SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 2
Download to read offline
Steps & Approaches of Programming Intro to Programming
MUHAMMAD HAMMAD WASEEM 1
Creating and Editing a C Program:
To write the first C program, open the edit window of the Turbo C++/Borland C++ IDE (Integrated
Development Environment). This can be done by selecting File→New option from the Menu bar. A
window appears on the screen. This window has a white working area, and a cursor inside Window
represents the starting point to write a program.
Saving a C program:
After writing the C program, we should save it on the disk. This can be done by selecting
File→Save command from the menu bar or press Ctrl+K S keys together, there is a text box with Caption
Save File As type the Name of file. The editor assigns a default name NONAME00.cpp to the file, to save
a file to the specific folder/location with the File name, one has to specify the absolute path.
Compiling a C program:
The computer does not understand source program because instructions in the program are
meaningless to the microprocessor as it understands only the machine language. A program that is to
be executed must be in the form of machine language. C compiler translates the source program into an
object program with .obj extension. To invoke compiler, select Project→Compile from the menu bar or
press Alt+F9. If there is no error in the source program, the program will be translated to the object
program successfully. Otherwise, the compiler will report errors in the program.
Linking a C program:
While writing a C program, the programmer may refer to many files to accomplish various tasks
such as input/output etc. In case of c language a lot of functionality is available in the form of library
files. Such files are needed to be linked with the object file, produce by the complier, before execution
of the program.
Linking in the process in which the object file produce by the compiler is linked to many other
library files by the linker. The linker is a program that combines the object program with additional object
files may be needed for the program to execute and save the final machine language program as n
executable file on the disk. The linker combines different library files to the object file and produces an
executable file with .exe extension.
Executing a C program:
After successfully compiling and linking the program, we are now ready to execute it. For
execution the program must be loaded in memory. This is done by the loader. Loader is a program that
places executable file in memory. This is done by selecting Debug→Run from the menu bar or pressing
Ctrl+F9 key.
Steps & Approaches of Programming Intro to Programming
MUHAMMAD HAMMAD WASEEM 2
Programming Approaches:
Non-Structured Programming
Non-structured programming, which frequently working with GO TO branch points to transfer
from one part of the program to another part. Using GO TO codes, one could transfer backward, forward,
or anywhere else within the program. The problem is that the connections between parts of the program
by using GO TO commands can become quite messy.
This type of programming is difficult to understand and debug. Non-structured programming of
this nature is now viewed as an ineffective programming strategy.
To develop good software, developers have to carefully think out and design the programs. In
the earliest days of computing, programmers wrote software according to their own whims (desires),
with the result that programs were often confusing and difficult to work with. Software today is expected
to follow recognized design principles. The prevailing design standards are structured programming and
structured design.
Structured Programming
Structured programming was invented to address the shortcomings of nonstructural
programming. Structured programming makes use of the control structures (sequence, selection and
repetition). Structured programming does not use GO TO commands. The sequence principle implies
that program instructions should be executed in the order in which they appear. The selection principle
implies that instructions may be executed selectively using IF-THEN and/or IF-THEN-ELSE statements.
These statements work in the following way. IF a condition is met or is true, THEN a specific set of
instructions will be executed. If the condition is false, then another set of instructions will be executed.
For example, ______________.
Alternatively when there are many options, one can employ the CASE statement.
The iteration principle indicates that one part of the program can be repeated or iterated a
limited number of times. In most computer languages, the iteration may be activated by using REPEAT -
--UNTIL or using the WHILE loop and the FOR loop.
Modular Programming
The Modular Approach to programming involves breaking a program down into subcomponents
called modules. Each module is composed of an independent or self-contained set of instructions.
Modules are also referred to as routines, subroutines, or subprograms or procedures. Each module is
designed to perform a specific task in the overall program, such as to calculate the gross pay of an
employee in a payroll program.
The advantage of modular programming is the ability to write & test each module independently
and in some cases reuse modules in other programs. A program can consists of multiple modules. In
addition, there is a main module in the program that executes the other modules.

More Related Content

What's hot

Introduction to programming
Introduction to programmingIntroduction to programming
Introduction to programmingNeeru Mittal
 
C programming introduction
C programming introductionC programming introduction
C programming introductionDucat
 
Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).
Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).
Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).JayminSuhagiya
 
Language translator
Language translatorLanguage translator
Language translatorasmakh89
 
Introduction to Computer Programming
Introduction to Computer ProgrammingIntroduction to Computer Programming
Introduction to Computer ProgrammingProf. Erwin Globio
 
How to execute a C program
How to execute a C  program How to execute a C  program
How to execute a C program Leela Koneru
 
presentation on the topic: Introduction to the C language
presentation on the topic: Introduction to the C languagepresentation on the topic: Introduction to the C language
presentation on the topic: Introduction to the C languageGautamGupta136
 
Intro To Programming Concepts
Intro To Programming ConceptsIntro To Programming Concepts
Intro To Programming ConceptsJussi Pohjolainen
 
Introduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem Ansari
Introduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem AnsariIntroduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem Ansari
Introduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem AnsariTech
 
Computer languages
Computer languagesComputer languages
Computer languagesPrince Arsal
 

What's hot (20)

Introduction to programming
Introduction to programmingIntroduction to programming
Introduction to programming
 
C programming introduction
C programming introductionC programming introduction
C programming introduction
 
Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).
Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).
Translators(compiler assembler interpretor).
 
Computer programming
Computer programmingComputer programming
Computer programming
 
10 lesson6
10 lesson610 lesson6
10 lesson6
 
Programming in c
Programming in cProgramming in c
Programming in c
 
Assembler
AssemblerAssembler
Assembler
 
Language translator
Language translatorLanguage translator
Language translator
 
Introduction to Computer Programming
Introduction to Computer ProgrammingIntroduction to Computer Programming
Introduction to Computer Programming
 
10 lesson7
10 lesson710 lesson7
10 lesson7
 
Introduction to C Programming
Introduction to C ProgrammingIntroduction to C Programming
Introduction to C Programming
 
How to execute a C program
How to execute a C  program How to execute a C  program
How to execute a C program
 
Programming
ProgrammingProgramming
Programming
 
presentation on the topic: Introduction to the C language
presentation on the topic: Introduction to the C languagepresentation on the topic: Introduction to the C language
presentation on the topic: Introduction to the C language
 
Intro To Programming Concepts
Intro To Programming ConceptsIntro To Programming Concepts
Intro To Programming Concepts
 
Introduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem Ansari
Introduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem AnsariIntroduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem Ansari
Introduction to Programming Concepts By Aamir Saleem Ansari
 
Chapter 5
Chapter 5Chapter 5
Chapter 5
 
Notacd07
Notacd07Notacd07
Notacd07
 
Computer languages
Computer languagesComputer languages
Computer languages
 
10 lesson8
10 lesson810 lesson8
10 lesson8
 

Similar to Programming Approaches & Steps for Creating C Programs

Stnotes doc 5
Stnotes doc 5Stnotes doc 5
Stnotes doc 5Alok Jain
 
Overview of c++
Overview of c++Overview of c++
Overview of c++geeeeeet
 
SULTHAN's - C Programming Language notes
SULTHAN's - C Programming Language notesSULTHAN's - C Programming Language notes
SULTHAN's - C Programming Language notesSULTHAN BASHA
 
INTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdfINTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdfSubramanyambharathis
 
Comso c++
Comso c++Comso c++
Comso c++Mi L
 
Module 201 2 20 just 20 basic
Module 201   2  20  just 20 basic Module 201   2  20  just 20 basic
Module 201 2 20 just 20 basic Nick Racers
 
Chapter 13.1.4
Chapter 13.1.4Chapter 13.1.4
Chapter 13.1.4patcha535
 
Introduction to compiler
Introduction to compilerIntroduction to compiler
Introduction to compilerA. S. M. Shafi
 
C programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTT
C programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTTC programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTT
C programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTTBatra Centre
 
COM1407: Introduction to C Programming
COM1407: Introduction to C Programming COM1407: Introduction to C Programming
COM1407: Introduction to C Programming Hemantha Kulathilake
 
Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7
Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7
Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7Shipra Swati
 
CS8251_QB_answers.pdf
CS8251_QB_answers.pdfCS8251_QB_answers.pdf
CS8251_QB_answers.pdfvino108206
 

Similar to Programming Approaches & Steps for Creating C Programs (20)

Programming in c
Programming in cProgramming in c
Programming in c
 
Stnotes doc 5
Stnotes doc 5Stnotes doc 5
Stnotes doc 5
 
PROBLEM SOLVING
PROBLEM SOLVINGPROBLEM SOLVING
PROBLEM SOLVING
 
Overview of c++
Overview of c++Overview of c++
Overview of c++
 
SULTHAN's - C Programming Language notes
SULTHAN's - C Programming Language notesSULTHAN's - C Programming Language notes
SULTHAN's - C Programming Language notes
 
INTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdfINTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdf
INTRODUCTION TO C PROGRAMMING MATERIAL.pdf
 
CS3251-_PIC
CS3251-_PICCS3251-_PIC
CS3251-_PIC
 
Comso c++
Comso c++Comso c++
Comso c++
 
Lect-01.ppt
Lect-01.pptLect-01.ppt
Lect-01.ppt
 
Module 1 2 just basic-
Module 1 2  just basic-Module 1 2  just basic-
Module 1 2 just basic-
 
Module 201 2 20 just 20 basic
Module 201   2  20  just 20 basic Module 201   2  20  just 20 basic
Module 201 2 20 just 20 basic
 
Chapter 13.1.4
Chapter 13.1.4Chapter 13.1.4
Chapter 13.1.4
 
Introduction to compiler
Introduction to compilerIntroduction to compiler
Introduction to compiler
 
C programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTT
C programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTTC programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTT
C programming notes BATRACOMPUTER CENTRE IN Ambala CANTT
 
Introduction to c language
Introduction to c language Introduction to c language
Introduction to c language
 
COM1407: Introduction to C Programming
COM1407: Introduction to C Programming COM1407: Introduction to C Programming
COM1407: Introduction to C Programming
 
Programming in C
Programming in CProgramming in C
Programming in C
 
WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT
WEBSITE DEVELOPMENTWEBSITE DEVELOPMENT
WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT
 
Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7
Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7
Fundamental of Information Technology - UNIT 7
 
CS8251_QB_answers.pdf
CS8251_QB_answers.pdfCS8251_QB_answers.pdf
CS8251_QB_answers.pdf
 

More from Muhammad Hammad Waseem

[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++Muhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers
[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers
[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to PointersMuhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++Muhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++Muhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)
[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)
[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)Muhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence
[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence
[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of PrecedenceMuhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++Muhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions
[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions
[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member FunctionsMuhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType
[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType
[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnTypeMuhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types
[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types
[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its TypesMuhammad Hammad Waseem
 
[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing
[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing
[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their AccessingMuhammad Hammad Waseem
 

More from Muhammad Hammad Waseem (20)

[ITP - Lecture 17] Strings in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 17] Strings in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 17] Strings in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 17] Strings in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 16] Structures in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 15] Arrays & its Types
[ITP - Lecture 15] Arrays & its Types[ITP - Lecture 15] Arrays & its Types
[ITP - Lecture 15] Arrays & its Types
 
[ITP - Lecture 14] Recursion
[ITP - Lecture 14] Recursion[ITP - Lecture 14] Recursion
[ITP - Lecture 14] Recursion
 
[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers
[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers
[ITP - Lecture 13] Introduction to Pointers
 
[ITP - Lecture 12] Functions in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 12] Functions in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 12] Functions in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 12] Functions in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 11] Loops in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 11] Loops in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 11] Loops in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 11] Loops in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 10] Switch Statement, Break and Continue Statement in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 09] Conditional Operator in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)
[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)
[ITP - Lecture 08] Decision Control Structures (If Statement)
 
[ITP - Lecture 07] Comments in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 07] Comments in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 07] Comments in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 07] Comments in C/C++
 
[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence
[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence
[ITP - Lecture 06] Operators, Arithmetic Expression and Order of Precedence
 
[ITP - Lecture 05] Datatypes
[ITP - Lecture 05] Datatypes[ITP - Lecture 05] Datatypes
[ITP - Lecture 05] Datatypes
 
[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++
[ITP - Lecture 04] Variables and Constants in C/C++
 
[OOP - Lec 20,21] Inheritance
[OOP - Lec 20,21] Inheritance[OOP - Lec 20,21] Inheritance
[OOP - Lec 20,21] Inheritance
 
[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions
[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions
[OOP - Lec 19] Static Member Functions
 
[OOP - Lec 18] Static Data Member
[OOP - Lec 18] Static Data Member[OOP - Lec 18] Static Data Member
[OOP - Lec 18] Static Data Member
 
[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType
[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType
[OOP - Lec 16,17] Objects as Function Parameter and ReturnType
 
[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types
[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types
[OOP - Lec 13,14,15] Constructors / Destructor and its Types
 
[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing
[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing
[OOP - Lec 09,10,11] Class Members & their Accessing
 

Recently uploaded

Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPHow to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentJordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrancejulius27264
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17Celine George
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLspmdoc
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxinfo924062
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdfSupply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdftomeskell101
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERPHow to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
How to Share Dashboard in the Odoo 17 ERP
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media ComponentJordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
Jordan Chrietzberg In Media Res Media Component
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
 
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View  in odoo 17
Views in Odoo 17 - Kanban View in odoo 17
 
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDLSelf directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
Self directed Learning - SDL, introduction to SDL
 
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
16. Discovery, function and commercial uses of different PGRS.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdfSupply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
Supply agency market - aiming high 2.pdf
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
 

Programming Approaches & Steps for Creating C Programs

  • 1. Steps & Approaches of Programming Intro to Programming MUHAMMAD HAMMAD WASEEM 1 Creating and Editing a C Program: To write the first C program, open the edit window of the Turbo C++/Borland C++ IDE (Integrated Development Environment). This can be done by selecting File→New option from the Menu bar. A window appears on the screen. This window has a white working area, and a cursor inside Window represents the starting point to write a program. Saving a C program: After writing the C program, we should save it on the disk. This can be done by selecting File→Save command from the menu bar or press Ctrl+K S keys together, there is a text box with Caption Save File As type the Name of file. The editor assigns a default name NONAME00.cpp to the file, to save a file to the specific folder/location with the File name, one has to specify the absolute path. Compiling a C program: The computer does not understand source program because instructions in the program are meaningless to the microprocessor as it understands only the machine language. A program that is to be executed must be in the form of machine language. C compiler translates the source program into an object program with .obj extension. To invoke compiler, select Project→Compile from the menu bar or press Alt+F9. If there is no error in the source program, the program will be translated to the object program successfully. Otherwise, the compiler will report errors in the program. Linking a C program: While writing a C program, the programmer may refer to many files to accomplish various tasks such as input/output etc. In case of c language a lot of functionality is available in the form of library files. Such files are needed to be linked with the object file, produce by the complier, before execution of the program. Linking in the process in which the object file produce by the compiler is linked to many other library files by the linker. The linker is a program that combines the object program with additional object files may be needed for the program to execute and save the final machine language program as n executable file on the disk. The linker combines different library files to the object file and produces an executable file with .exe extension. Executing a C program: After successfully compiling and linking the program, we are now ready to execute it. For execution the program must be loaded in memory. This is done by the loader. Loader is a program that places executable file in memory. This is done by selecting Debug→Run from the menu bar or pressing Ctrl+F9 key.
  • 2. Steps & Approaches of Programming Intro to Programming MUHAMMAD HAMMAD WASEEM 2 Programming Approaches: Non-Structured Programming Non-structured programming, which frequently working with GO TO branch points to transfer from one part of the program to another part. Using GO TO codes, one could transfer backward, forward, or anywhere else within the program. The problem is that the connections between parts of the program by using GO TO commands can become quite messy. This type of programming is difficult to understand and debug. Non-structured programming of this nature is now viewed as an ineffective programming strategy. To develop good software, developers have to carefully think out and design the programs. In the earliest days of computing, programmers wrote software according to their own whims (desires), with the result that programs were often confusing and difficult to work with. Software today is expected to follow recognized design principles. The prevailing design standards are structured programming and structured design. Structured Programming Structured programming was invented to address the shortcomings of nonstructural programming. Structured programming makes use of the control structures (sequence, selection and repetition). Structured programming does not use GO TO commands. The sequence principle implies that program instructions should be executed in the order in which they appear. The selection principle implies that instructions may be executed selectively using IF-THEN and/or IF-THEN-ELSE statements. These statements work in the following way. IF a condition is met or is true, THEN a specific set of instructions will be executed. If the condition is false, then another set of instructions will be executed. For example, ______________. Alternatively when there are many options, one can employ the CASE statement. The iteration principle indicates that one part of the program can be repeated or iterated a limited number of times. In most computer languages, the iteration may be activated by using REPEAT - --UNTIL or using the WHILE loop and the FOR loop. Modular Programming The Modular Approach to programming involves breaking a program down into subcomponents called modules. Each module is composed of an independent or self-contained set of instructions. Modules are also referred to as routines, subroutines, or subprograms or procedures. Each module is designed to perform a specific task in the overall program, such as to calculate the gross pay of an employee in a payroll program. The advantage of modular programming is the ability to write & test each module independently and in some cases reuse modules in other programs. A program can consists of multiple modules. In addition, there is a main module in the program that executes the other modules.