. • They found that GGBS based concrete made with 40% replacement of cement attains higher strength at the age of 28 days as compared to the 10% and 50% GGBS. • Therefore 40% cement replacement has been found to be optimum among all the GGBS based concrete at the age of 28 days.
  14. 14. Literature review(Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete14 Author & Year Topic Description Results Oner et al. (2007) Optimum Level of GGBS on The Compressive Strength of Concrete. • Presented a laboratory investigation on optimum level of GGBS on the compressive strength of concrete. • Test concrete were obtained by adding GGBS in 0%,15%,30%,50%,70%, 90% and 110% to cement content of control concretes and the specimens were moist cured. . • After an optimum point, around 55% of the total binder content, the addition of GGBS does not improve the compressive strength. • The optimum level of GGBS content for maximizing strength is about 55%-59%.[1]
  15. 15. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete15 Author & Year Topic Description Results Rafat Siddique (2002) Mechanical Properties of Concrete made with GGBFS. • Carried out investigation to evaluate the mechanical properties of concrete made with GGBFS subjected to a temperature up to 3500C. • There was no significant deterioration of the mechanical properties of the concrete between 270C and 1000C • .From this study it can be concluded that the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity of concrete remained lower than 40% of the initial value even after a temperature of 3500C. Literature review(Contd…)
  16. 16. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete16  The curing period required for GGBS concrete is more compared to normal concrete.  The workability of GGBS concrete is more and thus water cement ratio may be reduced resulting in increase in compressive strength.  The replacement of OPC in concrete with GGBS gives the optimum strength at 40% - 50%.  The addition of GGBS in geopolymer concrete increases the compressive strength.
  17. 17. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete17 CASE STUDY Experimental study on Reinforced Concrete beam
  18. 18. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete18  Different percentage of GGBS were used to design different concrete mixtures.  Cylinders, cubes, prisms and beams were cast from each mix design.  The physical and mechanical properties of the used materials, concrete design mixes, and detailing of the tested beam specimens are described.  Compressive strength and flexural tensile strength tests were conducted on cylinders, cubes and prisms. Case Study (Contd….)
  19. 19. Materials 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete19  Cement.  Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS).  Fine aggregate.  Coarse aggregate.  Potable water. Case study (Contd….)
  20. 20. Cement and GGBS 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete20  Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) that complies with BS-EN 197-1.  GGBS complies with BS EN 15167-1.  The specific gravity of the used OPC and GGBS was 3.9 and 2.9 respectively.  The fineness specific surface of the used GGBS was 453 m/kg with an initial and final setting time of 312 and 385 min respectively. Case study (Contd…) 2
  21. 21. Case study (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete21 Table 1: Chemical Compositions of Cement and GGBS (%)[1]
  22. 22. Aggregates 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete22  Crushed limestone with a minimum and maximum size of 4.75 mm and 20 mm are used as coarse aggregates.  Crushed limestone powder and dune sand was used as fine aggregates (<4.75 mm). Case study (Contd…)
  23. 23. Case study (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete23 Table 2: Physical Properties of Aggregates Used for the Study[1]
  24. 24. Mix Proportions 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete24  Four concrete mixtures were prepared that contain GGBS as a replacement of cement by different weight percentages of 0%, 50%, 70%, and 90%, respectively.  Designed to achieve a concrete compressive strength of 30 MPa at 28 days for each group of RC beam specimens. Case Study (Contd….)
  25. 25. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete25 Table 3: Concrete Mix Proportions[1] Case study (Contd…)
  26. 26. Testing of Specimens 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete26  Standard cubes of size 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm, cylinders with diameter and height of 150 mm and 300 mm, and prisms of size 100 mm x 100 mm x 500 mm.  8 RC beams were cast with different percentages of GGBS replacement of 0%, 50%, 70%, and 90% respectively.  Total length of each beam specimen is 1840 mm, with a width and depth of 150 mm and 250 mm respectively. Case Study (Contd….)
  27. 27. Reinforcement Details 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete27  Beams designed to fail in flexure and were reinforced with two 12 mm diameter steel bars in the bottom and two 8 mm diameter steel bars in the top compression zone.  Average measured yield and tensile strength of the steel reinforcement bars were 560.8 and 624.4 MPa respectively. Case Study (Contd….)
  28. 28. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete28  Top and bottom concrete cover for the steel reinforcement is 30 mm.  Beams were reinforced in shear with 8 mm steel stirrups that are spaced at 80 mm intervals. Case Study (Contd….)
  29. 29. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete29 Fig.3 Reinforcement Details[1] Case Study (Contd….)
  30. 30. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete30 Fig.4 Loading details and Experimental set up[1] Case Study (Contd….)
  31. 31. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete31 Table 3: Test Matrix[1] Case Study (Contd….)
  32. 32. Results and discussion 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete32 Specimen Age on day of test (days) Compressive cylindrical strength (MPa) Compressive cubic strength (MPa) Flexural tensile strength (MPa) G0 (0% GGBS, 100% OPC) 28 28.1 38.3 3.4 29.5 38.8 3.5 29.7 39.7 3.8 Average: 29.1 Average: 38.9 Average: 3.6 G50 (50% GGBS) 56 23.6 32.1 4.3 26.00 35.4 4.4 30.5 35.7 4.9 Average: 26.7 Average: 34.3 Average: 4.5 Table 4: Concrete mechanical results of three tested samples.[1] Case Study (Contd….)
  33. 33. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete33 G70 (70% GGBS) 56 25.1 32.5 3.4 26.6 34.4 3.5 29.4 38 3.7 Average: 27 Average: 35 Average: 3.5 G90 (90% GGBS) 56 25.7 33.4 3.8 27.4 35.6 3.9 30.2 39.2 4.2 Average: 27.8 Average: 36.1 Average: 4 Specimen Age on day of test (days) Compressive cylindrical strength (MPa) Compressive cubic strength (MPa) Flexural tensile strength (MPa) Case Study (Contd….)
  34. 34. Flexural RC beams results 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete34  The ultimate load capacity of the beam specimens with 50% and 70% GGBS replacement are higher than that of the G0B specimen by 3% and 9% respectively.  The stiffness of these beams were higher than that of the G0B specimen by 10% and 4% respectively. Case Study (Contd…)
  35. 35. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete35  RC beams cast with up to 70% GGBS as cement replacement will behave in a similar fashion under loading to that of conventional RC beams that do not contain GGBS as cement replacement. Case study (Contd…)
  36. 36. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete36 Fig.4 Load versus mid-span deflection response curves for all specimens.[1] Case Study (Contd...)
  37. 37. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete37 Table 5: Summary of average test results.[1] Case Study (Contd…)
  38. 38. Case Study (Contd...) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete38 Fig.5 Tested RC beam specimens at failure[1]
  39. 39. Ductility of beam specimens 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete39  Estimated from the load versus mid-span deflection response curves.  Evaluated by computing a deflection ductility index ‘m’ which corresponds to the beam's deflection at ultimate load, ‘du’ to that at yield of the steel reinforcement, ‘dy’. m = du/dy Case Study (Contd…) [1]
  40. 40. Case Study (Contd…) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete40  The beam specimen with 70% GGBS replacement (G70B) was the highest ductility.  70% GGBS replacement to cement in the concrete would enhance both the load-carrying capacity and ductility of flexural structural concrete members.  The ductility of the tested specimens is very close to each other.
  41. 41. Case Study (Contd….) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete41 Table 6: Deflection and ductility index average results.[1]
  42. 42. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete42 Table 7: Measured and predicted beam load-carrying capacity using ACI 318-11.[1] Case Study (Contd…)
  43. 43. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete43 Experimental study on the properties of Hardened concrete
  44. 44. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete44  The study was being conducted by Rughooputh and Jayalina Rana Dept. of Civil Engg, University of Mauritius.  The compressive strength, drying shrinkage, initial surface absorption, static modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, tensile splitting strength and flexural strength are investigated.  Optimum GGBS content is also determined. Case study (Contd…)
  45. 45. Materials 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete45  Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) conforming to ASTM C-150 / European Standard EN 197-1, CEM 1 42.5 N.  The natural aggregates used were natural crushed basaltic rock obtained locally.  Coarse aggregates used were angular crushed aggregates having a maximum size of 20mm.  Fine aggregates used were washed crushed rock sand with a size range 0-4mm. Case Study (Contd…)
  46. 46. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete46 Table 8: Concrete Mix Proportions [2] Case Study (Contd…)
  47. 47. Testing 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete47  Compressive Strength Determined in accordance with BS EN 12390-3:2009. Specimens were tested for 7 and 28 day strengths.  Drying Shrinkage Three 75mm x 75mm x 300mm prisms were used as per the requirements of BS ISO 1920-8:2009. Calculated as the difference in length between the wet and dry measurement. Expressed as a percentage of the length of the specimen. Case Study (Contd…)
  48. 48. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete48  Static Modulus of Elasticity Determined for three 150mm diameter, 300mm long cylinders according to BS 1881 part 5: 1983. Determine the stiffness of the concrete samples after 28 days of curing.  Initial Surface Absorption Test (ISAT) Three 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm test cubes was determined in accordance with BS 1881: part 208: 1996. Determination of the initial surface absorption of concrete after 28 days of curing. To determine the permeability of the concrete. Case Study (Contd…)
  49. 49. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete49  Tensile Splitting Strength Test Three 150mm diameter, 300mm long cylinders were used according to BS EN 12390-6:2009. Tensile splitting strength of test specimens after 28 days of curing.  Flexural Strength Three 75mm x 75mm x 300mm concrete prisms were used according to BS EN 12390-5:2009. A load was applied on the specimens with an increasing rate until failure of the specimen occurred. Case Study (Contd…)
  50. 50. Results And Discussion 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete50 • Compressive strength  A general increase in the compressive strength of all test specimens from Day 7 to Day 28.  After 7 days, it is also observed that the compressive strength reduces by 19 % and 11%.  Compressive strengths of the samples with 30% and 50% GGBS are both 5% greater than that with 100% OPC.  That the presence of GGBS in concrete leads to lower early strength gain but higher later strength. Case Study (Contd…)
  51. 51. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete51 Fig.7 Variation of compressive strength with GGBS content[2] Case Study (Contd…)
  52. 52. Drying Shrinkage 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete52 Fig.8 Variation of drying shrinkage with GGBS content[2] Case Study (Contd…)
  53. 53. Static Modulus of Elasticity 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete53  As the GGBS content increase to 30% and 50%, the modulus of elasticity of the test specimens increases by 5% and 13% respectively in comparison with the 100% OPC mix.  Confirms that the addition of GGBS results in the formation of a denser cement matrix which lowers the porosity of the concrete thereby increasing the modulus of elasticity. Case Study (Contd…)
  54. 54. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete54 Fig.9 Variation of modulus of elasticity with GGBS content[2] Case Study (Contd…)
  55. 55. Initial Surface Absorption Test (ISAT) 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete55 Table 9: ISAT results with varying GGBS content[2] Case Study (Contd…)
  56. 56. Tensile Splitting Strength Test 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete56  GGBS content increases to 30% and 50%, the tensile splitting strength increases by 12% and 17% respectively.  Stronger bonds develop between the GGBS cement paste and the aggregate which leads to a rise in the tensile splitting strength of the test specimens. Case Study (Contd…)
  57. 57. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete57 Fig.10 Variation of tensile splitting with GGBS content[2] Case Study (Contd…)
  58. 58. Flexural Strength 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete58 Fig.11 Variation of flexural strength with GGBS content[2] Case Study (Contd…)
  59. 59. CONCLUSION 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete59  The reduced consumption of cement will significantly reduce the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.  The ultimate load capacity of the beam specimens with 50% and 70% GGBS replacement are higher than that of the control specimen without GGBS (0% GGBS) by 3% and 9% respectively.  Reinforced concrete beams cast with up to 70% GGBS replacement to cement would behave in a similar fashion to beams cast with the conventional concrete mixture without GGBS (0% GGBS).
  60. 60. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete60  Could sacrifice the flexural stiffness and strength of RC beams to a small degree, it can be compensated by the increase in the ductility of the structural members.  The compressive and tensile splitting strengths, flexure and modulus of elasticity increases with increasing GGBS content.
  61. 61. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete61  The drying shrinkage shows a slight increment with GGBS.  It fails the initial surface absorption test confirming that the surfaces of their concrete mixes were practically impermeable.  The optimum mix is the one with 50% OPC/50% GGBS. Conclusion (Contd…)
  62. 62. REFERENCES 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete62  Rami A. Hawileh, Jamal A. Abdalla, Fakherdine Fardmanesh, Poya Shahsana, Abdolreza Khalili (2016), “Performance of reinforced concrete beams cast with different percentages of GGBS replacement to cement”, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol.20, pp 511-519.  Reshma Rughooputh, Jaylina Rana (2016), “Partial Replacement of Cement by Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag In Concrete”, Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), Vol.5, pp 340-343.
  63. 63. 11/12/2017Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete63  Juan Lizarazo-Marriaga, Peter Claisse, Eshmaiel Ganjian (2011), “Effect of Steel Slag and Portland Cement in the Rate of Hydration and Strenght of Blast Furnace Slag Pastes”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol.23, pp 153-160.  A. Oner, S. Akyuz (2007), “An experimental study on optimum usage of GGBS for the compressive strength of concrete”, Elsevier Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol.29, pp 505-514.
  64. 64. 11/12/201764 Study on partial replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in concrete

×