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Types of Computer

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Classification of Computer
Classification of Computer
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Types of Computer

  1. 1. Instructor : Muhammad Hammad Waseem Email: m.hammad.wasim@gmail.com
  2. 2. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 2 • The Von Neumann Architecture and its figure • Important Features of the Von Neumann Architecture
  3. 3.   The Von Neumann architecture is a design model for a stored-program digital computer. Its main characteristic is a single separate storage structure (the memory) that holds both program and data.  Von Neumann computer architecture, which is illustrated in the following figure: 3 The Von Neumann Architecture Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  4. 4.  4Muhammad Hammad Waseem The Von Neumann Architecture (cont…)
  5. 5.   both instructions (code) and data (variables and input/output) are stored in memory;  memory is a collection of binary digits (bits) that have been organized into bytes, words, and regions with addresses;  the code instructions and all data have memory addresses;  to execute each instruction, it has to be moved to registers; 5 Important Features of Von Neumann Architecture Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  6. 6.   only the registers have the “smarts” to do anything with the instructions; memory locations have no “smarts”;  to save a result computed in the registers, it has to be moved back to memory;  operating systems and compilers keep the instructions and data in memory organized so it doesn't get mixed up together; Muhammad Hammad Waseem 6 Important Features (Cont.)
  7. 7.  TYPES OF COMPUTERS • Introduction • Types based on Principle of operation • Analog computers • Digital computers • Hybrid computers
  8. 8.   Computers can be classified based on their principles of operation or on their configuration. By configuration, we mean the size, speed of doing computation and storage capacity of a computer. 8 TYPES OF COMPUTERS Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  9. 9.   There are three different types of computers according to the principles of operation.  Those three types of computers are:  Analog Computers  Digital Computers  Hybrid Computers 9 Types based on Principles of Operation Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  10. 10.   Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values.  The results given by the analog computers will only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary continuously.  It generally deals with physical variables such as voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc. 10 Analog Computers Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  11. 11. 11 Examples • Speedometer • Weight machine • Thermometer • Temperature • Speed Analog watch Applications • Engineering • Scientific Work • To control process • Chemical industries Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  12. 12. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 12 Advantage & Disadvantages Of Analog Computer ADVANTAGE OF ANALOG COMPUTERS • Analog computers are fast. DISADVANTAGES OF ANALOG COMPUTERS • Analog computers are not accurate. • Analog computers lack memory.
  13. 13.   On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers.  It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. (a bit)  Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster results.  Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in engineering and technology. 13 Digital Computers Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  14. 14.   Hence digital computers have an increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing.  Based on the purpose, Digital computers can be further classified as:  General Purpose Computers:  Used for any type of applications.  Special Purpose Computers:  One that is built for a specific application. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 14 Digital Computers (Cont…)
  15. 15. 15 Examples • Calculators • Accounting machines Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  16. 16. 16 Applications • Scientific research • Business • Education • Factories • Market • Art Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  17. 17. 17 Advantage & Disadvantages Of Digital Computer ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS • Digital computers are accurate. • Store information. DISADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS • Digital computers are slow as compared to Analog computers. Muhammad Hammad Waseem
  18. 18.   A hybrid computer combines the desirable features of analog and digital computers.  It is mostly used for automatic operations of complicated physical processes and machines.  Now-a-days analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are used for transforming the data into suitable form for either type of computation.  Hybrid computers are mainly used for specialized tasks. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 18 Hybrid Computers
  19. 19.   It combines the best features of both digital and analog.  Hybrid computers have the accuracy of analog and speed of digital computers Applications  In hospitals  In Air Defence system Muhammad Hammad Waseem 19 Advantages Of Hybrid Computers
  20. 20.  Types of Computers based on Configuration / Size • Types of Computers based on Configuration / Size • Super computers • Mainframe computers • Mini computers • Micro computers Muhammad Hammad Waseem 20
  21. 21.   There are four different types of computers when we classify them based on their performance and capacity. The four types are  Super Computers  Mainframe Computers  Mini Computers  Micro Computers Muhammad Hammad Waseem 21 Types of Computers based on Configuration / Size
  22. 22.   They are the best in terms of processing capacity and also the most expensive ones.  These computers can process billions of instructions per second.  Perhaps the best known super computer manufacturer is Cray Research.  Some of the "traditional" companies which produce super computers are Cray, IBM and Hewlett- Packard. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 22 Super Computers
  23. 23.   Weather forecasting  Stock analysis  Nuclear research  Designing complex machines  Scientific simulations  (animated) Graphics, analysis of geological data Muhammad Hammad Waseem 23 Applications & Uses
  24. 24.   Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds i.e., hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive.  They are large in size and occupy the space of a room.  Need cooling requirements as well.  Perform multiple jobs and support hundred of users.  Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc. for their applications Muhammad Hammad Waseem 24 Mainframe Computers
  25. 25.   Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity.  They are also less expensive than mainframe computers.  Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers. Hence, their performance also will be less than that of mainframes. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 25 Mini Computers
  26. 26.   The invention of microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the much cheaper micro computers. They are further classified into  Desktop Computers  Laptop Computers  Handheld Computers(PDAs) Muhammad Hammad Waseem 26 Micro Computers
  27. 27.   Today the Desktop computers are the most popular computer systems. These desktop computers are also known as personal computers or simply PCs.  They are usually easier to use and more affordable.  They are normally intended for individual users for their word processing and other small application requirements. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 27 Desktop Computers
  28. 28.   Laptop computers are portable computers.  They are lightweight computers with a thin screen.  They are also called as notebook computers because of their small size.  They can operate on batteries and hence are very popular with travellers.  The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 28 Laptop Computers
  29. 29.   Handheld computers or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are pen-based and also battery-powered.  They are small and can be carried anywhere.  They use a pen like stylus and accept handwritten input directly on the screen.  They are not as powerful as desktops or laptops but they are used for scheduling appointments, storing addresses and playing games.  They have touch screens which we use with a finger or a stylus. Muhammad Hammad Waseem 29 Handheld Computers

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